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Somalia
 
Somalia, coat of arms
           Adopted 1960
 
16 Mar 1905 - 31 Mar 1950 Italian Colony of Somaliland
16 Mar 1941 - 31 Mar 1950 British occupation
01 Apr 1950 - 30 Jun 1960 UN trust territory, under Italian administration
01 Jul 1960 - 21 Oct 1969 Republic of Somalia
21 Oct 1969 - 27 Jan 1991 Socialist Republic of Somalia
01 Jan 1991               Somalia collapses, with no central contol over the state
18 May 1991 -             Secession of Somaliland
21 Jul 1991               Somali Republic
27 Jul 1992 - 27 Aug 2000 UN declares Somalia a country "without a government"
02 Aug 2012               Federal Republic of Somalia
 
 
Presidents
01 Jul 1960 - 10 Jun 1967 Aaden Cabdulla Cismaan Daar .......... 1908-2007
10 Jun 1967 - 15 Oct 1969 Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke ......... 1919-1969
15 Oct      - 21 Oct 1969 Sheekh Mukhtaar Maxamed Xuseen ....... 1912-
21 Oct 1969 - 27 Jan 1991 Maxamed Siyaad Barre ................. 1919-1995
                          (Secretary-general of the Somali Revolutionary
                           Socialist Party 01 Jul 1976 - 27 Jan 1991)
29 Jan 1991 - 03 Jan 1997 Cali Mahdi Maxamed ................... 1938-
15 Jun 1995 - 31 Jul 1996 Maxamed Faarax Caydiid ............... 1934-1996
                          (interim; in rebellion)
04 Aug 1996 - 20 Mar 1998 Xuseen Maxamed Faarax ................ 1942-
                          (interim; in rebellion)
03 Jan 1997 - 22 Aug 2000 Co-Chairmen of National Salvation
                          - Cali Mahdi Maxamed
                          - Osman Xasan Cali
                          - Cabdulqadir Maxamed Daar
                          - Cabdullahi Yuusuf Axmad
                          - Aden Cabdullahi Nur
22 Aug      - 27 Aug 2000 Cabdullahi Derow Isaq ................ 1950-2006
27 Aug 2000 - 14 Oct 2004 Cabdiqaasim Salaad Xusean
                          (in Djibouti exile to 14 Oct 2000;
                           confinde to Mogadishu area)
14 Oct 2004 - 29 Dec 2008 Cabdullahi Yuusuf Axmed .............. 1934-2012
                          (in exile to 2005)
29 Jun      - 28 Dec 2006 Sheekh Shariif Sheekh Axmad
                          (Chairman of the Islamic courts Union;
                           controlling Mogadishu and parts of Southern Somalia)
29 Dec 2008 - 31 Jan 2009 Sheekh Aaden Maxamed Nuur
                          (in Baidoa)
31 Jan 2009 - 20 Aug 2012 Shariif Sheekh Axmad ................. 1964-
                          (in Djibouti exile)
20 Aug      - 28 Aug 2012 Muuse Xasan Sheekh Sayyid Cabdulleh
                          (interim)
28 Aug      - 10 Sep 2012 Prof. Maxamed Cismaan Jawaari ........ 1945-
                          (interim)
10 Sep 2012 -             Xasan Sheekh Maxamuud ................ 1955-
 
 
Prime Minsters
01 Mar 1956 - 30 Jun 1960 Cabdullaxi Issa Moxamed .............. 1922-1988
                          (Prime Minister of UN mandate of Somaliland)
01 Jul      - 12 Jul 1960 Maxamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ............ 1928-2002
                          (1st Time, for British Somaliland
                            26 Jun - 01 Jul 1960)
12 Jul 1960 - 14 Jun 1964 Cabdirashid Cali Shermarke ........... (s.a)
14 Jun 1964 - 15 Jun 1967 Cabdirizak Haji Xasan ................ 1924-2014
15 Jun 1967 - 01 Nov 1969 Maxamed Haji Ibrahim Egal (2nd Time)
01 Nov 1969 -    Mar 1970 Maxamed Faarax Salaad
       1970 - 31 Jan 1987 Post Abolished
01 Feb 1987 - 03 Sep 1990 Maxamed Cali Samatar ................. 1931-
03 Sep 1990 - 24 Jan 1991 Maxamed Hawaadlee Madar
24 Jan 1991 - 03 Jan 1997 Cumar Carte Qaalib ................... 1930-
08 Oct 2000 - 28 Oct 2001 Cali Khaliif Galayr .................. 1941-
28 Oct      - 12 Nov 2001 Cismaan Jaamac Cali .................. 1941-
                          (acting)
12 Nov 2001 - 08 Dec 2003 Xasan Cabshir Faraax ................. 1945-
08 Dec 2003 - 03 Nov 2004 Maxamed Cabdi Yuusuf
03 Nov 2004 - 29 Oct 2007 Cali Maxamed Geedi ................... 1952-
29 Jun      - 28 Dec 2006 Shariif Sheekh Axmad
                          (Islamic Courts Union)
29 Oct      - 24 Nov 2007 Saalim Caliyoow Ibroow
                          (acting)
24 Nov 2007 - 14 Feb 2009 Nuur Xasan Xuseen .................... 1938-
16 Dec      - 24 Dec 2009 Maxammd Maxmud Guled
                          (in opposition)
14 Feb 2009 - 21 Sep 2010 Cumar Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke ... 1960-
24 Sep      - 01 Nov 2010 Cabdiwaxiid Elmi Gonjeh
                          (acting)
01 Nov 2010 - 19 Jun 2011 Maxamed Cabdullani Maxamed ........... 1962-
19 Jun 2011 - 06 Oct 2012 Cabdiweli Maxamed Cali ............... 1965-
                          (acting)
06 Oct 2012 - 12 Dec 2013 Cabdi Faarax Shirdoon Saacid ......... 1958-
12 Dec 2012 -             Cabdiweli Sheekh Axmed ............... 1959-
 

Somaliland
 
        Adopted 1996
 
       1546 - 07 Sep 1874 Part of the Ottoman Empire (Under Mecca 1630-1830)
07 Sep 1874               Annexed by Egypt
   Feb 1884 - 26 Jun 1960 British Colony of Somaliland
20 Jul 1887 -        1905 British Somaliland protectorate, subordinated to Aden
19 Aug 1940 - 16 Mar 1941 Occupied by Italy
26 Jun 1960               Independence from Britain
01 Jul 1960 - 18 May 1991 Unification with Italian Somalia, as Somali Republic
18 May 1991               Secession from Somalia (not recognised)
24 May 1991 -             Republic of Somaliland proclaimed
 
Presidents
28 May 1991 - 16 May 1993 Cabduraxman Axman Cali ............... 1931-2003
16 May 1993 - 03 May 2002 Maxamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ............ (s.a)
03 May 2002 - 26 Jul 2010 Daxir Riyale Kaxiin .................. 1952-
26 Jul 2010 -             Axmed Maxamed Maxamuud Siilaanyo ..... 1936-
 
 
Prime Minister
26 Jun      - 30 Jun 1960 Maxamed Haji Ibrahim Egal ............ (s.a)

 
Jubaland (Azania)
 
01 Jul 1895 - 15 Jul 1924 British rule, part of Kenya
15 Jul 1924               Ceded to Italy by Britain
01 Jul 1926               Annexed to Italian Somaliland
03 Sep 1998               State of Jubaland
18 Jun 2001               State taken by Mogadishu government
24 Sep 2006 - 01 Jan 2007 Capital taken by Islamic Courts Union
01 Jan 2007               Capital taken by Mogadishu government
03 Apr 2011               Azania autonomous state declared (in Kenya exile)
28 Aug 2013 -             Administration recognised by Somalia
 
Leaders
03 Sep 1998 - 11 Jun 1999 Maxamed Siyad Hersi
11 Jun 1999 - 18 Jun 2001 Axmed Warsame
President
03 Apr 2011 - 15 May 2013 Maxamed Cabdi Maxamed
                          (in Nairobi, Kenya exile)
Chairman of the Executive Council of Jubba Interim Administration
15 May 2013 -             Axmed Maxamed Islam .................. 1961-
 

 
Puntland
 
File:Coat of Arms of Puntland.png
 
1600-1927 Punt Sultanate
03 Mar 1905               Mahdiyah proclaimed in Noogal, supressed by Italy in 1911
23 Jul 1998 -             Autonomous Puntland State declared (unrecognised to 2012)
 
Sultans
1800-1815 Harti, Maxamuud IV
1815-1842 Harti, Cismaan II
1842-1844 Harti, Yuusuf IV
1844-1860 Harti, Maxamuud V ibn Yuusuf
1860-1927 Harti, Cismaan III in Maxamuud
 
Mahdi
03 Mar 1905 - 1911        Sayiid Maxamed Cabdille Xasan "the Mad Mullah"
 
Presidents
23 Jul 1998 - 30 Jun 2001 Cabdullaxi Yuusuf Axmed (1st Time) .. 1934-2012
01 Jul      - 14 Nov 2001 Yuusuf Haji Nur
14 Nov 2001 - 08 May 2002 Jama Ali Jamma
08 May 2002 -    Oct 2004 Cabdullaxi Yuusuf Axmed (2nd Time)
   Oct 2004 - 08 Jan 2005 Maxamed Cabdi Hashi
08 Jan 2005 - 08 Jan 2009 Maxamed Muse Hersi
08 Jan 2009 - 08 Jan 2014 Cabdiaxman Maxamuud Faroole ......... 1945-
08 Jan 2014 -             Cabdiweli Maxamed Cali .............. 1965-
 

 
Galmudug
 
 
 
14 Aug 2006 -             Autonomous Galmudug State declared
 
Presidents
14 Aug 2006 - 2009        Maxamed Warsame Cali ................ 1937-
       2009 - 14 Aug 2012 Maxamed Axmed Calin
14 Aug 2012 -             Cabdi Xasan Awale ................... 1948-
 

 
Maakhir
 
File:Coat of arms of Maakhir.png
 
01 Jul 2007 - 11 Jan 2009 Autonmous Maakhir State
11 Jan 2009               Incorporated into Puntland
 
President
01 Jul 2007 - 11 Jan 2009 Jibrell Cali Salaad ................. 1939-
                          (in exile from 2008)
   Apr 2008 - 11 Jan 2009 Cabdullaxi Axmed Jamaa .............. 1951-
                          (acting) 

2010