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El Salvador, coat of arms
    Adopted 1912
        1865-1912
El Salvador
 
   Jun 1524 - 21 Sep 1821 Spanish possession of El Salvador (The Saviour), subordinated to New Spain
05 Nov 1811               Independence of San Salvador declared (not recognised)
21 Sep 1821               Independence declared, province of San Salvador
                           part of Kingdom of Guatemala
11 Jan 1822               Independence from Guatemala declared
02 Dec 1822               Government requests annexation by the US
10 Feb 1823               Incorpoartion into Mexico
01 Jul 1823               Central America declares independence from Mexico
22 Apr 1824 - 02 Feb 1841 Constituent state of Central America
22 Apr 1851 - 1852        Part of Central American Federation
18 Feb 1859               República del Salvador (Republic of Salvador)
17 Sep 1896 - 15 Nov 1898 Estado de El Salvador (State of El Salvador)
15 Nov 1898               República del El Salvador (Republic of El Salvador)
01 Oct 1921 - 04 Feb 1922 Estado de El Salvador, part of restored Central America
04 Feb 1922 -             República de El Salvador (Republic of El Salvador)
       1980 -    Jan 1992 Civil War
 
Rulers
   Jun      - 04 Jul 1524 Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras
01 Apr 1525 - 1528        Gonzalo de Alvarado y Contreras
01 Apr 1528 - 1530        Diego da Alvarado
1530                      Martin Estete
1530 - 153.               Luis de Moscoso
 
Chiefs of State
01 Jul 1822 - 22 Apr 1824 Mariano Prado Baca (1st Time)
22 Apr      - 30 Sep 1824 Juan Manuel Rodríguez
01 Oct      - 13 Dec 1824 Mariano Prado Baca (2nd Time)
13 Dec 1824 - 31 Oct 1826 Juan Vicente Villacorta Díaz
01 Nov 1826 - 30 Jan 1829 Mariano Prado Baca (3rd Time)
30 Jan 1829 - 29 Mar 1832 José María Cornejo Merino y Guerara
29 Mar      - 13 May 1832 José Francisco Morazán Quezada (1st Time)
13 May      - 25 Jul 1832 Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa (1st Time)
25 Jul 1832 - 30 Jun 1833 Mariano Prado Baca (4th Time)
01 Jul 1833 - 23 Jun 1834 Joaquín de San Martín y Ulloa (2nd Time)
30 Sep      - 14 Oct 1834 Joaquín Escolán y Balibrera
14 Oct 1834 - 10 Apr 1835 José María Silva (acting)
10 Apr      - 15 Nov 1835 Nicolás Espinosa
15 Nov 1835 - 07 Mar 1836 Francisco Gómez de Altamirano
                           y de Elizondo
07 Mar 1836 -    May 1838 Diego Fernández Vigil y Cocaña
   May 1838 - 01 May 1839 Timoteo Menendez (1st Time)
01 May      - 13 Jul 1839 Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla
                          (1st Time, acting)
13 Jul 1839 - 04 Apr 1840 José Francisco Morazán Quezada (2nd Time)
15 Apr 1840 - 07 Jan 1841 Antonio José Cañas Quintanilla
                          (2nd Time, Provisional)
Presidents
07 Jan 1841 - 31 Jan 1842 Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya . 1790-1857
01 Feb      - 14 Apr 1842 José Escolástico Marín ................... 17..-1846
14 Apr 1842 - 31 Jan 1844 Juan José Guzman ......................... 1800-1847
01 Feb      - 07 Feb 1844 Fermín Palacios Ulloa
                          (1st Time, acting)
07 Feb 1844 - 15 Feb 1845 Francisco Malespín Herrera ............... 1766-1846
15 Feb 1845 - 31 Jan 1846 Joaquín Eufrasio Guzmán Ugalde Alvarado .. 1801-1875
01 Feb      - 21 Feb 1846 Fermín Palacios Ulloa
                          (2nd Time, acting)
21 Feb 1846 - 31 Jan 1848 Eugenio Aguilar González Batres .......... 1804-1879
01 Feb      - 03 Feb 1848 Tomás Medina Menéndez .................... 1803-1884
03 Feb      - 07 Feb 1848 José Félix Quirós Sánchez ................ 1811-1883
                          (1st Time, acting)
07 Feb 1848 - 31 Jan 1850 Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y Ladrón
                           de Guevara .............................. 1803-1883
01 Feb      - 04 Feb 1850 Ramón Rodríguez
                          (acting)
04 Feb 1850 - 28 Feb 1851 Doroteo Vasconcelos Vides y Ladrón
                           de Guevara (2nd Time)
01 Mar      - 03 May 1851 José Félix Quirós Sánchez
03 May 1851 - 31 Jan 1854 Francisco Dueñas Días (1st Time) ......... 1810-1884
01 Feb 1854 - 31 Jan 1856 José María San Martín y Fugón
01 Feb 1856 - 31 Jan 1858 Rafael Campo Pomar ....................... 1813-1890
07 Feb 1858 - 31 Jan 1860 Miguel Santín del Castillo y Barroeta .... 1830-1880
                          (deposed 1859)
12 Mar 1859 - 26 Oct 1863 José Gerardo Barrios Espinoza ............ 1813-1865
26 Oct 1863 - 15 Apr 1871 Francisco Dueñas Días .................... 1810-1884
                           (2nd Time, in rebellion 01 Jul 1863)
15 Apr 1871 - 31 Jan 1876 Santiago González Portillo ............... 1818-1887 Mil
01 Feb      - 30 Apr 1876 Andrés del Valle Rodríguez ............... 1833-1888
01 May 1876 - 19 May 1885 Rafael Zaldívar y Lazo ................... 1834-1903
19 May      - 22 Jun 1885 Fernando Figueroa (1st Time) ............. 1849-1919 Mil
15 May 1885 - 22 Jun 1890 Francisco Menéndez Valdivieso ............ 1830-1890 Mil
22 Jun 1890 - 04 Jun 1894 Carlos Basilio Ezeta y de León ........... 1852-1903 Mil
01 May 1894 - 13 Nov 1898 Rafael Antonio Gutiérrez ................. 1845-1921 Mil
14 Nov 1898 - 28 Feb 1903 Tomás Herculano de Jésus Regalado Romero . 1861-1906 Mil
01 Mar 1903 - 28 Feb 1907 Pedro José Escalón ....................... 1847-1923 Mil
01 Mar 1907 - 28 Feb 1911 Fernando Figueroa (2nd Time)                         Mil
01 Mar 1911 - 09 Feb 1913 Miguel Enrique Araujo Rodríguez .......... 1865-1913 Mil
09 Feb 1913 - 28 Feb 1919 Carlos Menéndez Ramírez .................. 1861-1919
01 Mar 1919 - 28 Feb 1923 Jorge Menéndez Ramírez ................... 1871-1953
01 Mar 1923 - 28 Feb 1927 Alfonso Quiñónez Molina .................. 1874-1950
01 Mar 1927 - 28 Feb 1931 Pío Romero Bosque ........................ 1860-1935
01 Mar      - 04 Dec 1931 Arturo Araujo Fujardo .................... 1878-1967
04 Dec 1931 - 09 May 1944 Maximiliano Hernández Martínez ........... 1882-1966 Mil
09 May      - 21 Oct 1944 Andrés Ignacio Menéndez .................. 1879-1962 Mil
21 Oct 1944 - 28 Feb 1945 Osmín Aguirre y Salinas .................. 1889-1977 Mil
01 Mar 1945 - 14 Dec 1948 Salvador Castañeda Castro ................ 1888-1965 Mil
15 Dec 1948 - 14 Sep 1950 Revolutionary Council
                        - Manuel de Jesús Córdova Rodríguez ........ 1894-19.. Mil
                        - Óscar Osorio Hernández ................... 1910-1969 Mil
                        - Reynaldo Galindo Pohl .................... 1918-2012 Mil
                        - José Óscar Adán Bolaños Estrada .......... 1912-.... Mil
                        - Humberto Costa ........................... 1906-19.. Mil
14 Sep 1950 - 14 Sep 1956 Óscar Osorio Hernández ................... (s.a)
14 Sep 1956 - 26 Oct 1960 José María Lemus López ................... 1911-1993 Mil
26 Oct 1960 - 25 Jan 1961 Junta of Government
                        - Miguel Ángel Castillo .................... 1915-19.. Mil
                        - Fabillo Castillo Figueroa ................ 1921-2012
                        - Ricardo Falla Cáceres .................... 1921-1990
                        - René Fortín Magaña ....................... 1931-
                        - Rubén Alonso Rosales Soriano ............. 1925-2000 Mil
                        - César Yanes Urías ........................ 1931-     Mil
25 Jan 1961 - 25 Jan 1962 Civil-Military Directory
                        - Aníbal Portillo Gonzalez ................. 1914-2010
                        - Feliciano Avelar ......................... 1919-
                        - José Antonio Rodríguez Porth ............. 1915-1989
                        - José Francisco Valiente .................. 1911-
                        - Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo .......... 1921-1973 Mil
                        - Mariano Castro Morán ..................... 1916-2005
25 Jan      - 30 Jun 1962 Eusebio Rodolfo Cordón Cea ............... 1899-1966
01 Jul 1962 - 30 Jun 1967 Julio Adalberto Rivera Carballo .......... (s.a)
01 Jul 1967 - 30 Jun 1972 Fidel Sánchez Hernández .................. 1917-2003 Mil
01 Jul 1972 - 30 Jun 1977 Arturo Armando Molina Barraza ............ 1927-     Mil
01 Jul 1977 - 15 Oct 1979 Carlos Humberto Romero Mena .............. 1924-     Mil
15 Oct 1979 - 22 Dec 1980 Revolutionary Junta
22 Dec 1980 - 02 May 1982 José Napoleón Duarto Fuentas (1st Time) .. 1925-1990 PDC
02 May 1982 - 31 May 1984 Álvaro Alfredo Magaña Borja .............. 1925-2001 PDC
01 Jun 1984 - 31 May 1989 José Napoleón Duarto Fuentas (2nd Time)
01 Jun 1989 - 31 May 1994 Alfredo Félix Cristiani Burkard .......... 1947-     ARENA
01 Jun 1994 - 31 May 1999 Armando Calderón Sol ..................... 1948-     ARENA
01 Jun 1999 - 31 May 2004 Francisco Guillermo Flores Pérez ......... 1959-     ARENA
01 Jun 2004 - 31 May 2009 Elías Antonio Saca González .............. 1965-     ARENA
01 Jun 2009 - 31 May 2014 Carlos Mauricio Funes Cartagena .......... 1959-     FMLN
01 Jun 2014 -             Salvador Sánchez Cerén ................... 1944-     FMLN
 
 
ARENA=Alianza Republicana Nacionalista (National Republican Alliance, Rightwing)
FMLN=Frente Farabundo Martí Liberación Nacional, Social-democratic, leftist)
PDC=Partido Democráta Cristiano (Christian Democratic Party)

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