. Home .
 
Eurasian Union

 

Note: This page is a general survey of the vast Eurasian geographic area that stretches west

from the Baltic Sea to the east to the Pacific Ocean, north from the Arctic to the step

of Central Asia in the South. This land was ruled as one Empire in different political

forms. The start date of 1721 was the proclamation of an empire from what had been the

Russian Tsardom (Kingdom) which expanded the Russian territory eastwards to the Tatar lands.

This date is used to indicate the further expansion of the empire that the Soviets would

inherit. By 1913 this empire had expanded to include the Baltic, Poland, Finland, Crimea,

Siberia, the Caucuses, and the Central Asian Khanates and Northern part of Manchuria.

The revolution of 1917 lead to the collapse of the empire that splintered into independent

states, the European ones initially began as German client states in 1918. After end of the

civil war in 1921 the Soviets had successfully reconquered these states except the three Baltic

States that remained independent until 1940. The Soviet Union was founded in 1922 as a union

between Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Transcaucasia. This was changed in 1936 when Transcaucasia

was split into Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan and the five central Asian republics where

admitted as separate members after having been part of Russia. The Soviet Union comprised of

fifteen republics in 1989 dissolved in December 1991 after all the republics declared

independence. The Eurasian Union established in 2015 is not a successor state to the USSR or

even a state at all but an economic union based on the European Union where its members retain

their independence. However, further integration of the union is planned, and for this reason

it should be considered as a continuation of the Eurasian political entity.

 

02 Nov 1721               Russian Empire
07 Jan 1795               Annexation of Poland (including Latvia and Lithuania)
28 Feb 1801               Annexation of Georgia
28 May 1812               Bessarabia (Moldova) annexed from Principality of Moldavia
22 Feb 1828               Armenia (Eastern) ceded to Russia by Persia
       1847               Russian conquest of Kazakhstan
       1869               Russian conquest of Turkmenistan
17 Mar 1917               Russian Provisional government, abolition of the Monarchy
1917 - 1918               Disintegration of the state, secession of Poland, Finland,
                          Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan
30 Dec 1922               Formation of the Soviet Union, accession of Russia, Ukraine,
                          Belarussia and Transcaucasia
13 May 1925               Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan
05 Dec 1936               Accession of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, Transcaucasia dissolved
                          into Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia
02 Aug 1940               Accession of Moldova (annexed from Romania)
03 Aug 1940               Accession of Lithuania
05 Aug 1940               Accession of Latvia
06 Aug 1940               Accession of Estonia
06 Sep 1991               Independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania recognised
08 Dec 1991               Belavezha Accords, Russia, Ukraine and Belarus dissolve the Soviet Union
26 Dec 1991               Council of the Republics votes to abolish the union
31 Dec 1991               U.S.S.R finally dissolved, all 15 republics independent
09 Oct 2014               Eurasian Union treaty signed by Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia
01 Jan 2015               Establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU)

Russian Empire
 
Russian Empire, double-headed eagle (1882) - vector image
 
02 Nov 1721               Russian Empire
29 Mar 1809 - 06 Dec 1917 In Personal Union with Finland
09 Jun 1815 - 1915        In Personal Union with Poland
15 Mar 1917               Russia (no official style adopted)
14 Sep 1917               Russian Republic
07 Nov 1917               October Revolution (old style) Russian Soviet Republic
06 Dec 1917               Independence of Finland
11 Dec 1917               Independence of Lithuania
30 Jan 1918               Independence of Latvia
23 Feb 1918               Independence of Estonia
26 May 1918               Independence of Georgia (recognised by Soviet Russia 1920)
28 May 1918               Independence of Armenia and Azerbaijan
 
 
Emperors
22 Oct 1721 - 08 Feb 1725 Romanov, Pyotr I Alekseyevich
08 Feb 1725 - 18 May 1727 Skavonska, Yekatarina I Alexeyevna .................. 1684-1727
18 May 1727 - 13 Feb 1730 Romanov, Pyotr II Alekseyevich ...................... 1715-1730
13 Feb 1730 - 20 Nov 1740 Pribislaw, Anna I Ivanovna .......................... 1693-1740
20 Nov 1740 - 06 Nov 1741 Romanov, Ivan VI Ivanovich .......................... 1740-1764
20 Nov 1740 - 06 Nov 1741 Pribislaw, Grand Duchess Anna Leopoldovna ........... 1718-1746
                          (Regent for Ivan VI)
06 Dec 1741 - 05 Jan 1762 Romanov, Yelizaveta II Petrovna ..................... 1709-1761
05 Jan      - 09 Jul 1762 Holstein-Gottorp, Pyotr III Fyodorovich ............. 1726-1762
09 Jul 1762 - 17 Nov 1796 Anhalt-Zerbst, Yekatarina II Frederika .............. 1729-1796 "the Great"
17 Nov 1796 - 24 Mar 1801 Anhalt-Zerbst, Pavel I  Pyotrevich .................. 1754-1801 "the Mad"
24 Mar 1801 - 01 Dec 1825 Holstein-Gottorp, Aleksandr I Pavlovich ............. 1777-1825 "the Blessed"
                          (Grand Duke of Finland, King of Poland, Czar of Georgia)
01 Dec      - 26 Dec 1825 Holstein-Gottorp, Konstantin Pavlovich .............. 1779-1831
                          (Proclaimed Emperor, did not except)
26 Dec 1825 - 02 Mar 1855 Holstein-Gottorp, Nikolay I Pavlovich ............... 1796-1855 "the Conqueror"
02 Mar 1855 - 13 Mar 1881 Holstein-Gorttop, Aleksandr II Nikolayevich ......... 1818-1881 "the Liberator"
13 Mar 1881 - 01 Nov 1894 Holstein-Gottorp, Aleksandr III Aleksandrovich ...... 1845-1894 "the Peace-maker"
01 Nov 1894 - 15 Mar 1917 Holstein-Gottorp, Nikolay II Aleksandrovich ......... 1868-1918 "the Bloody" (aka, "the Martyr")
21 Aug 1915 - 15 Mar 1917 Hesse, Empress Aleksandra Feodorovna
                           von Hessen-Darmstadt (Regent) ...................... 1872-1918
15 Mar 1917 (Hours)       Holstein-Gottorp, Aleksey Nikolayevich(Tsarovich) ... 1904-1918
15 Mar      - 17 Mar 1917 Holstein-Gottorp, Mikhail II Aleksandrovich ......... 1878-1918
                          (Proclaimed Emperor, but declined the throne)
 
 
State Chancellors
01 Dec 1709 - 31 Jan 1734 Count Gavril Ivanovich Golovkin ..................... 1660-1734
01 Feb 1734 - 21 Nov 1740 Heinrich Johann Friedrich,
                           Baron von Ostermann ................................ 1686-1747
21 Nov 1740 - 15 Nov 1742 Prince Aleksey Mikhailovich Cherkassy ............... 1680-1742
15 Nov 1742 - 26 Feb 1758 Count Aleksey Petrovich Bestuzhev-Ryumin ............ 1693-1766
26 Feb 1758 -    Mar 1765 Count Mikhail Illarionovich Vorotsov ................ 1714-1767
   Mar 1765 - 09 Mar 1775 Prince Aleksandr Mikhailovich Golitsyn .............. 1723-1807
09 Mar      - 13 Apr 1775 Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin ........................ 1718-1783
                          (1st Time)
13 Apr 1775 - 02 May 1797 Count Ivan Andreyevich Ostermann .................... 1725-1811
02 May 1797 - 17 Apr 1799 Count Aleksandr Andreyevich Bezborodko .............. 1747-1799
17 Apr      - 06 Oct 1799 Viktor Pavlovich Kochubey ........................... 1768-1834
06 Oct 1799 - 18 Nov 1800 Count Nikita Ivanovich Panin (2nd Time)
18 Nov 1800 - 04 Mar 1801 Stepan Alekseyevich Kolychev ........................ 1746-1805
04 Mar 1804 - 20 Sep 1802 Prince Aleksandr Borisovich Kurakin ................. 1752-1818
20 Sep 1802 - 28 Jan 1804 Count Aleksandr Romanovich Vorontsov ................ 1741-1805
Chairpersons in the Committee of Ministers
13 Jan 1810 - 01 Apr 1812 Count Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev .................. 1751-1826
10 Apr 1812 - 28 May 1816 Count Nikolay Ivanovich Saltykov .................... 1736-1816
06 Jun 1816 - 18 Apr 1827 Prince Pyotr Vasilyevich Lopukhin ................... 1753-1827
11 May 1827 - 15 Jun 1834 Count Viktor Pavlovich Kochbubey .................... 1768-1834
20 Jun 1834 - 20 Apr 1838 Count Nikolay Nikolayevich Novosiltov ............... 1761-1838
21 Apr 1838 - 05 Mar 1847 Prince Ilarion Vasilyevich Vasilchikov .............. 1777-1847
28 Jan      - 05 Oct 1848 Duke Vasily Vasilyevich Levashov .................... 1783-1848
13 Nov 1848 - 17 Apr 1856 Prince Aleksandr Ivanovich Chernyshov ............... 1785-1857
17 Apr 1856 - 20 Jan 1861 Prince Aleksey Fyodorovich Orlov .................... 1786-1861
20 Jan 1861 - 02 Mar 1864 Count Dimitry Nikolayevich Bludov ................... 1785-1880
Chairmen of the Committee of Ministers
07 Mar 1864 - 04 Mar 1872 Pavel Pavlovich Gagarin ............................. 1789-1872
09 Mar 1872 - 31 Dec 1879 Count Pavel Nikolayevich Ignatyev ................... 1797-1879
01 Jan 1880 - 16 Oct 1881 Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev .................. 1815-1890
16 Oct 1881 - 11 Jan 1887 Mikhail Khristoforovich Reytern ..................... 1820-1890
13 Jan 1887 - 15 Jun 1895 Nikolay Khristoforovich Bunge ....................... 1823-1895
27 Oct 1895 - 11 Jun 1903 Ivan Nikolayevich Durnovo ........................... 1834-1903
11 Jun 1903 - 06 Nov 1905 Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte ........................ 1849-1915
Prime Ministers
06 Nov 1905 - 05 May 1906 Count Sergei Yulyevich Witte
05 May      - 21 Jul 1906 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (1st Time) ............... 1839-1917
21 Jul 1906 - 18 Sep 1911 Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin .......................... 1862-1911
18 Sep 1911 - 12 Feb 1914 Vladimir Nikolayevich Kokovtsov ..................... 1853-1943
12 Feb 1914 - 02 Feb 1916 Ivan Logginovich Goremykin (2nd Time)
02 Feb      - 23 Nov 1916 Boris Vladimirovich Shtyurmer ....................... 1848-1917
23 Nov 1916 - 09 Jan 1917 Aleksandr Fyodorovich Trepov ........................ 1862-1928
09 Jan      - 12 Mar 1917 Knyaz Nikolay Dimitryevich Golitsyn ................. 1850-1925
Chairmen of the Provisional Government
15 Mar      - 21 Jul 1917 Prince Georgy Yevgenyevich Lvov ..................... 1861-1925
21 Jul      - 07 Nov 1917 Aleksandr Fyodorovich Kerensky ...................... 1881-1970

The Emperors full style: "By the Grace of God, N.N, Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia, Moscow,

Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod; King of Kazan, King of Astrakhan, King of Poland, King of Siberia,

King of the Chersonese Taurian, King of Georgia, Lord of Pskov and Grand Prince of Smolensk,

Grand Prince of Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia, Grand Duke of Finland, Prince of Estonia,

Prince of Livonia, Duke of Courland Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugorsky

land, Perm, Vyatka, Bolgar and others; Lord and Grand Prince of Nizhny Nogorod, Chernigov,

Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Belozersk, Udorsky land, Obdorsk, Kondia,

Vitebsk, Mstislav, and all of the northern countries Master; and Lord of Iberia, Kartli, and

Kabardia lands and Armenian provinces; Circassian and Mountainous Princes and their Hereditary

Lord and Owner; Lord of Turkestan; Norwegian Heir; Duke of Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn,

Dithmarschen, and Oldenburg and others and other."


Soviet Union (USSR), coat of arms
1958-31 Dec 1991
File:Coat of arms of the Soviet Union 1946-1956.svg
          1946-1956
        1936-1946
File:URSSblason1er.gif
          1922-1936
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 
 

30 Dec 1922 - 31 Dec 1991 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR),

                           Russia, Ukraine, Beylorussia and Transcaucasia

13 May 1925               Accession of Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan

05 Dec 1929               Accession of Tazhik SSR

05 Dec 1936               Accession of Armenia, Azerbaizhan, Georgia,

                           Kazakh and Kirgiziya

02 Aug 1940               Accession of Moldovian SSR (Bessarabia)

03 Aug 1940               Accession of Lithuania

05 Aug 1940               Accession of Latvia

06 Aug 1940               Accession of Estonia

17 Jun 1941 - 1944        Western territories occupied by Germany

11 Mar 1990               Independence of Lithuania declared

06 Sep 1991               Recognition of the independence of the Baltic states

26 Dec 1991               Dissolution of the USSR

31 Dec 1991               Final dissolution recognised, Russia becomes the legal successor state

 

Government: Federal Socialist Republic.

Capital: Moscow.

Language: Russian (de facto).

Religion: None.

National Anthem: "Gimn Sovetskovo Soyuza" (Hymn of the USSR)

National Emblem: Hammer, Sickle and Red Star.

National Day: 7 November, October Revolution (1917).

National Motto: Proletarii vsekh stran, Soedinyaytes! (Workers of the World Unite!).

Currency: Soviet Ruble.

 

General Secretaries of the Communist party of the U.S.S.R

30 Dec 1922 - 05 Mar 1953 Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili Stalin ............. 1878-1953 (G.SSR)

05 Mar      - 14 Mar 1953 Georgy Maksimilianovich Malenkov .................... 1902-1988 (R.SFSR)

14 Mar 1953 - 14 Oct 1964 Nikita Sergeyevich Krushchev ........................ 1895-1971 (R.SFSR)

14 Oct 1964 - 10 Nov 1982 Leonid Ilych Brezhnev ............................... 1906-1982 (UK.SSR)

10 Nov 1982 - 09 Feb 1984 Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov ......................... 1914-1984 (R.SFSR)

09 Feb 1984 - 10 Mar 1985 Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko ..................... 1911-1985 (R.SFSR)

11 Mar 1985 - 24 Aug 1991 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ....................... 1931-     (R.SFSR)

                          (susspended 19 Aug - 22 Aug 1991)

18 Aug      - 22 Aug 1991 State Emergency Committee

                        - Vladimir Aleksandrovich Kryuchkov ................... 1924-2007 (R.SFSR)

                        - Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov ....................... 1923-2009 (R.SFSR)

                        - Dmitriy Timofeyevich Yazov .......................... 1923-     (R.SFSR)

                        - Sergei Feodorovich Akhromeyev ....................... 1923-1991 (R.SFSR)

                        - Vasily Aleksandrovich Starodubtsev .................. 1931-2011 (R.SFSR)

                        - Oleh Dmitriiyevych Baklaniv ......................... 1932-     (UK.SSR)

                        - Boriss Karlis Pugo .................................. 1937-1991 (LV.SSR)

24 Aug      - 29 Aug 1991 Volodymyr Antonovych Ivashko ........................ 1932-1994 (UK.SSR)

                          (acting)

 

Chairman of the Central Executive Committee

30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938 Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin ........................... 1875-1946 (R.SFSR)

30 Dec 1922 - 12 Jan 1938 Grygory Ivanovych Petrovsky ......................... 1878-1958 (UK.SSR)

30 Dec 1922 - 16 Jun 1937 Alyaksandr Grygoryevich Chervyakau .................. 1892-1937 (B.SSR)

30 Dec 1922 - 19 Mar 1925 Nariman Kerbalay Nadzaf-oglu Nariman................. 1870-1925 (AZ.SSR)

21 May 1925 -    Jun 1937 Gazanfar Makhmud-oglu Musab ......................... 1888-1938 (AZ.SSR)

21 May 1925 - 21 Jul 1937 Nedirbay Aytak ...................................... 1894-1938 (TM.SSR)

21 May 1925 - 17 Jun 1937 Fayzulla Ubaydullo Xojay ............................ 1896-1938 (UB.SSR)

18 Mar 1931 - 04 Jan 1934 Nusratulla Maksum Lutfullo .......................... 1881-1938 (TK.SSR

04 Jan 1934 - 31 Dec 1937 Abdullo Rakhim ...................................... 1896-1938 (TK.SSR)

Chairmen of the Supreme Soviet

17 Jan 1938 - 19 Mar 1946 Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin ........................... s.a  

19 Mar 1946 - 15 Mar 1953 Nikolay Mikhailovich Shvernik ....................... 1888-1970 (R.SFSR)

15 Mar 1953 - 07 May 1960 Klyment Yerfremovych Voroshylov ..................... 1881-1969 (UK.SSR)

07 May 1960 - 09 Jul 1964 Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (1st Time)

15 Jul 1964 - 09 Dec 1965 Anastas Hovhannesi Mikoyan .......................... 1895-1978 (AR.SSR)

09 Dec 1965 - 16 Jun 1977 Mykola Viktorovych Podhorny ......................... 1903-1983 (UK.SSR)

16 Jun 1977 - 10 Nov 1982 Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (2nd Time)

10 Nov 1982 - 16 Jun 1983 Vasily Vasilyevich Kuznetsov ........................ 1901-1990 (R.SFSR)

16 Jun 1983 - 09 Feb 1984 Yury Vladimirovich Andropov ......................... s.a

11 Apr 1984 - 10 Mar 1985 Konstanin Ustinovich Chernenko ...................... s.a

10 Mar 1985 - 01 Oct 1988 Andrei Andreyevich Gramyka .......................... 1909-1989 (B.SSR)

01 Oct 1988 - 15 Mar 1990 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ....................... s.a

President

15 Mar 1990 - 25 Dec 1991 Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ....................... s.a

19 Aug      - 21 Aug 1991 Gennady Ivanovich Yanayev ........................... 1937-2010 (R.SFSR)

                          (acting; in opposition)

 

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars

30 Dec 1922 - 21 Jan 1924 Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov Lenin ........................ 1870-1924 (R.SFSR)

02 Feb 1924 - 19 Dec 1930 Alexey Ivonavich Rykov .............................. 1881-1937 (R.SFSR)

19 Dec 1930 - 06 May 1941 Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov ..................... 1890-1986

06 May 1941 - 15 Mar 1946 Iosif Dzhugashvili Stalin ........................... s.a

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

15 Mar 1946 - 05 Mar 1953 Iosif Dzhugashvili Stalin ........................... s.a

05 Mar 1953 - 08 Feb 1955 Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov ..................... s.a

08 Feb 1955 - 27 Mar 1958 Nikolay Alexandrovich Bulganin ...................... 1895-1975 (R.SFSR)

27 Mar 1958 - 14 Oct 1964 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev ....................... s.a

14 Oct 1964 - 23 Oct 1980 Alexey Nikolayovich Kosygin ......................... 1904-1980 (R.SFSR)

23 Oct 1980 - 27 Sep 1985 Nikolay Aleksandrovich Tikhonov ..................... 1905-1997 (UK.SSR)

27 Sep 1985 - 14 Jan 1991 Nikolay Ivanovich Ryzhkov ........................... 1929-     (UK.SSR)

14 Jan      - 22 Aug 1991 Valetin Sergayevich Pavlov .......................... 1937-2003 (R.SFSR)

22 Aug      - 06 Sep 1991 Vacant

06 Sep      - 31 Dec 1991 Ivan Stepanovich Silayev ............................ 1930-     (R.SFSR)

CPSU=Kommunisticheskaya partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, Communist Party of the Soviet Union [dissolved 06 Nov 1991])

 
Eurasian Union
 
The emblem of the Eurasian Economic Union
 
01 Jan 2010               Eurasian Customs Union founded
01 Jan 2012               Creation of the Eurasian Economic Space
29 May 2014               Treaty of Astana ratified by Russia,
                          Belarus and Kazakhstan creating the Eurasian Union
10 Oct 2014               Armenia ratifies the treaty
23 Dec 2014               Kyrgyzstan ratifies the treaty
01 Jan 2015               Eurasian Economic Union, accession of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia
02 Jan 2015               Accession of Armenia
 
 
Capital(s): Astana, Minsk, Moscow.
Language(s): Armenian, Belarusian, Kazakh, Russian.
 
 
Chairmen of the Eurasian Commission
01 Jan 2015 -             Viktor Borisovich Khristenko ....................... 1957-   (Russia)
 
 

2006
2014