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Italia
 Italy (Italia), coat of arms
Adopted 05 May 1948
  
Naval Arms 1948
File:Lesser coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1929-1943).svg
         1929-1943
     Savoie (historical province of France), coat of arms - vector image
1861-1929, 1943-1946
 
        1870-1890
 File:Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1848-1870).svg
       1861-1870
Napoleon 1805-14
 
508 BC                    Roman Republic
27 BC                     Roman Empire
23 Aug 476 - 553          Kingdom of Visigoths
       781 - 1013         Kingdom of Italy
   Jun 774 -         1796 Northern Italy part of Holy Roman Empire
15 May 1796 - 29 Jun 1797 Transpadane Republic (Lombardy, Mantua, western Venice)
29 Jun 1797 - 28 Apr 1799 Cisalpine Republic
28 Apr 1799 - 29 Apr 1800 Austrian Occupation
29 Apr 1800 - 26 Jun 1802 Cisalpine Republic (restored)
26 Jun 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Italian Republic
18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Kingdom of Italy
       1859 - 17 Mar 1861 Unification of Italy
23 Jun 1860               Nice and Savoy annexed by France
17 Mar 1861 - 18 Jun 1946 Kingdom of Italy
20 Sep 1870               Rome united with Italy
10 Sep 1919               South Tyrol annexed
07 Jun 1929               Vatican City State established
09 May 1936 - 19 May 1941 Italy annexes Ethiopia
06 Apr 1939 - 03 Sep 1943 Albania in personal union with Italy
12 Nov 1942 - 31 Jul 1943 Cousica, Savoia and Nice reincorparated in to Italy
10 Sep 1943 - 02 May 1945 Social Republic of Italy in Saló (Fascist)
10 Sep 1943 - 17 Sep 1947 Allied ocupation
01 May 1945 - 26 Oct 1954 Allied-Yugoslav occupation of Trieste
18 Jun 1946 -             Republic if Italy
10 Feb 1947               Fiume and Zadar ceded to Yugoslavia
07 Mar 1948               Dodecanese Islands ceded to Greece
01 Jan 1958               Accession to the EEC
 
Government: Republic.
Capital: Rome.
Language: Italian, German, Albanian, Slovene, Greek.
Religion: Roman Catholic.
National Anthem: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (Song of the Italians).
National Emblem: Olive branch and Oak branch.
National Day: Republic Day, 2nd June (1946).
National Motto: None.
EU Accession: Founding Member 1957.
Currency: Euro (Italian Lira 1861-2001).
 
Monarchs
04 Sep 476 - 02 Feb 493 Odoacer of Germany, King of Italy
- Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy -
02 Feb 493 - 30 Aug 526 Theodoric "The Great"
30 Aug 526 - 02 Oct 534 Athalaric
02 Oct 534 - 536        Theodatus
536 - 540               Vitiges
540 - 541               Ilibad
541                     Eraric
541                     Baduila
       541 - 01 Jul 552 Totila
01 Jul 552 -    Oct 553 Teias
- Kingdom of the Lombards -
       568 - 28 Jun 572 Gausian, Alboin
28 Jun 572 - 574        Clefi
       584 - 05 Sep 590 Autari
05 Sep 590 - 591        Theodelinda
591 - 616               Agilulfo
616 - 626               Bavarian, Adaloaldo
626 - 636               Arioald
636 - 652               Rotari
652 - 653               Rodoald
653 - 661               Bavarian, Ariberto I
661 - 662               Bavarian, Godepet
662 - 671               Beneventan, Grimaldo
671                     Beneventan, Garibald
671 - 688               Bavarian, Pertarito 
688 - 689               Alachis
688 - 700               Cuniperto
700 - 701               Luitperto
701                     Raginperto
701                     Rotharit
701 - 712               Ariberto II
712 - 744               Luitprando
744 - 749               Rachis
       749 -    Dec 756 Astolfo
   Dec 756 -    Jun 774 Desidiro
- Frankish Kingdom of Italy -
774 - 781               Carolingia, Carlomagno
       781 - 08 Jul 810 Carolingia, Pipino
08 Jul 810 - 17 Apr 818 Carlolingia, Benardo
17 Apr 818 - 23 Sep 855 Carolingian, Lotaro I
15 Jun 844 - 12 Aug 875 Carolingian, Ludovico II "The Younger"
12 Aug 875 - 06 Oct 877 Carolingian, Carlo II "The Bald"
06 Oct 877 -        879 Carolingian, Carlomano of Bavaria
       879 - 26 Dec 887 Carolingian, Carlo III "The Fat"
26 Dec 887 -    Feb 889 Friuli, Berengario I (1st Time)
                        (continues in opposition)
   Feb 889 - 12 Dec 894 Spoleto, Guido da Spoleto
   May 891 - 15 Oct 898 Spoleto, Lamberto
22 Feb 896 - 08 Dec 899 Carolingian, Anolfo
                        (in opposition)
22 Feb     - 896        Carolingian, Ratold
                        (sub-King in Milan)
900 - 905               Carolingian, Ludovico III "The Blind"
       905 - 22 Apr 924 Friuli, Berengario I (2nd Time)
       922 - 09 Jun 926 Burgundy, Ruldofo
                        (in opposition to 924)
09 Jun 926 - 10 Apr 948 Burgundy, Ugo di Arles
10 Apr 948 - 22 Nov 950 Burgundy, Lotaro II di Arles
22 Nov 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Berengario II
15 Dec 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Adalberto
                        (co-Monarch)
- Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire -
02 Jul 964 - 07 May 973 Carolingia, Oddone I
07 May 973 - 07 Dec 983 Carolingia, Oddone II
07 Dec 983 - 23 Jan 1002 Carolingia, Oddone III
23 Jan 1002 - 1014       d'Ivrea, Arduino
1014 - 1648               The Monarchs of Germany
- Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy - (Northern Italy only)
26 Jan 1802 - 21 Apr 1814 Bonaparte, Napoléon I
                          (French Emperor, President to 18 Mar 1805)
Kings
17 Mar 1861 - 09 Jan 1878 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele II .................... 1820-1878
                          (King of Sardinia and Savoy)
09 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900 Savoia, Umberto I ............................... 1844-1900
29 Jul 1900 - 09 May 1946 Savoia, Victtorio Emanuele III .................. 1869-1947
05 Jul 1944 - 09 May 1946 Umberto Nicola Tammaso Giovanni Maria,
                           principe di Piedmonte .......................... 1904-1983
                          (Lieutenant General of the Realm)
09 May      - 18 Jun 1946 Savoia, Umberto II
Heads of State
18 Jun      - 30 Jun 1946 Alcide De Gasperi ............................... 1881-1954
                          (acting)
01 Jul 1946 - 12 May 1948 Enrico Roberto de Nicola ........................ 1877-1859
                          (Head of State to 31 Dec 1947)
Presidents
12 May 1948 - 12 May 1955 Luigi Einaudi ................................... 1874-1961
12 May 1955 - 12 May 1962 Giovanni Gronchi ................................ 1887-1978
12 May 1962 - 06 Dec 1964 Antonio Segni ................................... 1891-1972
06 Dec      - 29 Dec 1964 Cesare Merzagora ................................ 1898-1991
                          (acting)
29 Dec 1964 - 29 Dec 1971 Giuseppi Saragat ................................ 1898-1988
29 Dec 1971 - 15 Jun 1978 Giovanni Leone .................................. 1908-2001
15 Jun      - 09 Jul 1978 Amintore Fanfani ................................ 1908-1999
                          (acting)
09 Jul 1978 - 29 Jun 1985 Alessandro Pertini .............................. 1896-1990
29 Jun 1985 - 28 Apr 1992 Francesco Cossiga ............................... 1928-2010
28 Apr      - 28 May 1992 Giovanni Spadolini .............................. 1925-1994
                          (acting)
28 May 1992 - 15 May 1999 Oscar Luigi Scalfaro ............................ 1918-2012
15 May      - 18 May 1999 Nicola Mancino .................................. 1931-
                          (acting)
18 May 1999 - 15 May 2006 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi ............................ 1920-
15 May 2006 - 14 Jan 2015 Giorgio Napolitano .............................. 1925-
14 Jan      - 03 Feb 2015 Pietro Grasso ................................... 1945-
                          (acting)
03 Feb 2015 -             Sergio Mattarella ............................... 1941-
 
Archchancellors for Italy
19 Jul 1688 - 27 Apr 1803 The Archbishops of Cologne
Grand Chancellor
18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Conte Francesco Melzo d'Eril .................... 1753-1816
Prime Ministers
17 Mar      - 06 Jun 1861 Camillo Paolo Filipo Benso,
                           conte di Cavour, di Isobella e di Leri ......... 1810-1861
06 Jun 1861 - 04 Mar 1862 Bettino Ricasoli,
                           Baron Ricasoli (1st Time) ...................... 1809-1880
04 Mar      - 09 Dec 1862 Urbano Rattazzi (1st Time) ...................... 1808-1873
09 Dec 1862 - 24 Mar 1863 Luigi Carlo Farini .............................. 1812-1866
24 Mar 1863 - 23 Sep 1864 Marco Minghetti (1st Time) ...................... 1818-1886
23 Sep 1864 - 17 Jun 1866 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora ...................... 1804-1878
17 Jun 1866 - 11 Apr 1867 Bettino Ricasoli,
                           Baron Ricasoli (2nd Time)
11 Apr      - 27 Oct 1867 Urbano Rattazzi (2nd Time)
27 Oct 1867 - 12 Dec 1869 Federico Luigi, conde Menabrea,
                           Marchese di Valdora ............................ 1809-1896
12 Dec 1869 - 10 Aug 1873 Domenico Giovanni Giuseppe Maria Lanza .......... 1810-1885
10 Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1876 Marco Minghetti (2nd Time)
25 Mar 1876 - 23 Mar 1878 Agostino Depris (1st Time) ...................... 1813-1887
23 Mar      - 18 Dec 1878 Benedetto Cairoli (1st Time) .................... 1825-1889
18 Dec 1878 - 12 Jul 1879 Agostino Depris (2nd Time)
12 Jul 1879 - 28 May 1881 Benedetto Cairoli (2nd Time)
28 May 1881 - 29 Jul 1887 Agostino Depris (3rd Time)
08 Aug 1887 - 09 Feb 1891 Francesco Crispi (1st Time) ..................... 1819-1901
09 Feb 1891 - 15 May 1892 Antonio Starabba,
                           Marchese di Rudini ............................. 1839-1908
15 May 1892 - 10 Dec 1893 Giovanni Giolitti (1st Time) .................... 1842-1928
10 Dec 1893 - 10 Mar 1896 Francesco Crispi (2nd Time)
10 Mar 1896 - 29 Jun 1898 Antonio Starabba,
                           Marchese di Rudini (2nd Time)
29 Jun 1898 - 24 Jun 1900 Luigi Pelloux ................................... 1839-1924
24 Jun 1900 - 15 Feb 1901 Giuseppe Saracco ................................ 1821-1907
15 Feb 1901 - 03 Nov 1903 Giuseppe Zanardelli ............................. 1826-1903
03 Nov 1903 - 27 Mar 1905 Giovanni Giolitti (2nd Time)
03 Nov      - 27 Mar 1905 Tommaso Tittoni ................................. 1855-1931
27 Mar 1905 - 08 Feb 1906 Alessandro Fortis ............................... 1842-1909
08 Feb      - 29 May 1906 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,
                           Baron Sonnino (1st Time) ....................... 1847-1922
29 May 1906 - 10 Dec 1909 Giovanni Giolitti (3rd Time)
10 Dec 1909 - 30 Mar 1910 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,
                           Baron Sonnino (2nd Time)
30 Mar 1910 - 27 Mar 1911 Luigi Luzzatti .................................. 1841-1827
27 Mar 1911 - 21 Mar 1914 Giovanni Giolitti (4th Time)
21 Mar 1914 - 19 Jun 1916 Antonio Salandra ................................ 1853-1909
19 Jun 1916 - 30 Oct 1917 Paolo Boselli ................................... 1838-1932
30 Oct 1917 - 23 Jun 1919 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ....................... 1860-1952
23 Jun 1919 - 16 Jun 1920 Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paola Nitti ....... 1868-1953
16 Jun 1920 - 04 Jul 1921 Giovanni Giolitti (5th Time)
04 Jul 1921 - 25 Feb 1922 Ivanoe Bonomi (1st Time) ........................ 1873-1951
25 Feb      - 31 Oct 1922 Luigi Facta ..................................... 1861-1930
31 Oct 1922 - 25 Jul 1943 Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini ................ 1883-1925
                          ("Il Duce" ["The Leader"] from 24 Dec 1925)
25 Jul 1943 - 09 Jun 1944 Pietro Badoglio, Duca di Addis Abeba,
                           Marchese del Sabotino .......................... 1871-1956
09 Jun 1944 - 25 Jun 1945 Ivanoe Bonomi
                          (2nd Time; President of the Committee of National Liberation)
25 Jun      - 10 Dec 1945 Ferruccio Parri ................................. 1890-1981
Presidents of the Government
10 Dec 1945 - 17 Aug 1953 Alcide De Gasperi ............................... 1881-1954
17 Aug 1953 - 18 Jan 1954 Giuseppe Pella .................................. 1902-1981
18 Jan      - 09 Feb 1954 Amintore Fanfani ................................ 1908-1999
09 Feb 1954 - 06 Jul 1955 Mario Scelba (1st Time) ......................... 1901-1991
06 Jul 1955 - 19 May 1957 Antonio Segni (1st Time) ........................ 1891-1972
19 May 1957 - 02 Jul 1958 Adone Zoli ...................................... 1887-1960
02 Jul 1958 - 15 Feb 1959 Amintore Fanfani (2nd Time)
15 Feb 1959 - 25 Mar 1960 Antonio Segni (2nd Time)
25 Mar      - 26 Jul 1960 Fernando Tambroni-Armaroli ...................... 1901-1963
26 Jul 1960 - 21 Jun 1963 Amintore Fanfani (3rd Time)
21 Jun      - 05 Dec 1963 Giovanne Leone (1st Time) ....................... 1908-1999
05 Dec 1963 - 25 Jul 1968 Aldo Moro (1st Time) ............................ 1916-1978
25 Jun      - 13 Dec 1968 Giovanne Leone (2nd Time)
13 Dec 1968 - 07 Aug 1970 Mariano Rumor (1st Time) ........................ 1915-1990
07 Aug 1970 - 18 Feb 1972 Emilio Colombo .................................. 1920-2013
18 Feb 1972 - 04 Jul 1973 Giulio Andreotti (1st Time) ..................... 1919-2013 
04 Jul 1973 - 02 Nov 1974 Mariano Rumor (2nd Time)
02 Nov 1974 - 29 Jul 1976 Aldo Moro (2nd Time)
29 Jul 1976 - 05 Aug 1979 Giulio Andreotti (2nd Time)
05 Aug 1979 - 18 Oct 1980 Francesco Cossiga ............................... 1928-
18 Oct 1980 - 28 Jul 1981 Arnaldo Forlani ................................. 1925-
28 Jul 1981 - 30 Nov 1982 Giovanni Spadolini .............................. 1925-1994
30 Nov 1982 - 04 Aug 1983 Amintore Fanfani (4th Time)
04 Aug 1983 - 18 Apr 1987 Bettino Craxi ................................... 1934-2000
18 Apr      - 29 Jul 1987 Amintore Fanfani (5th Time)
29 Jul 1987 - 13 Apr 1988 Giovanni Giuseppi Gloria ........................ 1943-1994
13 Apr 1988 - 23 Jul 1989 Luigi Ciriaco de Mita ........................... 1928-
23 Jul 1989 - 28 Jun 1992 Giulio Andreotti (3rd Time)
28 Jun 1992 - 29 Apr 1993 Giuliano Amato .................................. 1938-
29 Apr 1993 - 11 May 1994 Carlo Azeglio Ciampi ............................ 1920-
11 May 1994 - 17 Jan 1995 Silvio Berlusconi (1st Time) .................... 1936-
17 Jan 1995 - 18 May 1996 Lamberto Dini ................................... 1931-
18 May 1996 - 23 Oct 1998 Romano Prodi (1st Time) ......................... 1939-
21 Oct 1998 - 26 Apr 2000 Massimo D'Alema ................................. 1949-
26 Apr 2000 - 11 Jun 2001 Giuliano Amato (2nd Time)
11 Jun 2001 - 17 May 2006 Silvio Berlusconi (2nd Time)
17 May 2006 - 08 May 2008 Romano Prodi (2nd Time)
08 May 2008 - 16 Nov 2011 Silvio Berlusconi (3rd Time)
16 Nov 2011 - 28 Apr 2013 Mario Monti ..................................... 1943-
28 Apr 2013 - 22 Feb 2014 Enrico Letta .................................... 1966-
22 Feb 2014 -             Matteo Renzi .................................... 1975-
 
 
 
  • Regions
  • Major Cities
  • Index to Italian States before 1859
  • ________________________________________________________________________________________

    Occupied Italy
     
    Heads of the Allied Military Government
    10 Jul 1943 - 08 Jan 1944 Dwight David Eisenhower ......................... 1890-1969 (US)
    08 Jan      - 12 Dec 1944 Sir Henry Maitland Wilson ....................... 1881-1964 (UK)
    12 Dec 1944 - 29 Sep 1945 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ 1891-1969 (UK)
    29 Sep      -    Oct 1945 Joseph Taggart McNarney ......................... 1893-1972 (US)
       Oct 1945 - 1947        Sir William Duthie Morgan ....................... 1891-1977 (UK)
                - 31 Jan 1947 John Clifford Hodges Lee ........................ 1887-1958 (US)
    Chief commissioners of the Allied Control Commission
    10 Nov 1943 - 16 Jan 1944 Kenyon A. Joyce ................................. 1879-1960 (US)
    16 Jan      -    Jun 1944 Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane ....................... 1889-1953 (UK)
       Jun 1944 - 31 Jan 1947 Ellery W. Stone ................................. 1894-1981 (US)
    Military Governors of the Occupied Territories
    10 Jul 1943 - 11 Dec 1944 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ s.a       (UK)
    11 Dec 1944 - 17 Sep 1947 Mark Wayne Clark ................................ 1896-1984 (US)

    Social Republic of Italy
     
     
     
    23 Sep 1943               National Republican State of Italy
    01 Dec 1943 - 28 Apr 1945 Social Republic of Italy
    02 May 1945               State extinguished
     
    Government: Axis client state
    Capital: Salo (de jure), Rome (de facto).
    Currency: Lira.
    Language: Italian, German, Slovene.
    Religion: Roman Catholic.
    National Anthem: "Giovinezza" ("Youth").
    National Emblem: Fasces.
    National Motto: Per l'onore d'Italia ("For the honour of Italy")
    National Day: 29 Jul, Birthday of Mussolini (1883).
     
    Head of State
    23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945 Benito Alimcare Andrea Mussolini
     
    Prime Minister
    23 Sep 1943 - 28 Apr 1945 Benito Alimcare Andrea Mussolini
    _____________________________________________________________________________________
     
    Partizan Resistance
     
    Presidents of the Committee of National Liberation of Upper Italy
       Sep 1943 -    Apr 1945 Alfredo Pizzoni ................................. 1894-1958
       Apr 1945               Rodolfo Morandi ................................. 1903-1955
     
    Minister for Occupied Italy (in liberated Italy)
    12 Dec 1944 - 21 Jun 1945 Mauro Scoccimarro ............................... 1895-1972

     
    Trieste
     
    Trieste (Italy), coat of arms - vector image
     
    752                       Duchy of Trieste
    790                       Bishopic of Trieste
    952                       Part of Holy Roman Empire
    1291 - 1381               Part of Republic of Venice
    1299                      Imperial Free City
       Nov 1369 - 26 Jun 1380 Part of Republic of Venice
       Oct 1382               Habsburg rule
    23 Mar      - 23 May 1797 French occupation
    19 Nov 1805 - 04 Mar 1806 French occupation
    01 May 1806 - 09 Apr 1809 Part of Italy
    09 Apr 1809               Austrian occupation
    14 Oct 1809 - 16 Oct 1813 Annexed by France
    16 Oct 1813 - 10 Sep 1919 Part of Austria
    03 Nov 1918               Italian occupation
    10 Sep 1919               Ceded to Italy by Austria
    10 Sep 1943 - 02 May 1945 German occupation
    23 Sep 1943               Part of the Italian Social Republic
    01 May 1945               Joint Anglo-American-Yugoslav occupation
    15 Sep 1947 - 26 Oct 1954 Free territory of Trieste (UN mandate)
    26 Oct 1954               Divided between Italy and Yugoslavia
     
    Prefects
    08 Dec 1919 - 30 Oct 1922 Antonio Mosconi
    01 Nov 1922 - 18 Jun 1924 Francesco Crispo Moncada
    22 Jun 1924 - 11 Dec 1925 Amadeo Moroni
    11 Dec 1925 - 15 Dec 1926 Giovanni Gasti
    16 Dec 1926 - 16 Jul 1929 Bruno Fornaciari
    16 Jun 1929 - 16 Jan 1933 Ettore Porro
    16 Jan 1933 - 01 Aug 1936 Carlo Tiengo
    01 Aug 1936 - 21 Aug 1939 Eolo Rebua
    21 Aug 1939 - 07 Jun 1941 Dino Borri
    07 Jun 1941 - 31 Jul 1943 Tullio Tamburini
    01 Aug      - 11 Sep 1943 Giuseppe Cocuzza
    01 Oct 1943 - 28 Apr 1945 Bruno Coceani
    28 Apr      - 01 May 1945 Antonio De Berti
    Mayor
    18 Jul 1949 - 17 Sep 1957 Gianni Bartoli
     
    Military Governor
    - Zone A (Allied) -
    02 May      -    Jul 1945 Bernard Cyril Freyberg (New Zealand)
       Jul 1945 -    Jul 1947 Alfred Connor Bowman (US)
       Jul      - 16 Sep 1947 James John Carnes
    16 Sep 1947 - 31 Mar 1951 Sir Terence Sydney Airey (UK)
    01 Apr 1951 - 26 Oct 1954 Sir Thomas Willoughby Winterton (UK)
    - Zone B (Yugoslav) -
    01 May 1945 -    Sep 1947 Dušan Kveder
    15 Sep 1947 -    Mar 1951 Mirko Lenac
       Mar 1951 - 25 Oct 1954 Miloš Stamatovic

     
    Cisalpine Republic 1796-1802
     
     
    15 May 1796               Transpadane Republic (Lombardy, Mantua, western Venice)
    29 Jun 1797               Cisalpine Republic
    28 Apr 1799 - 29 Apr 1800 Austrian Occupation
    29 Apr 1800 - 26 Jun 1802 Cisalpine Republic (restored)
     
    Directors
    09 May 1796 - 29 Jun 1797 .....
    Directors
    29 Jun 1797 - 31 Aug 1798 First Directory
                              - Duca Giovanni Galeazzo Serbelloni
                                (to 13 Nov 1797)
                              - Giovanni Battista Savoldi
                              - Marco Alessandri
                              - Pietro Moscati
                              - Jacopo Lamberti
                                (from 16 Apr 1798)
                              - Giovanni Paradisi
                              - Carlo Testi
                              - Giovanni Costabili Containi
    01 Sep      - 14 Dec 1798 Second Directory
                              - Girolamo Adelasio
                              - Antonio Sabbati
                              - Marco Alessandri
                              - Jacopo Lamberti
                              - Giuseppe Luosi
                              - Antonio Smancini
                              - Fedele Sopransi
                              - Vincenzo Brunetti
    14 Dec 1798 - 29 Apr 1799 Third Directory
                              - Girolamo Adelasio
                              - Marco Alessandri
                              - Ferdinando Marescalchi
                              - Jacopo Lamberti
                              - Fedele Vertemate Franchi
                              - Giuseppe Luosi
                              - Fedele Sopransi
       Sep 1800 - 26 Jan 1802 Executive Committee of the
                              Extraordinary Government Commission
                              - Giovanni Battista Sommariva
                              - Francesco Ajmi Visconti
                              - Sigismund Ruga

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