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Haiti
Haiti, coat of arms
1807-1957, 1986-
Duvalier era 1957-86
 
06 Dec 1492               Claimed for Spain
1631 - 1641               English colony on Tortuga
1651 - 1664               Tortuga island a possession of the Knights of Malta
1664                      French colony of Île de la Tortue et Côte de Saint-Domingue
20 Sep 1697               Spain recognises French possession of eastern Hispaniola
19 Sep 1793 - 02 Oct 1798 British occupation
01 Jan 1804               Independence from France
08 Oct 1804               Kingdom of Haiti (North Haiti)
28 Dec 1804               Republic of Haiti (South Haiti)
17 Oct 1806               State of Haiti
28 Mar 1811               Kingdom of Haiti
17 Apr 1825               Independence recognised by France
26 Aug 1849               Empire of Haiti
23 Dec 1858               Republic of Haiti
26 Jan      - 19 Oct 1914 U.S. Occupation
28 Jul 1915 - 15 Aug 1934 U.S. Occupation
28 Jul 1934 - 1936        U.S. Protectorate
16 Sep 1994 -    Jan 1995 U.S. Occupation
24 Feb      - 30 Jun 2004 U.S. Occupation
01 Jun 2004 -             U.N. force deployed
 
Leader
       1795 - 07 Apr 1803 Françios Breda Toussaint L'Ouverture ....... 1743-1803
Monarchs
01 Jan 1804 - 17 Oct 1806 Dessalines, Jean Jacques ................... 1758-1806
                          (in North Haiti only)
17 Oct 1806 - 08 Oct 1820 Christophe, Henri .......................... 1767-1820
                          (in North Haiti only)
26 Aug 1849 - 15 Jan 1859 Soulouque, Faustin I Éli ................... 1782-1867
1926 - 1929               Wirkus, Faustin II* ........................ 1897-1945
                          ('The White King of La Gonâve')
 
Presidents
28 Dec 1806 - 27 Jan 1807 Henri Christophe ........................... 1767-1820
                          (did not accept)
19 Jan      - 10 Mar 1807 Bruno Blanchet aîné ........................ 1760-1822
10 Mar 1807 - 29 Mar 1818 Anne-Alexandre "Papa Bon Coeur" Sabès,
                           dit Pétion ................................ 1770-1818
29 Mar 1818 - 14 Mar 1843 Jean-Pierre Boyer-Bazelais
14 Mar      - 17 Mar 1843 André Pilié (provisional)
19 Mar      - 21 Mar 1843 Jean-Joseph Dieudonné
                          (provisional)
21 Mar 1843 - 03 May 1844 Charles Hérard aîné, dit Rivière
03 May 1844 - 15 Apr 1845 Philippe Guerrier
20 Apr 1845 - 01 Mar 1846 Jean Louis Pierrot
01 Mar 1846 - 27 Feb 1847 Jean-Baptiste Riché
02 Mar 1847 - 26 Aug 1849 Faustin Éli Soulouque
15 Jan 1859 - 13 Mar 1867 Fabre Nicolas Guillaume Geffrard
                          (President of the Revolutionary committee,
                           in rebellion from 23 Dec 1858)
20 Mar      - 02 May 1867 Jean Nicolas Nissage-Saget (1st Time)
04 May 1867 - 27 Dec 1869 Sylvain Salnave
27 Dec 1869 - 14 May 1874 Jean Nicolas Nissage-Saget (2nd Time)
14 May 1874 - 15 Apr 1876 Michel Domingue
19 Jul 1876 - 17 Jul 1879 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal (1st Time)
17 Jul      - 26 Jul 1879 Pierre Charles Barthélemy Denis,
                           dit Darius Denis
26 Oct 1879 - 10 Aug 1888 Louis Étienne Lysius Félicité Saloman
10 Aug      - 16 Oct 1888 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal
                          (2nd Time, in Port-au-Prince)
16 Oct 1888 - 22 Aug 1889 Francois Denys Légitime
22 Aug 1889 - 24 Mar 1896 Louis Mondestin Florvil Hyppolite
01 Apr 1896 - 13 May 1902 Tirésias Antoine Auguste Simon-Sam ....... 1835-1916
13 May      - 18 Dec 1902 Pierre Théoma Boisrond-Canal (3rd Time)
18 Dec 1902 - 02 Dec 1908 Pierre Nord Alexis ....................... 1820-1910
02 Dec 1908 - 02 Aug 1911 Francois C. Antoine A.T. Simon ........... 1844-1928
24 Jul 1911 - 08 Aug 1912 Jean-Jacques Dessalines Michel Cincinnatus Leconte
                          (Supreme Chief of the Revolution to 07 Aug 1911)
08 Aug 1912 - 02 May 1913 Jean Antoine Tancrède Auguste ............ (s.a)
14 May 1913 - 27 Jan 1914 Michel Oreste Lafontant,
                           dit Michel-Oreste ....................... 1859-1918
   Jan      - 01 Feb 1914 Edmond Sylvestre Polynice
                          (President of Puplic Welfare)
01 Feb      - 28 Oct 1914 Emmanuel Oreste Zamor .................... 1861-1915
28 Oct 1914 - 22 Feb 1915 Joseph Davilmar Théodore ................. 1847-1917
19 Jan      - 27 Jul 1915 Jean Vilbrun Guillaume-Sam ............... 1859-1915
                          (Chief of executive power to 09 Mar)
05 May      - 12 Aug 1915 Rosalvo Bobo ............................. 1873-1959
                          (Chief of executive power)
12 Aug 1915 - 15 May 1922 Philippe Sudre Dartiguenave .............. 1863-1936
15 May 1922 - 15 May 1930 Eustache Antoine François Joseph Louis Borno
15 May      - 18 Nov 1930 Louis Eugène Roy ......................... 1861-1938
18 Nov 1930 - 15 May 1941 Sténio Joseph Vincent .................... 1874-1959
15 May 1941 - 11 Jan 1946 Louis Léocardie Élie Lescot .............. 1883-1974
11 Jan      - 16 Aug 1946 Franck Lavaud (1st Time) ................. 1903-1986
                          (President of the Military Executive)
16 Aug 1946 - 10 May 1950 Dumarsais Estimé ......................... 1900-1953
10 May      - 06 Dec 1950 Franck Lavaud (2nd Time)
                          (President of the Government Junta)
06 Dec 1950 - 12 Dec 1956 Paul Eugéne Magloire ..................... 1907-2001
                          (Chief of the Military Executive Power)
12 Dec 1956 - 04 Feb 1957 Joseph Nemours Pierre Louis .............. 1900-1966
07 Feb      - 02 Apr 1957 Franck Sylvain ........................... 1909-1987
                          (provisional)
02 Apr      - 06 Apr 1957 Léon Cantave ............................. 1910-1967
                          (1st Time, Army Chief of General Staff)
26 May      - 14 Jun 1957 Pierre Eustache Daniel Fignolé ........... 1914-1986
14 Jun      - 22 Oct 1957 Antonio Thrasybule Kébreau ............... 1909-1963
22 Oct 1957 - 21 Apr 1971 François "Papa Doc" Duvalier ............. 1907-1971
21 Apr 1971 - 07 Feb 1986 Jean Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier .......... 1951-2014
07 Feb 1986 - 07 Feb 1988 Henri Namphy (1st Time) .................. 1932-
                          (President of the National Council)
07 Feb      - 20 Jun 1988 Leslie-François Saint-Roc Manigat ........ 1930-2014
20 Jun      - 17 Sep 1988 Henri Namphy (2nd Time)
17 Sep 1988 - 10 Mar 1990 Prosper Avril ............................ 1937-      Mil
13 Mar 1990 - 07 Jan 1991 Ertha Pascal Trouillot (1st Time) ........ 1943-
07 Jan 1991 (hours)       Roger Lafontamt .......................... 1931-1991
07 Jan      - 07 Feb 1991 Ertha Pascal Trouillot (2nd Time)
07 Feb      - 30 Sep 1991 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (1st Time) ........ 1953-
01 Oct      - 08 Oct 1991 Raoul Cédras ............................. 1949-
                          (Chairman of the Military junta,
                           de facto leader to 12 Oct 1994)
08 Oct 1991 - 19 Jun 1992 Joseph C. Nérette ........................ 1924-2007
19 Jun 1992 - 15 Jun 1993 Marc Louis Bazin ......................... 1932-2010
15 Jun 1993 - 12 May 1994 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (2nd Time)
12 May      - 12 Oct 1994 Émile Jonassaint ......................... 1913-1995
12 Oct 1994 - 07 Feb 1996 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (3rd Time)
07 Feb 1996 - 07 Feb 2001 René Garcia Préval (1st Time) ............ 1943-
07 Feb 2001 - 29 Feb 2004 Jean-Bertrand Aristide (4th Time)
01 Mar 2004 - 14 May 2006 Boniface Alexandre ....................... 1936-
14 May 2006 - 14 May 2011 René Garcia Préval (2nd Time)
14 May 2011 -             Michel Joseph Martelly ................... 1961-
 
 
Prime Ministers
09 Feb      - 20 Jun 1988 Martial Lavaud Célestin .................. 1913-2011
20 Jun 1988 - 13 Feb 1991 Post Abolished
13 Feb      - 11 Oct 1991 René Garcia Préval ....................... (s.a)
11 Oct 1991 - 19 Jun 1992 Jean-Jacques Honorat ..................... 1931-
19 Jun 1992 - 30 Aug 1993 Marc Louis Bazin ......................... (s.a)
30 Aug 1993 - 08 Nov 1994 Robert Malval ............................ 1943-
08 Nov 1994 - 07 Nov 1995 Georges Jean-Jacques Smarck Michel ....... 1937-2012
07 Nov 1995 - 27 Feb 1996 Claudette Antoine Werleigh ............... 1946-
27 Feb 1996 - 20 Oct 1997 Rosny Smarth ............................. 1940-
20 Oct 1997 - 26 Mar 1999 Vacant
26 Mar 1999 - 02 Mar 2001 Jacques-Édouard Alexis (1st Time) ........ 1947-
02 Mar 2001 - 15 Mar 2002 Jean-Marie Chérestal ..................... 1947-
15 Mar 2002 - 12 Mar 2004 Yvon Neptune ............................. 1946-
12 Mar 2004 - 09 Jun 2006 Gérard Latourtue ......................... 1934-
09 Jun 2006 - 05 Sep 2008 Jacques-Édouard Alexis (2nd Time)
05 Sep 2008 - 11 Nov 2009 Michèle Duvivier Pierre-Louis ............ 1947-
11 Nov 2009 - 18 Oct 2011 Jean-Max Bellerive ....................... 1958-
18 Oct 2011 - 14 May 2012 Dr. Garry Conille ........................ 1966-
14 May 2012 - 20 Dec 2014 Laurent Salvador Lamothe ................. 1972-
20 Dec 2014 - 16 Jan 2015 Florence Duperval Guillaume
                          (acting)
16 Jan 2015 -             Evans Paul ............................... 1955-
 
 
U.N. (UNMIH) Force
   Jan 1995 - 05 Mar 1996 Joseph W. Kinzer ......................... 1939-     (U.S.)
05 Mar 1996 - 30 Jun 1997 J.R Pierre Daigle ........................ 1950-     (Canada)
01 Jul      - 30 Nov 1997 Robin Gagnon                                         (Canada)
U.N. (MINUSTAH) Force Commanders
01 Jun 2004 - 31 Aug 2005 Augusto Heleno Ribeiro Pereira ........... 1947-     (Brazil)
01 Sep 2005 - 07 Jan 2006 Urano Teixeira da Matta Bacellar ......... 1947-2006 (Brazil)
07 Jan      - 20 Jan 2006 Eduardo Aldunate Herman .................. 1948-     (Chile)
20 Jan 2006 - 07 Jan 2007 José Elito Carvalho de Siqeuira .......... 1946-     (Brazil)
09 Jan 2007 - 09 Apr 2009 Carlos Alberto Dos Santos Cruz ........... 1952-     (Brazil)
09 Apr 2009 - 11 Apr 2010 Floriano Peixoto Vieira Neto ............. 1954-     (Brazil)
11 Apr 2010 - 30 Mar 2011 Luiz Guillherme Paul Cruz ................ 1957-     (Brazil)
30 Mar 2011 - 27 Mar 2012 Luiz Eduardo Ramos Pereira ............... 1956-     (Brazil)
27 Mar 2012 - 27 Mar 2013 Fernando Rodrigues Goulart ............... 1958-     (Brazil)
27 Mar 2013 -             Edson Leal Pujol ......................... 1955-     (Brazil)
 
 
Note: *Faustin Wirkus was a Polish-American salesman who was elected king by the local population,
       while he was stationed in La Gonâve as part of his military service.

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