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Canada
Coat of Arms adopted 1905
  File:Coat of arms of Canada 1868.svg
Canadian Shield 1867-1905

 

c. 1000 - 11..            Norse settlement in Vinland

24 Jul 1534 - 10 Feb 1763 Claimed for France as "New France"

29 Sep 1668               Hudson bay claimed for England

10 Feb 1763               New France ceded to Great Britain

05 Feb 1841 - 30 Jun 1867 Province of Canada

01 Jul 1867 -        1967 Dominion of Canada

11 Dec 1931               Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty

       1967               Use of the term "Dominion" abandoned

 

Government: Constitutional Federal Monarchy.

Capital: Ottowa.

Language: English, French, Ukrainian, Inuktitut, Inuinaqtun, Cree, Dene,

                    Suline, Gwich'in, Inuvialuktun, Slavey, Dogrib.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, Islam, Buddhist.

National Anthem: "O'Canada".

National Emblem: Maypel Leaf.

National Motto: A mari usque ad mare (From sea to sea).

National Holiday: Canada Day, 01 July (1867).

Currency: Canadian Dollar.

 

Governors-General

01 Jul 1867 - 02 Feb 1869 Charles Stanley, viscount Monck ...................... 1819-1894

02 Feb 1869 - 25 Jun 1872 Lord John Young, Baron Lisgar ........................ 1807-1876

25 Jun 1872 - 19 Oct 1878 Frederick Tempel Hamilton Blackwood,

                           Marquess of Dufferin ................................ 1826-1902

25 Nov 1878 - 23 Oct 1883 Lord John Douglas Stutherland Campell,

                           Duke of Argyll, Marquess of Lorne ................... 1845-1914

23 Oct 1883 - 10 Jul 1888 Henry Charles Keith Pretty FitzMaurice,

                           Marquess of Landsdown ............................... 1845-1927

11 Jul 1888 - 18 Sep 1893 Lord Frederick Arthur Stanly,

                           Earl of Derby ....................................... 1841-1908

18 Sep 1893 - 12 Nov 1898 John Cambell Hamilton Gordan,

                           Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair ..................... 1847-1934

12 Nov 1898 - 10 Dec 1904 Gilbert Elliot Murray Kynynmound, Earl of Minto ...... 1845-1914

10 Dec 1904 - 13 Oct 1911 Albert Henry George Grey, Earl Grey .................. 1851-1917

13 Oct 1911 - 11 Nov 1916 Prince Arthur William Patrick Albert,

                           Duke of Connaught and Strathearn .................... 1850-1942

11 Nov 1916 - 11 Aug 1921 Victur Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire ................. 1868-1938

11 Aug 1921 - 02 Oct 1926 Lord Julian Hedworth George Bying, Viscount of Vimy .. 1862-1935

02 Oct 1926 - 04 Apr 1931 George Freeman Thomas, Marquess of Willingdon ........ 1866-1941

04 Apr 1931 - 02 Nov 1935 Vere Brabazon Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough .......... 1880-1956

02 Nov 1935 - 11 Feb 1940 Lord John Buchan, Baron of Tweedsmuir ................ 1875-1940

21 Jun 1940 - 12 Apr 1946 Prince Alexander August Friedrich Wilhelm Alfred

                           Georg von Teck, Earl of Athlone ..................... 1874-1957

12 Apr 1946 - 28 Jan 1952 Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander,

                           Viscount of Tunis ................................... 1891-1969

28 Jan 1952 - 15 Sep 1959 Charles Vincent Massey ............................... 1887-1967

15 Sep 1959 - 05 Mar 1967 Georges Phileas Vanier ............................... 1888-1967

17 Apr 1967 - 14 Jan 1974 Daniel Roland Michener ............................... 1900-1991

14 Jan 1974 - 22 Jan 1979 Jules Léger .......................................... 1913-1980

22 Jan 1979 - 14 May 1984 Edward Richard Schreyer .............................. 1935-

14 May 1984 - 29 Jan 1990 Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé ................................ 1922-1993

29 Jan 1990 - 08 Feb 1995 Ramon John Hnatyshyn ................................. 1934-2002

08 Feb 1995 - 07 Oct 1999 Roméo-Adrien LeBlanc ................................. 1927-2009

07 Oct 1999 - 27 Sep 2005 Adrienne Louise Chee Clackson ........................ 1939-

27 Sep 2005 - 01 Oct 2010 Michaëlle Jean Lafond ................................ 1957-

01 Oct 2010 -             David Lloyd Johnstone ................................ 1941-

 

Prime Ministers

01 Jul 1867 - 07 Nov 1873 Sir John Alexander MacDonald ......................... 1815-1891

                          (1st Time)

07 Nov 1873 - 17 Oct 1878 Alexander MacKenzie .................................. 1822-1892

17 Oct 1878 - 16 Jun 1891 Sir John Alexander MacDonald (2nd Time)

16 Jun 1891 - 05 Dec 1892 Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbot ....................... 1821-1893

05 Dec 1892 - 12 Dec 1894 Sir John Sparrow David Thompson ...................... 1844-1894

21 Dec 1894 - 01 May 1896 Sir MacKenzie Bowell ................................. 1823-1917

01 May      - 11 Jul 1896 Sir Charles Tupper ................................... 1821-1915

11 Jul 1896 - 10 Oct 1911 Sir Henri Charles Wilfrid Laurier .................... 1841-1919

10 Oct 1911 - 10 Jul 1920 Sir Robert Laired Borden ............................. 1854-1937

10 Jul 1920 - 29 Dec 1921 Arthur Meighen ....................................... 1874-1960

                          (1st Time)

29 Dec 1921 - 28 Jun 1926 William Lyon MacKenzie King .......................... 1874-1950

                          (1st Time)

28 Jun      - 25 Sep 1926 Arthur Meighen (2nd Time)

25 Sep 1926 - 07 Aug 1930 William Lyon MacKenzie King (2nd Time)

07 Aug 1930 - 23 Oct 1935 Viscount Richard Bedford Bennett ..................... 1870-1947

23 Oct 1935 - 15 Nov 1948 William Lyon MacKenzie King (3rd Time)

15 Nov 1948 - 21 Jun 1957 Louis Stephen Saint Laurent .......................... 1882-1973

21 Jun 1957 - 22 Apr 1963 John George Diefenbaker .............................. 1895-1979

22 Apr 1963 - 20 Apr 1968 Lester Bowles Pearson ................................ 1897-1972 LP

20 Apr 1968 - 04 Jun 1979 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau .......... 1919-2000 LP

                          (1st Time)

04 Jun 1979 - 03 Mar 1980 Charles Joseph Clark ................................. 1939-     CP

03 Mar 1980 - 30 Jun 1984 Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (2nd Time)

30 Jun      - 17 Sep 1984 John Napier Wyndham Turner ........................... 1929-     LP

17 Sep 1984 - 25 Jun 1993 Martin Brian Mulroney ................................ 1939-     CP

25 Jun      - 04 Nov 1993 Avril "Kim" Phaedra Campbell ......................... 1947-     CP

04 Jun 1993 - 12 Dec 2003 Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien ......................... 1934-     LP

12 Dec 2003 - 06 Feb 2006 Paul Edgar Philippe Martin ........................... 1938-     LP

06 Feb 2006 -             Stephan Joseph Harper ................................ 1959-     CP

 

 
BQ=Bloc Québécois (Bloc Quebec, Quebec Nationalist, Socialist)
CP=Conservative Party (Neoconservative, Conservative)
G=Green Party (Enviromentalist, Left-wing)
LP=Liberal Party (Liberal, Centerist)
NDP=New Democracy Party (Social Democratic)


Newfoundland
 
File:Arms of Newfoundland and Labrador.svg
 
c.1000 - 11..             Norse settlement of Vinland
24 Jun 1497               Claimed for England
10 Feb 1763               Labrador ceded to Britain by France
17 Jun 1824 - 26 Sep 1907 Newfoundland a Crown Colony
05 May 1855               Responsible government granted
26 Sep 1907               Dominion status
18 Dec 1933               Constitution suspended
30 Jan 1934 - 31 Mar 1949 Colonial rule restored
01 Apr 1949               Incorporated into Canada, as a province
 
Rulers of Vinland
1000 - 1010 Leif Eiriksson "The Lucky"
1010 - 1015 Thorfinn Karseffni
1015 - 1017 Freydis Eiriksdottir
1015 - 1017 Helgi
1017 - 1020 Finnbogi
1110 - 11.. Eirik Gnupasson
1340        Paul Knutsson
1397 - 1400 Henry Sinclair
 
Governors
       1855 -    May 1857 Charles Henry Darling
1857 - 1864               Sir Alexander Bannerman
            -    Apr 1864 Laurence O'Brien (acting)
   Apr 1864 -    Jun 1869 Sir Anthony Musgrave
   Jul 1869 -        1876 Sir Stephan John Hill
30 Apr 1876 -        1881 Sir John Hawley Glover (1st time)
       1881               Sir Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter
                          (1st time, acting)
       1881 - 10 Sep 1883 Sir Henry Fitzhardinge Berkeley Maxse
10 Sep 1883 -             Sir Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter
                          (2nd time, acting)
       1883 - 30 Sep 1885 Sir John Hawley Glover (2nd time)  (s.a.)
30 Sep 1885 -        1886 Sir Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter
                          (3rd time, acting)
       1886 -    Jan 1887 Sir George William Des Voeux
   Jan 1887 -        1889 Sir Henry Arthur Blake
1889                      Sir Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter
                          (4th time, acting)
1889 - 1895               Sir John Terence Nicolls O'Brien
1895 - 1898               Sir Herbert Harley Murray
1898 - 1901               Sir Henry Edward McCallum
1901 - 1904               Sir Cavendish Boyle
1904                      Sir William Henry Horwood

                          (1st time, acting)     
1904 - 1909               Sir William MacGregor ................................ 1846-1919
1909                      Sir William Henry Horwood

                          (2nd time, acting)     
       1909 -    Dec 1913 Sir Ralph Champneys Williams ......................... 1848-1927
   Dec 1913 -    Oct 1917 Sir Walter Edward Davidson ........................... 1859-1923
   Dec 1917 -    Sep 1922 Sir Charles Alexander Harris ......................... 1855-1947
   Sep 1922 -    Oct 1928 Sir William Lamond Allardyce ......................... 1861-1930
   Oct 1928 -    Sep 1932 Sir John Middleton ................................... 1870-1954
       1933 -    Oct 1935 Sir David Murray Anderson ............................ 1874-1936
   Feb 1936 - 16 Jan 1946 Sir Humphrey Thomas Walwyn ........................... 1879-1957
16 Jan 1946 - 31 Mar 1949 Sir Gordon MacDonald ................................. 1885-1966
 
Premiers
07 May 1855 -        1858 Philip Francis Little ................................ 1824-1897
       1858 -    Mar 1861 John Kent ............................................ 1805-1872
   Mar 1861 -    Apr 1865 Sir Hugh William Hoyles .............................. 1815-1888
   Apr 1865 -    Nov 1869 Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter (1st Time)
   Nov 1869 - 31 Jan 1874 Charles Fox Bennett .................................. 1793-1883
31 Jan 1874 -    Apr 1878 Frederick Bowker Terrington Carter (2nd Time)
   Apr 1878 -    Oct 1885 Sir William Vallance Whiteway ........................ 1828-1908
                          (1st Time) 
   Oct 1885 -    Dec 1889 Sir Robert Thornburn ................................. 1836-1906
   Dec 1889 - 11 Apr 1894 Sir William Vallance Whiteway (2nd Time)
11 Apr 1894 - 13 Dec 1894 Augustus Frederick Goodridge ......................... 1839-1920
13 Dec 1894 - 08 Feb 1895 Daniel J. Greene ..................................... 1850-1911
08 Feb 1895 -    Oct 1897 Sir William Vallance Whiteway (3rd Time)
   Oct 1897 - 06 Mar 1900 Sir James Spearman Winter ............................ 1845-1911
06 Mar 1900 - 02 Mar 1909 Sir Robert Bond ...................................... 1857-1927
Prime ministers

02 Mar 1909 - 31 Dec 1917 Sir Edward Patrick Morris ............................ 1858-1935

01 Jan 1918 - 22 May 1919 Sir William Frederick Lloyd .......................... 1864-1937
22 May 1919 - 17 Nov 1919 Sir Michael Patrick Cashin ........................... 1864-1926
17 Nov 1919 - 24 Jul 1923 Sir Richard Anderson Squires ......................... 1880-1940
                          (1st Time)
24 Jul 1923 - 10 May 1924 William Robertson Warren ............................. 1879-1927
10 May 1924 - 09 Jun 1924 Albert Edgar Hickman ................................. 1875-1943
09 Jun 1924 -    Aug 1928 Walter Stanley Monroe ................................ 1871-1952
   Aug 1928 - 17 Nov 1928 Frederick Charles Alderdice .......................... 1872-1936
                          (1st Time)
17 Nov 1928 -    Jun 1932 Sir Richard Anderson Squires
(2nd Time)
   Jun 1932 - 30 Jan 1934 Frederick Charles Alderdice (2nd Time)
Chairmen of Commission Government
30 Jan 1934 - 30 Oct 1936 Sir David Murray Anderson ............................ 1874-1936
30 Oct 1936 - 1946        Sir Humphrey Thomas Walwyn ........................... 1879-1957
       1946 - 31 Mar 1949 Gordon Macdonald, Baron Macdonald of Gwaenysgor ...... 1888-1966

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