. Home .
South Africa
 
07 Apr 1652 - 16 Sep 1795 Dutch Cape colony
05 Mar 1797 - 21 Feb 1803 Cape colony a British colony
21 Feb 1803 - 10 Jan 1806 Dutch Colony
10 Jan 1806 - 31 May 1910 Cape a British colony, ceded to Britain in 1814
06 Jun 1837 - 12 May 1843 Natal Republic
12 May 1843               Natal annexed by Great Britain
17 Jan 1852               Britain recognises Boer independence east of the Vaal river
21 Sep 1853 - 12 Apr 1877 South-African Republic (Boer)
23 Feb 1854 - 31 May 1902 Orange Free State (Boer)
08 Aug 1881 - 31 May 1902 Transvaal Republic (Boer)
16 Dec 1880 - 23 Mar 1881 First Anglo-Boer war
11 Oct 1899 - 31 May 1902 Second Anglo-Boer War
31 May 1902               Boer resistance ceases with the Treaty of Vereeniging
31 May 1910 - 31 May 1961 Union of South Africa
09 Jul 1915 - 21 Mar 1990 German Southeast Africa (Namibia from 1970) annexed
11 Dec 1931               Full sovereignty granted by UK
04 Jun 1948 - 11 Feb 1990 Apartheid Era
31 May 1961               Republic of South Africa
       1976 - 26 Apr 1994 Four Black Homelands independant (recognised only by South Africa)
21 Mar 1990               Independence of Namibia
27 Apr 1994               End of White minority rule
27 Apr 1994               Walvis Bay ceded to Namibia

South Africa since 1994
 
 
South Africa (RSA), coat of arms
    Adopted 2010
 
Capital: Pretoria
Language: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, Sotho, Ndebele, Swazi, Tsonga
Religion: Zion Christian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Dutch Reformed Church, Islam, Jewish
National Anthem: "National Anthem of South Africa"
National Motto: !ke e: Ixarra Ilke (Unity in Diversity)
National Day: Election day, 27 April (1994)
Currency: Rand
 
Presidents
10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ......................... 1918-2013
16 Jun 1999 - 25 Sep 2008 Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki .............................. 1942-
25 Sep 2008               Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri ............................. 1937-2009
                          (acting)
25 Sep 2008 - 09 May 2009 Petrus Kgalema Motlanthe .......................... 1949-
09 May 2009 -             Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma ......................... 1942-
 

 
South Africa 1910-1994
 
South Africa (RSA), coat of arms (1930) - vector image  South Africa (RSA), coat of arms (1932)
Coat of Arms  1930-32          Coat of Arms 1932-2000
 
31 May 1910 - 31 May 1961 Union of South Africa
11 Dec 1931               Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty
04 Jun 1948 - 11 Feb 1990 Aparteid Era
31 May 1961               Republic of South Africa
10 May 1994               End of White minority rule
 
Capital: Pretoria.
Language: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa.
Religion: Roman Catholic, Methodist, Dutch Reformed Church, Jewish.
National Anthem: "Die Stem van Suid Afrika" (The Call of South Africa).
National Motto: Ex Unitate Vires (From Unity, Strength).
National Day: National day, 31 May (1910).
Currency: South African Rand.
 
Governors-General
31 May 1910 - 08 Sep 1914 Herbert John Gladstone,
                           Viscount Newtimber
08 Sep 1914 - 17 Nov 1920 Sydney Charles Buxton,
                           Earl of Buxton
17 Nov 1920 - 07 Dec 1923 Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert,
                           Prince of Conaught
07 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924 Sir James Rose-Innes
21 Jan 1924 - 26 Jan 1931 Augustus Alexander George Cambridge
                           Earl of Athlone
26 Jan 1931 - 05 Apr 1937 George Herbert Hyde Villiers,
                           Earl of Clarendon ................................ 1877-1955
05 Apr 1937 - 17 Jul 1943 Sir Patrick Duncan ................................ 1870-1943
17 Jul 1943 - 31 Dec 1945 Nicolaas Jacobs de Wet ............................ 1873-1960
01 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1950 Gideon Brand van Zyl .............................. 1873-1956
01 Dec 1951 - 11 Dec 1959 Ernest George Jansen .............................. 1881-1959
11 Dec 1959 - 31 May 1961 Charles Robert Swart .............................. 1894-1982
State Presidents
31 May 1961 - 01 Jun 1967 Charles Robert Swart .............................. 1894-1982
01 Jun      - 06 Dec 1967 Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges ...................... 1898-1968
                          (Did not take office)
01 Jun 1967 - 10 Apr 1968 Jozua François Naudé .............................. 1889-1969
10 Apr 1968 - 09 Apr 1975 Jacobus Johannes Fouché ........................... 1903-1979
19 Apr 1975 - 21 Aug 1978 Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs ...................... 1903-1978
10 Oct 1978 - 04 Jun 1979 Balthazar Johannes Vorster ........................ 1915-1983
04 Jun 1979 - 03 Sep 1984 Marais Viljoen .................................... 1915-2007
03 Sep 1984 - 15 Aug 1989 Pieter Willem Botha ............................... 1916-2006
15 Aug 1989 - 10 May 1994 Frederik Willem de Klerk .......................... 1936-
 
Prime Ministers
31 May 1910 - 27 Aug 1919 Louis Botha ....................................... 1862-1919
27 Aug 1919 - 30 Jun 1924 Jan Christiaan Smuts .............................. 1870-1950
                          (1st Time)
30 Jun 1924 - 05 Sep 1939 James Barry Munnik Hertzog ........................ 1866-1942
05 Sep 1939 - 04 Jun 1948 Jan Christiaan Smuts (2nd Time)
04 Jun 1948 - 30 Nov 1954 Daniël François Malan ............................. 1874-1959
01 Dec 1954 - 24 Aug 1958 Johannes Gerhards Strijdom ........................ 1893-1958
02 Sep 1958 - 06 Sep 1966 Hendrik Frensch Verwoed ........................... 1901-1966
13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978 Balthazar Johannes Vorster
28 Sep 1978 - 14 Sep 1984 Pieter Willem Botha
Chairmen of the Minister's Council
- House of the Assembly (Afrikana) -
14 Sep      -    Dec 1984 Sarel Hayward ..................................... 1924-1999
                          (1st Time, acting)
   Dec 1984 -    Apr 1985 Cornelius van der Merwe ........................... 1921-1985
   Apr      -    Jul 1985 Sarel Hayward (2nd Time)
   Jul 1985 -    Sep 1989 Frederik Willem de Klerk
   Sep 1989 -    Dec 1991 Jacobus Coetsee ................................... 1931-2000
   Jan 1992 -    Mar 1993 Magnus André de Merindol Mala ..................... 1930-
   Mar 1993 -    Mar 1994 Adriaan Johannes Vlok ............................. 1937-
- House of Representatives (coloured) -
14 Sep 1984 -    Feb 1992 Helenand Hendrickse ............................... 1927-2005
   Feb 1994 -    Mar 1994 Jakobus A. Rabie .................................. 1938-2008
- House od Delegates (Indian) -
14 Sep 1984 -    Jan 1989 Amichand Rajbansi ................................. 1942-
   Jan      -    Mar 1989 Kassipershad Ramduth .............................. 1921-
                          (acting)
   Mar 1989 -    Feb 1992 Jayaram N. Reddy .................................. 1925-
   Feb 1992 - 31 Mar 1994 Bhadra Ranchod .................................... 1944-

Cape Colony
 
 
Cape Colony (South Africa), coat of arms (1876)
 
1652-1795 Dutch Cape Colony
1795-1797 British occupation
1797-1803 British colony
1803-1806 Colony of the Batavian Republic
1806-1814 Dutch officially cede Cape Colony to Britain
1872-1910 Self rule
31 May 1910               Part of the Union of South Africa
 
Prime Ministers
01 Dec 1872 - 05 Feb 1878 John Charles Molteno
06 Feb 1878 - 08 May 1881 John Gordon Sprigg (1st Time)
09 May 1881 - 12 May 1884 Thomas Gordon Scanlen
13 May 1884 - 24 Nov 1886 Thomas Upington
25 Nov 1886 - 16 Jul 1890 John Gordon Sprigg (2nd Time)
17 Jul 1890 - 12 Jan 1896 Cecil John Rhodes
13 Jan 1896 - 13 Oct 1898 John Gordon Sprigg (3rd Time)
13 Oct 1898 - 17 Jun 1900 William Philip Schreiner
18 Jun 1900 - 21 Feb 1904 Sir John Gordon Sprigg
22 Feb 1904 - 02 Feb 1908 Leander Starr Jameson
03 Feb 1908 - 31 May 1910 John Xavier Merriman

Orange Free State
 
1848-1854 Orange River under British rule
1854-1902 Republic of the Orange Free State
1880-1881 1st Anglo-Boer war
1899-1902 2nd Anglo-Boer war
1902-1910 Orange Free colony
1910      Part of South Africa
 
British Residents & Governors
08 Mar 1845 - 16 Jan 1846 William Sutton
16 Jan 1846 - 23 Jul 1852 Henry Douglas Warden
23 Jul 1852 - 11 Mar 1854 Henry Green
23 Jun 1902 - 01 Apr 1905 Alfred Milner, viscount Milner
02 Apr 1905 - 07 Jun 1907 William Waldegrave Palmer,
                           Earl of Selborne
07 Jun 1907 - 31 May 1910 Sir Hamilton John Goold-Adams
 
State Presidents
18 Apr 1854 - 10 Feb 1855 Josias Philippus Hoffman
10 Feb      - 27 Aug 1855 Jacobus Johannes Venter (1st Time)
27 Aug 1855 - 06 Sep 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof
06 Sep      - 15 Dec 1859 Esaias Reynier Snyman
15 Dec 1859 - 08 Feb 1860 Jacobus Johannes Venter (2nd Time)
08 Feb 1860 - 20 Jun 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
20 Jun 1863 - 02 Feb 1864 Jacobus Johannes Venter
02 Feb 1864 - 02 Feb 1888 Johannes Henricus Brand
14 Jul 1888 - 10 Jan 1889 Pieter Jeremias Blignaut (1st Time)
10 Jan 1889 - 11 Dec 1895 Francis William Reitz
11 Dec 1895 - 04 Mar 1896 Pieter Jeremias Blignaut (2nd Time)
04 Mar 1896 - 31 May 1902 Marthinus Theunis Steyn
                          (in exile from 1900)
30 May 1900 - 31 May 1902 Chrisatiaan Rudolph de Wet
                          (acting for Steyn)
 
Prime Minister
27 Nov 1907 - 31 Dec 1910 Abraham Fischer 

Natal
 
1837-1838 Free Province of New Holland
1838-1843 Natalia Republic
1843-1910 British colony
1844-1845 Annexed to Cape Colony
1845-1856 Natal province
1856-1910 Natal colony
1893-1910 Self rule
1910      Part of the Union of Souf Africa
 
President of the Burghers Council & Chief Commandant
02 Dec 1836 - 06 Jun 1837 Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz
Chief Governor
06 Jun 1837 - 06 Feb 1838 Pieter Maurites Retief
Presidents of the Policy Council
06 Feb      - 23 Sep 1838 Gerhardus Marthinus Maritz
23 Sep      - 12 Oct 1838 Karel Pieter Landman
Chairmen of the Raad
15 Feb 1839 -    May 1840 Johannes Stephanus Maritz (1st Time)
   Aug      - 04 Sep 1840 Karel Pieter Landman (1st Time)
04 Sep 1840 - 14 Jan 1841 Laurens Badenhorst
14 Jan      - 07 Apr 1841 Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo
07 Apr 1841 - 21 Jan 1842 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshof
15 May      - 28 Sep 1843 Johannes Stephanus Maritz (2nd Time)
 
Commandant-General
23 Nov 1838 - 09 Aug 1842 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius
 
Prime Ministers
10 Oct 1893 - 14 Feb 1897 Sir John Robinson
15 Feb      - 04 Oct 1897 Henry Escombe
05 Oct 1897 - 08 Jun 1899 Sir Henry Binns
09 Jun 1899 - 17 Aug 1903 Sir Albert Henry Hime
18 Aug 1903 - 16 May 1905 George Morris Sutton
16 May 1905 - 28 Nov 1906 Charles John Smythe
28 Nov 1906 - 28 Apr 1910 Frederick Robert Moor

Transvaal
 
1848      Establishment of the united band
1852-1853 Holland-African Republic
1853-1855 South-African Republic
1877-1883 British colony
1880-1881 1st Anglo-Boer war
1883-1902 South-African Republic (restored
1899-1902 2nd Anglo-Boar war
1902-1910 British colony
31 May 1910               Part of South Africa
1914 - 1915               Maritz rebellion
 
 
Commandants at Magaliesberg
22 Dec 1838 -    Jun 1845 Andries Hendrik Potgieter
   Jun 1845 - 20 Jun 1848 Gert Kruger
Commandants-General
20 Jun 1848 - 20 Sep 1849 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (1st Time)
20 Sep 1849 - 16 Oct 1850 Post Abolished
16 Oct 1850 - 15 Jan 1851 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (2nd Time)
 - Lijdenburg -
15 Jan 1851 - 17 Dec 1856 Willem François Joubert
 - Zoutpansberg -
15 Jan 1851 - 16 Dec 1852 Andries Hendrik Potgieter
16 Dec 1852 - 06 Nov 1854 Pieter Johannes Potgieter
06 Nov 1854 - 18 Feb 1858 Stephanus Schoeman
 - Marico -
15 Jan 1851 -    Apr 1852 Johan Adam Enslin
 - Potchefstroom-Rustenburg -
15 Jan 1851 - 23 Jul 1853 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius
09 Aug 1853 - 06 Jan 1857 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius
 
Chairmen of the Volksraad
23 May      - 25 May 1849 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius
19 Sep 1849               Jacob de Clercq
06 Dec      - 12 Dec 1849 Pieter Ernst Kruger (1st Time)
22 Jan      - 30 Jan 1850 Willem C. Swart
26 May      - 24 Aug 1850 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (1st Time)
10 Sep 1850 - 15 Feb 1851 Cornelis D. Potgieter (1st Time)
05 May 1851               Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (2nd Time)
09 May 1851               Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (3rd Time)
11 Jun 1851               Johannes N.Hendrik Grobler
05 Jul 1851               Johannes Christoffel Steyn
01 Sep      - 03 Sep 1851 Cornelis D. Potgieter (2nd Time)
27 Nov      - 29 Nov 1851 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (4th Time)
12 Feb 1852               Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo (1st Time)
14 Feb 1852               Pieter Ernst Kruger (2nd Time)
17 May      - 06 May 1852 Cornelis D. Potgieter (3rd Time)
06 May 1852               Andreas Theodorus Spies
07 May 1852               C. Viljoen
15 Jun      - 12 Jul 1852 Cornelis D. Potgieter (4th Time)
04 Oct 1852               Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo (2nd Time)
04 Oct 1852 - 05 Jul 1855 Cornelis D. Potgieter (5th Time)
10 Sep      - 18 Sep 1855 Hercules Albertus Pretorius
05 Nov      - 20 Nov 1855 Johannes Hermanus Grobler (1st Time)
27 Nov 1855               Cornelis D. Potgieter (6th Time)
04 Mar      - 11 Mar 1856 JohannesHermanus Grobler (2nd Time)
11 Mar 1856               Hendrik Teodor Bührmann
27 May      - 30 May 1856 Cornelis D. Potgieter (7th Time)
05 Jan      - 06 Jan 1857 Johannes Pieter Furstenberg
State Presidents
06 Jan 1857 - 15 Sep 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (1st Time)
15 Sep      - 06 Dec 1860 Johannes Hermanus Grobler
06 Dec 1860 - 17 Apr 1862 Stephanus Schoeman
18 Apr 1862 - 10 May 1864 Willem Cornelis Janse van Renseburg
10 May 1864 - 21 Nov 1871 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (2nd Time)
21 Nov 1871 - 01 Jul 1872 Daniel Jacobus Erasmus van Straten
01 Jul 1872 - 12 Apr 1877 Thomas François Burgers
12 Apr 1877 - 08 Aug 1881 British occupation
08 Aug 1881 - 31 May 1902 Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger
                          (In exile in Switzerland from 10 Sep 1900)
10 Sep 1900 - 31 May 1902 Schalk Willem Burger
                          (acting for Kruger)
Leaders of the Republic of South Africa (in rebellion)
15 Sep 1914 - 04 Feb 1915 Manie Salmon Gerhardus Maritz ...................... 1876-1940
                        - Christian Rudolf de Wet ............................ 1854-1922
 
Prime Minister
04 Feb 1907 - 31 May 1910 Louis Botha

kwaZulu
 
Kwa Zulu Kingdom
1879 British occupation
1887-1897 British Crown Colony
1897      Incorporated into Natal
Kings
Mnguni
Nkosinkulu
Mdlani
Luzumana
Mandela kaLuzumana
Ntombhela kaMalandela
1709-1715 Zulu kaNtombhele
1715-1720 Gumede kaZulu
1720-1727 Phunga kaGumede
1727-1745 Mageba kaPhunga
1745-1763 Ndaba kaMageba
1763-1781 Jama kaNdaba
1781-1816 Senzangakhona KaJama
       1816 - 23 Sep 1828 Shaka kaSenzangakhona
   Nov 1828 - 29 Jan 1840 Dingane kaSenzangakhona
10 Feb 1840 - 18 Oct 1872 Mpande kaSenzangkhona
18 Oct 1872 - 28 Aug 1879 Cetshwayo Ka Mpande (1st Time)
28 Aug 1879 - 29 Jan 1883 Thirteen Chiefs
                          - John Robert Dunn
                          - Hlubi
                          - Faku
                          - Gawuzi
                          - Mfanawendlela
                          - Mgitshwa
                          - Mlandela
                          - Mqonjama
                          - Ntshingiswao
                          - Sekethwayo
                          - Somkhele
                          - Uhamu ka Mpande
                          - Zibhebhu ka Mapitha
29 Jan 1883 - 08 Feb 1884 Cetshwayo Ka Mpande (2nd  Time)
21 May 1884 - 18 Oct 1913 Dinizulu kaCetshwayo
01 Nov 1913 - 04 Mar 1933 Salamoni Nkashiyana Maphumuzana
                           ka Dinizulu
02 Apr 1933 - 27 Aug 1948 Arthur Edward Mshiyeni Zulu
                           Ka Dinuzulu (acting)
27 Aug 1948 - 17 Sep 1968 Cyprian Bhekuzulu ka Nyangayezizwe
                           ka Nkashiyana Solomon
   Nov 1968 - 03 Dec 1971 Israel Mcwayizeni Zulu
                           ka Nkashiyana (acting)
03 Dec 1971 -             Goodwill Zwelethini ka Bhekuzulu
 

Xhosa
 
amaGcaleka
 
Paramount Chiefs
1695-1697 Ngconde a Togu
1697-1702 Tshiwo a Ngconde
1702-1736 Mdange a Ngconde
1736-1775 Phalo a Tshiwo
1775-1791 Gcaleka a Phalo
1791-1804 Khawuta a Gcaleka
1804-1820 Nqoko a Gcaleka
       1820 - 12 May 1835 Hintsa a Khawatu
19 May 1835 -    Feb 1893 Sarhili a Hitsa
   Feb 1893 -        1902 Sigcawu a Sarhili
       1902 - 30 May 1921 Salukaphathwa Gwebinkumbi
                          a Sigcawu
01 Aug 1921 - 31 Dec 1923 Daliza a Sigcawu
01 Jan 1924 - 02 Jun 1933 Mpisekhaya Ngangomhlaba
                          Sigcawu a Gwebinkumbi
02 Jun 1933 - 09 Apr 1965 Bungeni Zwelidumile Sigcawu
                          a Gwebinkumbi
       1965 - 30 Dec 2005 Xolilizwe Mzikayise Sigcawu
27 Jan 2006 -             Zwelonke Sigcawu
 
amaMbalu
 
Chiefs
       1740 -        1794 Ulanga a Phalo
       1794 - 01 Apr 1846 Ngqeno a Ulanga
01 Apr 1846 -        18.. Stockwe a Ngqeno
 
amaGqunukhwebe
 
Chiefs
       17.. -        1793 Tshaka a Tyakha
       1793 - 07 Jan 1812 Cungwa a Tshaka
07 Jan 1812 - 01 Oct 1869 Phatho a Cungwa
01 Oct 1869 - 14 Aug 1875 Kama a Cungwa
14 Aug 1875 -        1899 William Shaw a Kama

©2005-2010