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Ethiopia
 
 
250 - c. 980              Kingdom of Axum
1117                      Ethiopian Kingdom
       1268               Empire of Abyssina
1528 - 1541               Under Harari occupation
11 Oct 1875 - 1884        Harar occupied by Egypt
02 May 1889               Italian protectorate by Treaty of Wuchale, disputed by Ethiopia
01 Jan 1890               Eritrea an Italian colony
13 Jan 1895 - 23 Oct 1896 First Italo-Ethiopian war
23 Oct 1896               Independence recognised by Italy by Treaty of Addis Ababa
03 Oct 1935 - 09 May 1936 Second Italo-Ethiopian war
09 May 1936 - 27 Nov 1941 Annexed by Italy, part of Italian East Africa
05 May 1941               Empire of Ethiopia (restored)
15 Sep 1952 - 14 Nov 1962 Eritrea federated with Ethiopia
14 Nov 1962               Eritrea an integral part of Ethiopia
12 Sep 1974               Ethiopia
21 Mar 1975               Socialist Ethiopia
10 Sep 1987               People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
27 May 1991 - 21 Aug 1995 Ethiopia
24 May 1993               Independence of Eritrea
21 Aug 1995 -             Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Empire of Ethiopia
 
 
Imperial Coat of Arms
 to 1975
 
250 - c.980               Kingdom of Axum
       1268 - 09 May 1936 Empire of Abyssina
03 Oct 1935               Italian invasion
09 May 1936 - 27 Nov 1941 Annexed by Italy
05 May 1941               Empire of Ethiopia restored
21 Mar 1975               Empire Abolished
 
Government: Monarchy.
Capital: Addis Ababa.
Language: Amheric (other regional langauges).
Religion: Ethiopian Orthodox, Islam, Protestant, Anamist, Jewish.
National Anthem: "Ityopp'ya Hoy" ("Ethiopia be happy").
National: Emblem: Lion of Judah.
National Motto: None.
National Day: Birthday of the Emperor, 23 July.
Currency: Ethiopian Dollar.
 
Monarchs
..-.. BC  Solomon, Menelik I
Kings of Axum
c. 100 Zoskales
c. 200 Gadarat
230 - 240 Adhebah
250       Teklombrouthes
260       Datawnas
270 - 300 Endubis
250 - 270 Ezanaz I
270 - ... Endybis I
c. 300 Aphilas
c. 320 Uzanas
c. 320 Wazeba
320 Ousanas
333 - 356 Ezana
350       Mehadeyis
400       Ouazebas
400       Eon
400       Ebana
400       Nezool
500       Ousas
520       Kaleb
5..       Alla Amidas
5..       Wazena
5..       Wa`zeb
5..       Ioel
575       Hataz
577       Saifu
590       Israel
600       Gersem
614       Armah
630       Ashama ibn Abjar
Monarchs
916 - 919               Zagwe, Mara Tekle Haimanot
919 - 959               Zagwe, Tatadim
959 - 999               Zagwe, Jan Seiyoum
999 - 1039               Zagwe, Germa Seiyoum
1039 - 1079               Zagwe, Yemrehana Christos
1079 - 1119               Zagwe, Harbe I
1119 - 1159               Zagwe, Lalibela
1159 - 1207               Zagwe, Na'akuto Le`ab
1207 - 1247               Zagwe, Yetbarak
1247 - 1262               Zagwe,Mairari
1262 - 1268               Zagwe, Harbe II
       1268 - 19 Jun 1285 Solomon, Yekuno Amalak Tasfa Iyasus
19 Jun 1285 - 1294        Solomon, Yagbe'u Seyon Yekuno Amlak Salomon I
1294 - 1297               Solomon, Bahr Asgad
1294 - 1297               Solomon, Senfa Ared IV Yagbe'u Seyon
1297 - 1299               Solomon, Qedma Asgad Yagbe'u Seyon
1297 - 1299               Solomon, Jin Asgad Yagbe'u Seyon
1297 - 1299               Solomon, Saba Asgad Yagbe'u Seyon
1299 - 1314               Solomon, Wedem Arad Yagbe'u Seyon
1314 - 1344               Solomon, Amda Seyon I Wedem Arad Gabra Masqal I
1344 - 1372               Solomon, Newaya Krestos Amda Seyon
1372 - 1382               Solomon, Newaya Mariam Newaya Krestos
1382 - 1411               Solomon, Be'ede Mariam Newaya Krestos Dawit
       1411 - 11 Jun 1414 Solomon, Tewdoros I Be'ede Mariam
   Sep 1414 -    Aug 1429 Solomon, Yeshaq I Be'ede Mariam Gabra Masqal III
   Aug 1429 -    Mar 1430 Solomon, Andreyes Yeshaq Eskender
       1430 -    Jun 1433 Solomon, Takla Maryam Be'ede Mariam
   Jun      -    Nov 1433 Solomon, Sarwe Iyasus Takla Mariam Hezba Nan
   Nov 1433 -    Jun 1434 Solomon, Amda Iyasus Takla Mariam Badel Nan
   Jun 1434 - 24 Aug 1468 Solomon, Zar'a Ya`qob Be'ede Mariam Amda Seyon Kwestantinos I
06 Sep 1468 - 19 Nov 1478 Solomon, Be'eda Mariam Zar'a Ya`qob Dawit III
       1478 -    May 1494 Solomon, Eskender Be'ede Mariam Kwestantinos II
   May      - 26 Oct 1494 Solomon, Amda Seyon Eskender
26 Oct 1494 - 31 Jul 1508 Solomon, Na'od I Beada Mariam
22 Aug 1508 - 13 Sep 1540 Solomon, Lebna Dengel Noad II
13 Sep 1540 - 03 Apr 1559 Solomon, Galawedos I Lebna Dengel Asnaf Sagad I
03 Apr 1559 - 31 Jan 1563 Solomon, Menas Lebna Dengel
31 Jan 1563 - 03 Apr 1597 Solomon, Sarsa Dengal Menas
       1597 -    Sep 1603 Solomon, Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (1st Time)
   Sep 1603 - 24 Oct 1604 Solomon, Za Dengel Sarsa Dengel
   Nov 1604 - 10 Mar 1607 Solomon, Yaqob Sarsa Dengel (2nd Time)
10 Mar 1607 -    Aug 1632 Solomon, Susneyos I Fasilides
   Aug 1632 - 18 Oct 1667 Solomon, Fasilidas Susenyos
18 Oct 1667 - 19 Jul 1682 Solomon, Yohannes I Fasilidas `Adyam Sagad II
19 Jul 1682 - 13 Oct 1706 Solomon, Iyasu I Yohannes Adyam Sagad III "The Great"
13 Oct 1706 - 30 Jun 1708 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot I Iyasu Le`al Segad
30 Jun      - 01 Jul 1708 Solomon, Na'od II Tekle Haumanot
01 Jul 1708 - 14 Oct 1711 Solomon, Tewoflos Yohannes Walda Ambasa
14 Oct 1711 - 19 Feb 1716 Solomon, Yostos Delba Iyasus Sahay Sagad
19 Feb 1716 - 18 May 1721 Solomon, Dawit III Iyasus Adabar Sagad I
18 May      - 21 May 1721 Solomon, Walda Giyorgis Iyasus
21 May 1721 - 19 Sep 1730 Solomon, Asma Giyorgis Iyasus
19 Sep 1730 - 26 Jun 1755 Solomon, Iyasus II Asam Giyorgis
19 Sep 1730 - 07 May 1769 Solomon, Mantuab Walatta Giyorgis
                                   (Dowager Empress-Regent)
26 Jun 1755 - 07 May 1769 Solomon, Iyoas I Iyasus
07 May      - 18 Oct 1769 Solomon, Yohannas II Iyasu
18 Oct 1769 -    Jun 1770 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes (1st Time)
   Jun      -    Dec 1770 Solomon, Susenyos II Iyasus
   Dec 1770 - 13 Apr 1777 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes (2nd Time)
13 Apr 1777 - 20 Jul 1779 Solomon, Salomon II Adigo
20 Jul 1779 - 08 Feb 1784 Solomon, Tekle Giorgis I Yohannes
16 Feb 1784 - 24 Apr 1788 Solomon, Iyasus III Azequ
24 Apr 1788 - 26 Jul 1789 Solomon, Ba'eda Maryam I
26 Jul 1789 -    Jan 1794 Solomon, Hezqeyas Iyasus
   Jan 1794 - 15 Apr 1795 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes (3rd Time)
15 Apr      -    Dec 1795 Solomon, Ba'eda Maryam III Solomon
   Dec 1795 - 20 May 1796 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II (4th Time)
20 May 1796 - 15 Jul 1797 Solomon, Solomon III Tekle Haymont (1st Time)
18 Aug 1797 - 04 Jan 1798 Solomon, Yonas Letezum
04 Jan 1798 - 20 May 1799 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes (5th Time)
20 May      -        1799 Solomon, Solomon III Tekle Haymont (2nd Time)
       1799 - 24 Mar 1800 Solomon, Demetros Arqedewos (1st Time)
24 Mar      -    Jun 1800 Solomon, Tekle Haymanot II Yohannes (6th Time)
   Jun 1800 -    Jun 1801 Solomon, Demetros Arqedewos (2nd Time)
   Jun 1801 - 19 Jun 1818 Solomon, Egwala Seyon Hezqeyas
19 Jun 1818 - 03 Jun 1821 Solomon, Iyoas II Hezqeyas
03 Jun 1821 -    Apr 1826 Solomon, Gigar Iyasus (1st Time)
   Apr 1826               Solomon, Be'eda Maryam IV
   Apr 1826 - 18 Jun 1830 Solomon, Gigar Iyasus (2nd Time)
18 Jun 1830 - 18 Mar 1832 Solomon, Iyasus IV Solomon
18 Mar      -        1832 Solomon, Garbre Kristos Gebre Mesay (1st Time)
       1832               Solomon, Sahla Dengel Gebre Mesay (1st Time)
            - 08 Jun 1832 Solomon, Garbre Kristos Gebre Mesay (2nd Time)
08 Jun 1832 - 29 Aug 1840 Solomon, Sahla Dengel Gebre Mesay (2nd Time)
30 Aug 1840 -    Oct 1841 Solomon, Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis (1st Time)
   Oct 1841 - 1845        Solomon, Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay (3rd Time)
1845                      Solomon, Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis (2nd Time)
1845 - 1850               Solomon, Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay (4th Time)
1850 - 1851               Solomon, Yohannes III Tekle Giyorgis (4th Time)
       1851 - 11 Feb 1855 Solomon, Sahle Dengel Gebre Mesay (5th Time)
11 Feb 1855 - 13 Apr 1868 Tewodros, Tewodros II Kassa Hailu ....... 1818-1868
11 Jun 1868 - 11 Jul 1871 Zagwe, Tekle Gyorgis II ................. 18..-1873
11 Jul 1871 - 09 Mar 1889 Tigre, Yohannes IV ...................... 1837-1889
09 Mar 1889 - 12 Dec 1913 Solomon, Menilek II ..................... 1844-1913
12 Dec 1913 - 27 Sep 1916 Solomon, Iyasus V ....................... 1887-1935
27 Sep 1916 - 02 Apr 1930 Solomon, Empress Zauditu ................ 1876-1930
02 Apr 1930 - 02 May 1936 Solomon, Haile Selassie (1st Time) ...... 1892-1975
                          (regent from 1916 as Prince Ras Tafari Makonnen)
01 May      - 16 Dec 1936 Prince Ras Imru Haile Selassie .......... 1892-1980
                          (Regent for Haile Selassie)
09 May 1936 - 05 May 1941 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele III ........... 1869-1947
                          (King of Italy, in name only)
05 May 1941 - 12 Sep 1974 Solomon, Haile Selassie (2nd Time)
12 Sep 1974 - 21 Mar 1975 Solomon, Asfa Wossen Amha Selassie ...... 1916-1997
                          (Designated Emperor, did not take office)
 
Prime Ministers
1909 - 1927               Habte Giyorgis
       1927 - 01 May 1936 Prince Ras Tafari Makonnen Haile Selassie
05 May 1941 - 1942        Wolde Tzaddick
       1942 - 01 Nov 1957 Makonnen Endelkachew .................... 1890-1963
27 Nov 1957 - 15 Dec 1960 Abebe Aragai ............................ 1903-1960
17 Apr 1961 - 01 Mar 1974 Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold ........ 1912-1974
01 Mar      - 22 Jul 1974 Endelkacow Makonnen ..................... 1927-1974
03 Aug      - 12 Sep 1974 Lij Mikael Imru ......................... 1929-2008

 
Socialist Ethiopia
 
12 Sep 1974               Ethiopia (Socialist Ethiopia)
10 Sep 1987               People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 
Government: People's Republic.
Capital: Addis Ababa.
Language: Amheric (other regional langauges).
Religion: Ethiopian Orthodox, Islam, Protestant, Anamist, Jewish.
National Anthem: "Ityopp'ya, Ityopp'ya, Ityopp'ya qida mi"
                   ("Ethiopia, Ethiopia, Ethiopia, be first").
National: Emblem:
National Motto: Ethiopia First.
National Day: National Day, 10 September (1987).
Currency: Birr.
 
General Secretary of the Ethiopian Workers Party
10 Dec 1979 - 21 May 1991 Mengistu Haile Mariam ................... 1937-
 
Chairman of the Provisional Marxist Dregue
12 Sep      - 17 Nov 1974 Aman Mikael Andom ....................... 1924-1974
28 Nov 1974 - 03 Feb 1977 Tafari Benti ............................ 1921-1977
11 Feb 1977 - 10 Sep 1987 Mengistu Haile Mariam ................... (s.a)
Presidents
10 Sep 1987 - 21 May 1991 Mengistu Haile Mariam ................... (s.a)
21 May      - 28 May 1991 Tesfaye Gebre Kidan ..................... 1935-2004
 
Prime Ministers
10 Sep 1987 - 08 Nov 1989 Fikre Selassie Wogderess ................ 1945-
08 Nov 1989 - 26 Apr 1991 Hailu Yimenu ............................ 19..-1991
26 Apr      - 06 Jun 1991 Tesfaye Dinka

 
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 
 
Ethiopia, state emblem (1996)
      Adopted 1996
 
 
27 May 1991               Ethiopia
24 May 1993               Independence of Eritrea
21 Aug 1995 -             Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
 
Government: Republic.
Capital: Addis Ababa.
Language: Amheric (other regional langauges).
Religion: Ethiopian Orthodox, Islam, Protestant, Anamist, Jewish.
National Anthem: "Whedefit Gesgeshi Woude Henate Ityopp'ya"
                   ("March Forward, Dear Ethiopia")
National: Emblem: Star Pentagram (Lion of Judah [Traditional]).
National Motto: None.
National Day: National Day, 28 May (1991).
Currency: Birr.
 
Presidents
28 May 1991 - 22 Aug 1995 Meles Zenawi Asres ...................... 1955-2012
22 Aug 1995 - 08 Oct 2001 Negasso Gidada Solon .................... 1943-
08 Oct 2001 - 07 Oct 2013 Girma Wolde-Giyorgis Lucha .............. 1924-
07 Oct 2013 -             Mulatu Teshome Wirtu .................... 1955-
 
 
Prime Ministers
06 Jun 1991 - 22 Aug 1995 Tamirat Layne ........................... 1955-
23 Aug 1995 - 20 Aug 2012 Meles Zenawi Asres ...................... (s.a)
20 Aug 2012 -             Haile Mariam Desalegne .................. 1965-
 

2009
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