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Nicaragua
 
 
Nicaragua, coat of arms
        Adopted 1971
 
12 Sep 1502               Discovered Colombus, claimed for Spain
       1522 - 15 Sep 1821 Part of Guatemala, subordinated to New Spain
       1661 - 12 Sep 1861 British protectorate over the Mosquito Coast
15 Sep 1821               Kingdom of Guatamala, declares independence
12 Oct 1821 - 02 Jul 1823 Part of Mexico
02 May 1823 - 30 Apr 1838 Part of Central American Federation
22 Apr 1825               State of Nicaragua
30 Apr 1854               Republic of Nicaragua
12 Sep 1861               Mosquito coast under Nicaraguan sovereignty
20 Nov 1894               Kingdom of Mosquito fully incorporated into Nicaragua
17 Nov 1909 - 03 Jan 1933 US Protectorate
 
Chiefs of State
11 Feb      - 04 May 1824 José Justo Milla Pineda Arriago
10 Oct 1824 - 22 Apr 1825 Manuel Arzú y Nájera
22 Apr 1825 - 22 Apr 1826 Manuel Antonio de la Cerda y Aguilar
22 Apr 1826 - 14 Sep 1827 Juan Argüello del Castillo y Guzmán (1st Time)
14 Sep      -    Dec 1827 Pedro Oviedo de Chinandega
14 Sep      -    Dec 1827 José Anacleto Ordóñez
05 Aug 1828 -    Apr 1829 Juan Argüello del Castillo y Guzmán (2nd Time)
   Apr 1829 - 12 May 1830 Juan Espinosa
12 May 1830 -    Nov 1833 José Dionisio de la Trinidad de Herrera
                           y Díaz del Valle
   Nov 1833 - 10 Mar 1834 Benito Rosales
10 Mar 1834 - 23 Apr 1835 José Núñez (1st Time)
23 Apr 1835 - 25 Jan 1837 José Zepeda
25 Jan 1837 - 12 Jan 1838 José Núñez (2nd Time)
12 Jan      - 13 Mar 1838 Francisco Jiménez Rubio
13 Mar 1838 - 23 Apr 1839 José Núñez (3rd Time)
Supreme Directors
23 Apr      - 30 Jun 1839 Evaristo Rocha
30 Jun      - 27 Jul 1839 Patricio Rivas (1st Time)
27 Jul      - 20 Oct 1839 Joaquín del Cosío
20 Oct      - 07 Nov 1839 Hilario Ulloa
07 Nov 1839 - 21 Sep 1840 Tomás Valladares
21 Sep 1840 - 04 Mar 1841 Patricio Rivas (2nd Time)
04 Mar 1841 - 01 Apr 1843 Pablo Sánchez de Buitrago Sandoval y Benavent
01 Apr      - 31 May 1843 Juan de Dios Orozco
31 May 1843 - 04 Nov 1844 Manuel Pérez
04 Nov 1844 - 20 Jan 1845 Emiliano Madriz
20 Jan      - 04 Apr 1845 Manuel Antonio Blas Sáenz
04 Apr 1845 - 12 Mar 1847 José León Sandoval
12 Mar      - 06 Apr 1847 Miguel Ramón Morales
06 Apr 1847 - 31 Dec 1848 José María Guerrero de Acros y Molina
01 Jan      - 08 Mar 1849 Toribio Terán Prado
08 Mar      - 01 Apr 1849 Benito Rosales
01 Apr 1849 - 01 Apr 1851 Norberto Ramírez Areas
01 Apr      - 05 May 1851 Justo Abaúnza y Muñzo de Avilés
                          (1st Time)
05 May      - 04 Aug 1851 José Laureano Pineda Ugarte
                          (1st Time)
04 Aug      - 11 Nov 1851 Justo Abaúnza y Muñzo de Avilés (2nd Time)
11 Nov 1851 - 01 Apr 1853 José Laureano Pineda Ugarte (2nd Time)
01 Apr 1853 - 12 Mar 1855 Fruto Chamorro Pérez
Presidents
12 Mar      - 20 Mar 1855 Panciano Corral Acosta
20 Mar      - 25 Oct 1855 José María Estrada
25 Oct 1855 - 24 Jun 1857 Patricio Rivas
24 Jun      - 19 Oct 1857 Maximo José de Jesús Jerez y Telleria
19 Oct      - 15 Nov 1857 Gregorio Juárez Sacasa
                          - Rosalio Cortés Sánchez
15 Nov 1857 - 01 Mar 1867 Tomás Martínez Guerrero
01 Mar 1867 - 01 Mar 1871 Fernando Guzmán Solórzano
01 Mar 1871 - 01 Mar 1875 José Vincent de la Quadra y Rui Lugo
01 Mar 1875 - 01 Mar 1879 Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro
01 Mar 1879 - 01 Mar 1883 Joaquín Zavala Solís (1st Time)
01 Mar 1883 - 01 Mar 1887 Adán Cardenas y del Castillo
01 Mar 1887 - 01 Aug 1889 Evaristo Carazo Aranda
01 Aug      - 05 Aug 1889 Nicolás Osorno
05 Aug 1889 - 31 Dec 1890 Roberto Sacasa y Sarria (1st Time)
01 Jan      - 01 Mar 1891 Ignacio Chavaz López
01 Mar 1891 - 11 Jul 1893 Roberto Sacasa y Sarria (2nd Time)
30 Apr      - 20 May 1893 Eduardo Montiel (in disstance)
01 Jun      - 15 Jul 1893 Salvador Machado Agüero
16 Jul      - 30 Jul 1893 Joaquín Zavala Solís (2nd Time)
31 Jul 1893 - 21 Dec 1909 José Santos Zelaya López (2nd Time)
21 Dec 1909 - 20 Aug 1910 José Madriz Rodríguez
20 Aug      - 27 Aug 1910 José Dolores Estrada Morales
27 Aug      - 30 Aug 1910 Luis Mena Solórzano
30 Aug 1910 - 09 May 1911 Juan José Estrada Morales
09 May 1911 - 31 Dec 1916 Adolfo Díaz Recionos (1st Time)
01 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1920 Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (1st Time)
01 Jan 1921 - 12 Oct 1923 Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños
12 Oct      - 27 Oct 1923 Rosendo Chamorro Oreamuno
27 Oct 1923 - 31 Dec 1924 Bartolomé Martínez González
01 Jan 1925 - 14 Mar 1926 Carlos José Solórzano Gutiérrez
14 Mar      - 11 Nov 1926 Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (2nd Time)
11 Nov      - 14 Nov 1926 Sebastián Uriza
14 Nov 1926 - 31 Dec 1928 Adolfo Díaz Recionos (2nd Time)
01 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1932 José María Moncada Tapia
01 Jan 1933 - 09 Jun 1936 Juan Bautista Sacasa Sacasa
09 Jun      - 31 Dec 1936 Carlos Alberto Bredes Jarquín
01 Jan 1937 - 01 May 1947 Anastasio Somoza García .............................. 1896-1956
                          (1st Time)
01 May      - 26 May 1947 Leonardo Argüello Barreto ............................ 1875-1947
26 May      - 15 Aug 1947 Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa ............................... 1884-1959
15 Aug 1947 - 06 May 1950 Victor Manuel Román y Reyes .......................... 1873-1950
06 May      - 07 May 1950 Manuel Fernando Zurita
                          (acting)
07 May 1950 - 29 Sep 1956 Anastasio Somoza García (2nd Time)
29 Sep 1956 - 01 May 1963 Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle ........................ 1922-1967
01 May 1963 - 03 Aug 1966 René Schick Gutiérrez ................................ 1909-1966
03 Aug      - 04 Aug 1966 Orlando Montenegro Medrano ........................... 1908-1988
04 Aug 1966 - 01 May 1967 Lorenzo Guerrero Gutiérrez ........................... 1900-1981
01 May 1967 - 30 Apr 1972 Anastasio Samoza Debayle ............................. 1925-1980
                          (1st Time)
01 May 1972 - 30 Nov 1974 National Goverment Junta
                        - Roberto Martínez Lacayo .............................. 1899-1984
                        - Fernando Bernabé Agüero Rocha ........................ 1920-2011
                          (To 28 Feb 1973)
                        - Edmundo Paguaga Irías ................................ 1923-2008
                          (To 28 Feb 1973)
                        - Alfonso Lovo Cordero ................................. 1927-
01 Dec 1974 - 17 Jul 1979 Anastasio Samoza Debayle (2nd Time)
17 Jul      - 18 Jul 1979 Francisco Urcuyo Maliaños ............................ 1915-2001
Junta of National Reconstruction
18 Jul 1979 - 10 Jan 1985 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra .......................... 1945-     FSLN
18 Jul 1979 - 19 Apr 1980 Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro ................... 1929-
                          (1st Time)
18 Jul 1979 - 22 Apr 1980 Luis Alfonso Robelo Callejas ......................... 1939-
18 Jul 1979 - 04 Mar 1981 Moisés Hassán Morales ................................ 1942-
18 Jul 1979 - 04 Mar 1981 Sergio Ramírez Mercado ............................... 1942-     FSLN
18 May 1980 - 04 Mar 1981 Arturo José Cruz Porras .............................. 1923-2013 FSLN
18 May 1980 - 10 Jan 1985 Rafael Ángel Cordóva Rivas ........................... 1923-2009
Presidents          
10 Jan 1985 - 25 Apr 1990 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra .......................... (s.a)     FSLN
                          (1st Time)
25 Apr 1990 - 10 Jan 1997 Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro (2nd Time)
10 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2002 Arnoldo Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo ........................ 1946-     PLC
10 Jan 2002 - 10 Jan 2007 Enrique José Baleñdos Geyer .......................... 1928-     PLC
10 Jan 2007 -             José Daniel Ortega Saavedra                                      FSLN
                          (2nd Time)
 
 
Commanders of the US Forces
17 Nov 1909 - 31 May 1910 .....
01 Jun      - 05 Sep 1910 Smedley D. Butler ................................... 1881-1940
23 Aug      - 16 Dec 1912 Joseph H. Pendleton ................................. 1860-1942
16 Dec 1912 - 1913        Charles G. Long ..................................... 1869-1943
       1917 - 16 Apr 1918 Hamilton D. South
       1922 -        1924 John Marston VII
       1924 - 03 Aug 1925 Ralph S. Keyser
20 Feb      - 09 Mar 1927 Clark H. Woodward
09 Mar      -    Sep 1927 Logan Feland ........................................ 1869-1933
   Sep 1927 -    Jan 1928 Louis M. Gulick ..................................... 1879-1933
   Jan 1928 - 26 Mar 1929 R.H Dunlap .......................................... 1879-1931
18 Apr 1929 - 18 Apr 1930 Dion Williams ....................................... 1869-1952
18 Apr 1930 -    Nov 1931 Frederick L. Bradman ................................ 1879-1965
   Nov 1931 - 03 Jan 1933 Randolphe C. Berkeley ............................... 1875-1960
 
Leaders of the Contras (In Miami, US, exile)
   Dec 1979 -    Nov 1984 Edgar Chamorro Coronel
       1980 -    Oct 1983 José Francisco Cardenal FDN
11 Aug 1981 - 15 May 1987 José Aristides Sánchez Herdocia ..................... 1943-1993 NR
       1982 -        1990 Enrique Bermúdez Varela ............................. 1932-1991
   Oct 1983 -    May 1990 Adolfo Calero Portocarrero UNO
FDN=Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense (Nicaraguan Democratic Forces, Right-wing, anti-Sandinistas)
FSLN=Frente Sandinista de Limeración Nacional (Sandinista National Liberation Front, Socialist)
NF=Resistencia Nicaragüense (Nicaraguan Resistance, Right-wing, anti-Sandinistas)
PLC=Partido Liberal Constitucionalist (Constitutional Liberal Party, Conservative)
UNO=Unidad Nicaragüense Opositora (United Nicaraguan Opposition, active 1985-87)

 
Mosquito Nation
 
       1661 - 20 Nov 1894 Kingdom of Mosquitos in Nicaragua
       1668 - 12 Sep 1861 De facto British Protectorate
29 Aug 1789 - 04 Sep 1800 Attempted Spanish settlements
   Jan 1848               British seize San Juan del Norde
12 Sep 1861 - 07 Aug 1894 Becomes a reservation under the sovereignty of Nicaragua
20 Nov 1894               Incorporated into Nicaragua (ratified 28 Feb 1895)
 
Kings
1661 - 1677               Oldman I
1677 - 1686               Oldman II
1686 - 1720               Jeremy I
1720 - 1720               Jeremy II
1729 - 1739               Peter
1739 - 1755               Edward
1755 - 1776               George I
       1777 -    Oct 1801 George II
   Oct 1801 - 14 Nov 1815 Prince Steven (Regent)
14 Nov 1815 - 09 Mar 1824 George III
09 Mar 1824 -    Oct 1842 Robert Charles Frederick
   Oct 1842 - 04 May 1843 Archibald Alexander Macdonald 
                          (Prince Regent)
04 May 1843 - 17 Apr 1845 Regency
                          - Prince Wellington
                          - Lowry Robinson
                          - Johnson
17 Apr 1845 - 27 Nov 1865 George IV
27 Nov 1865 - 23 May 1866 Henry Patterson
                          (Vice-President of the Council)
23 May 1866 - 05 May 1879 William Henry Clarence
05 May      - 17 Jun 1879 Charles Patterson
                          (Vice-President of the council)
17 Jun 1879 - 08 Nov 1888 George V
08 Nov 1888 - 08 Mar 1889 Charles Pattersom (2nd Time)
                          (Vice-President of the Council)
08 Mar 1889 - 11 Nov 1890 Jonathan Charles Frederick
11 Nov 1890 - 30 Jan 1891 Charles Patterson (3rd Time)
                          (Vice-President of the Council)
30 Jan 1891 - 20 Nov 1894 Robert II ............................................ 1873-1908
 
Chairmen of the State Council
1846 - 1848               Patrick Walker
1848 - 1849               William Christie
Vice-Presidents of the Executive Council
13 Sep 1861 - 1879        Henry Patterson
       1879 - 07 Aug 1894 Charles Patterson
 
Note: Mosquito Nation was the east coast of Nicaragua only.

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