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Libya
 File:Seal of the National Transitional Council (Libya).svg
Provisional 2011-12
Libya, coat of arms
      1977-2011
File:Coat of arms of the Federation of Arab Republics.svg
      1972-1977
File:Coat of arms of Libya-1970.svg
      1970-1972
File:Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Libya.svg
Kingdom 1951-69
 
c. 1200 - 400 BC          Meshwesh Empire
332 - 323                 To Macedon
323 - 30                  To Egypt
30 BC - 395 AD            To the Roman Empire
395 - 670                 To the Byzantine Empire
670                       Arab conquest
909 - 1159                Fatamid rule
1235 - 1521               To Egypt
14 Aug 1521 - 03 Oct 1911 Part of Ottoman Empire
03 Oct 1911 - 12 Nov 1922 Italian occupation
12 Nov 1922               Annexed by Italy
01 Jan 1934               United as Libya
13 May 1943               End of Italian rule (official 10 Feb 1947)
13 May 1943 - 21 Nov 1949 Anglo-French administration
21 Nov 1949 - 24 Dec 1951 Under UN Trusteeship
24 Dec 1951               United Kingdom of Libya
25 Apr 1963               Kingdom of Libya
01 Sep 1969               Libyan Arab Republic
01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics
02 Mar 1977               Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
15 Feb 2011 - 25 Jan 2012 Civil War
17 Feb 2011 - 08 Jan 2013 Libya (National Transitional Council) in eastern Libya to 22 Aug 2011
                          (gains UN recognision on 16 Sep 2011)
22 Aug 2011               Gaddafi regime ousted from Tripoli
23 Oct 2011               Gaddafi regime ended with the fall of Sirte
08 Jan 2013 -             State of Libya
 
Capital: Tripoli, (Benghazi 15 Feb - 20 Sep 2011 de facto).
Language: Arabic, Berber, Italian.
Religion: Islam, Christian.
National Anthem: "Libya, Libya, Libya".
National Motto:
National Emblem:
National Day: Day of Revolt, 17 February (2011).
Currency: Libyan Dinar.
 
Emperors (Pharaohs of the 22 Dynasty 945 - 715)
Danaos
Belus
Amraon
Bocchus
Ephaphus
Lycus
1230 - 1220 Merirey
1200        Buyuwawa
.... - .... Mawasun
.... - .... Neb-Neshi
.... - .... Pasouti
1000 - .... Sheshonq I
900 - ... Nimlot
945 - 924 Sheshonq II
924 - 889 Osorkon I
... - ... Sheshonq III
889 - 874 Takelot I
874 - 850 Osorkon II
850 - 825 Takelot II
825 - 773 Sheshonq IV
773 - 767 Pami
767 - 730 Sheshonq V
730 - 715 Osorkon III
600 - ... Tarqu
... - ... Adikran
... - ... .....
400 - ... Psammetichus I
463 - 454 Inaros
445 - 444 Psammetichus II
4.. - ... Psammetichus III
King of Libya
24 Dec 1951 - 01 Sep 1969 Senussi, Sayyid Mohammed Idris I ............. 1890-1983
                          (Abdicated 04 Aug 1969, effective 02 Sep 1969)
26 Oct 1956 - 01 Sep 1969 Prince Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi .....i1928-1992
                          (Regent, acting)
Chairman of the Provisional Government (in Benghazi to 10 Sep 2011)
26 Feb 2011 - 08 Aug 2012 Mustafa Mohamad Abdul Jalil .................. 1952-     NTC
Chairmen of the General National Congress
08 Aug      - 10 Aug 2012 Mohammed Ali Salim ........................... 1935-
10 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013 Mohammed Yousef el-Magariaf .................. 1940-
28 May      - 25 Jun 2013 Giuma Ahmad Attigha .......................... 1950-
                          (acting)
25 Jun 2013 - 04 Aug 2014 Nouri Abusahmain
President of the House of Representatives
05 Aug 2014 -             Akila Saleh Issa ............................. 1944-
 
 
Prime Ministers
24 Dec 1951 - 19 Feb 1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir ........................... 1903-1970
19 Feb      - 12 Apr 1954 Muhammad Sakizli ............................. 1892-....
12 Apr 1954 - 26 May 1957 Mustafa Ben Halim ............................ 1921-
26 May 1957 - 17 Oct 1960 Abdul Majid Kubar ............................ 1909-....
17 Oct 1960 - 19 Mar 1963 Muhammad Osman Said .......................... 1922-2007
19 Mar 1963 - 20 Jan 1964 Mohieddin Fikini ............................. 1925-
20 Jan 1964 - 20 Mar 1965 Mahmud al-Muntasir (2nd Time)
20 Mar 1965 - 02 Jul 1967 Hussain Maziq ................................ 1918-2006
02 Jul      - 25 Oct 1967 Abdul Qadir al-Badri ......................... 1921-2003
25 Oct 1967 - 04 Sep 1968 Abdul Hamid al-Bakkoush ...................... 1933-2007
04 Sep 1968 - 31 Aug 1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi ............................. 1924-1986
Chairman of the National Transitional Council (provisional)
05 Mar      - 23 Oct 2011 Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally ................... 1952-     NTC
                          (in rebellion in Benghazi to 10 Sep 2011)
Prime Ministers
23 Oct      - 24 Nov 2011 Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni ...................... 1951-     NTC
24 Nov 2011 - 14 Nov 2012 Abdurrahim Abdulhafiz El-Keib ................ 1950-     NTC
14 Nov 2012 - 11 Mar 2014 Ali Zeidan ................................... 1950-
11 Mar 2014 -             Abdullah al-Thani ............................ 1954
04 May      - 09 Jun 2014 Ahmed Matiq .................................. 1971-
                          (election declared unconstitutional)
25 Aug 2014 -             Omar al-Hassi
                          (in opposition)
 
 
 
DP=Democratic Party (Secularissm)
JCP=Justice and Construction Party (Islamism, conservativism)
NFA=National Forces Alliance (liberalism)
NFP=National Front Party (liberalism, progressivism)
NTC=National Transitional Council (anti-Qaddafi militant alliance, est. 27 Feb 2011)
______________________________________________________________________________________
 
 
Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
 
01 Sep 1969               Libyan Arab Republic
01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics
02 Mar 1977               Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
23 Aug 2011               Tripoli falls to ant-Gaddafi rebels
20 Oct 2011               Fall of the regime after civil war
 
Government: "state of the masses"
Capital: Tripoli (Sirte 01 Sep - 20 Oct 2011).
Language: Arabic, Berber.
Religion: Islam, Christian.
National Anthem: "Allahu Akbar" ("God is Great").
National Motto: "Freedom, Socialism and Unity".
National Emblem: Hawk of Quraish.
National Day: Revolution day, 1st September (1969).
Currency: Libyan Dinar.
 
Leader of the Revolution
01 Sep 1969 - 20 Oct 2011 Col. Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi .. 1942-2011
                          (fled Tripoli 20 Aug 2011)
 
General Secretaries of the General People's Congress
01 Sep 1969 - 01 Mar 1979 Col. Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi              ASU
01 Mar 1979 - 07 Jan 1981 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi .......................... 1939-
07 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984 Mohammed az-Zaruq Rajab ...................... 1940-
15 Feb 1984 - 07 Oct 1990 Mifta al-Usta Omar ........................... 1935-2010
07 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992 Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa
18 Nov 1992 - 03 Mar 2008 Zentani Mohammed az-Zentani
03 Mar 2008 - 05 Mar 2009 Muftah Muhammad K'eba
05 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010 Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh .................. 1950-
26 Jan 2010 - 08 Sep 2011 Muhammad Abu Al-Qasim al-Zwai ................ 1952-
                          (fled Tripoli 20 Aug 2011)
 
Prime Ministers
08 Sep 1969 - 16 Jan 1970 Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi .................. 1935-2009 ASU
16 Jan 1970 - 16 Jul 1972 Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi ....... (s.a)     ASU
16 Jul 1972 - 02 Mar 1977 Abdul Salam Jalloud .......................... 1944-     ASU
General Secretaries of the General People's Committee
02 Mar 1977 - 02 Mar 1979 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi
02 Mar 1979 - 23 Feb 1984 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (1st Time)
23 Feb 1984 - 02 Mar 1986 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab
02 Mar 1986 - 02 Mar 1987 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (2nd Time)
02 Mar 1987 - 07 Oct 1990 Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir ..................... 1939-2001
07 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1994 Abuzed Omar Dorda ............................ 1944-
29 Jan 1994 - 29 Dec 1997 Abdul Majid al-Qa`ud ......................... 1943-
29 Dec 1997 - 01 Mar 2000 Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush
01 Mar 2000 - 13 Jun 2003 Mubarak Abdullah al-Shamikh
13 Jun 2003 - 05 Mar 2006 Shukri Muhammad Ghanem ....................... 1942-2012
05 Mar 2006 - 01 Sep 2011 Al-Baghdadi Ali-Mahmudi ...................... 1945-
                          (fled to Tunisia 20 Aug 2011)
 
ASU=Arab Socialist Union (Arab nationalism, Nasserism [dissolved 1977])

 
Cyrenaica
 
 
632 - 249 BC              Kingdom of Cyrenaica
249 BC                    Part of Roman Empire
1004                      Arab rule
1521                      Part of Ottoman Empire
1843                      Sanussi order founded
15 Oct 1912               Italian protectorate
17 May 1919               Italian colony
01 Jan 1934               United as Libya
   Dec 1940 - 11 Nov 1942 Gradual British occupation
01 Mar 1949               Independence proclaimed, Emirate of Cyrenaica
                          (recognised by UK 01 Jun 1949)
21 Nov 1949 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomous
24 Dec 1951               Incorporation into Libya
22 Feb      - 23 Aug 2011 Libyan opposition council based in Benghazi
06 Mar 2012 -             Cyrenaica Transitional Council declared (not recognised by Libya)
24 Oct 2013 -             Renamed autonomous state of Barqa
 
 
Capital: Benghazi
 
Monarchs
632-600 Battus I
600-583 Arcesilaus I
583-554 Battus II
554-550 Arcesilaus II
550     Learchus
550-525 Battus III
530-515 Arcesilaus III
515-465 Battus IV
465-460 Arcesilaus IV
276-250 Magas
250-249 Demetrius
1004 - 1007 Abu Rakwa
1007 - 1029 Mukhtar ibn al-Kassim
1029 - 1048 Mukarreb ibn Mafi
1048 - 1049 Jabara ibn Mukhtar
1049        Madhi ibn Mukharreb
1172 - 1182               Sharaf al-Din Karakush al-Mudhaffari an-Nassiri
       1837 - 07 Sep 1859 Sanusi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Sanusi ..... 1787-1859
07 Sep 1859 - 02 Jun 1902 Sanusi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid ............ 1844-1902
02 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918 Sanusi, Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad
                           ash-Sharif as-Sanusi ......................... 1873-1933
21 Aug 1918 -    Sep 1929 Sanusi, Idris ibn Sayyid Muhammad
                          (1st Time)
1923 - 1928               Sayyid Muhammad ar-Rida ....................... 1890-1955
1928 - 1929               `Umar Muhtar
   Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951 Sanusi, Idris ibn Sayyid Muhammad (2nd Time)
Governors
24 Dec 1951 -    Aug 1953 Muhammad Sakizli .............................. 1892-1954
   Aug 1953 - 15 Oct 1961 Hussain Maziq ................................. 1918-2006
15 Oct 1961 -    Dec 1962 Mahmud Abu Hidma
   Dec 1962 - 25 Apr 1963 Muhammad Sakizli (2nd Time)
Head of the Cyrenaica Transitional Council
06 Mar 2012 -             Ahmed Al-Zubair al-Sanusi ..................... 1933-
                          (not recognised by Libya)
24 Oct 2013 -             Ibrahim Jadhran
                          (in rebellion)
 
 
Prime Ministers
09 Nov 1949 - 18 Mar 1950 Umar Mansur Kikhia ............................ 1880-1962
18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951 Muhammad Sakizli
24 Dec 1951 - 1962        Wanis al-Qaddafi .............................. 1924-1986
       1962 - 25 Apr 1963 Hamid Abbar
03 Nov 2013 -             Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi
                          (appointed by Jadhran, not recognised)

 
Fezzan
 
918                       Sultanate of Fezzan
1190                      To Egypt
1580 - 1911               Part of Ottoman Empire
15 Oct 1912               Annexed by Italy
       1923 - 1930        Anarchic conditions
01 Jan 1934               United as Libya
08 Jan 1943 - 24 Dec 1951 French adimistration
24 Dec 1951 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomy within Libya
26 Sep 2013 -             Declaration of autonomy (not recognised by Libya) 
 
 
Capital: Sabha
 
Sultans
1190 - 1195               Sharaf al-Din Karakush
1195 - 1209               Yahya ibn Ghaniya
1566 - 1580               al-Munstasir ibn Mohammad
1580 - 1599               an-Nasir
1599 - 1612               al-Mansur
1612 - 1614               .....
1614 - 1623               Tahir I
1623 - 1626               .....
1626 - 1658               Mohammad I
1658 - 1682               Nagib
1682 - 1689               Mohammad II an-Nasir (1st Time)
1689                      Mohammad al-Mukni
1689                      Temmam
1689 - 1690               Mohammad III
1690                      Ali al-Mukni
1690 - 1709               Mohammad II an-Nasir (2nd Time)
1709 - 1767               Ahmad I
1767 - 1776               Tahir II
1776 - 1780               Ahmad II al-Mansur
1789 - 1804               Sharif Mohammad ibn al-Mansur al-Hakim
1804 - 1811               Sharif Mohammad ibn al-Mansur al-Muntasr
1811 - 1831               Yusuf al-Mukkani
1831 - 1852               Sayf an-Nasr `Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad
1835 - 1856               Jumah ibn Khalifa
   Oct 1946 - 12 Feb 1950 Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr ............................ 1876-1954
 
Governors
   Aug 1909 - 15 Oct 1912 Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (1st Time)
1915 - 1923               Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (2nd Time)
12 Feb 1950 - 12 Jun 1954 Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr ............................ s.a
12 Jun 1954 - 25 Apr 1963 Omar Sayf an-Nasr
President of the Province
26 Sep 2013 -             Nouri Mohammad al-Qouizi
                          (not recognised by Libya)
 
 
Prime Minister
24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954 .....
01 Jul 1954 - 25 Apr 1963 Abdul Jalil Sayf an-Nasr

 
Tripolitania
 
File:Coat of arms of Vilayet-i Trablusgarp.svg  File:Flag of the Tripolitanian Republic.svg
 1911-1918                     1919-1922
 
       977 - 1146         Kingdom of Zirid
       1146 - 22 Jan 1160 Norman rule
22 Jan 1160               Part of Morocco
       1248               Part of Tunis
       1327               Sultanate of Tripoli
       1401               Part of Tunis
24 Jul 1510 - 25 Jul 1530 Spanish rule
25 Jul 1550               Transfered to the Knights of St. John Hospitaller
14 Aug 1551 - 03 Oct 1911 Part of Ottoman Empire
03 Oct 1911 - 23 Jan 1943 Italian rule
16 Nov 1918 - 1923        Tripolitanian Republic
12 Nov 1922               Annexed to Italy
01 Jan 1934               United as Libya
23 Oct 1942 - 24 Sec 1951 British occupation
24 Dec 1951 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomy within Libya
 
Capital: Tripoli
 
Monarchs
1001-1009 Fulful ibn Said
1009-1012 Warru ibn Said
1023-1041 Khalifa ibn Warru
1041-1054 Said ibn Khazrum
1054-1058 Khazrun ibn Khalifa
1058-1067 al-Muntasir ibn Khazrun
1067-1095 Khalifa ibn Khazrun
1095      Shah Malik at-Turki
1095-1146 Mohammed in Khazrun
1324-1326 Thabit I ibn Mohammad al-Wishahi
1326-1348 Mohammed ibn Thabit
1348-1355 Thabit II ibn Mohammed
1355-1365 Ahmed ibn Makki
1365-1369 Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad
1369-1389 Abu Bakr ibn Mohammed
1389-1398 Ali ibn Ammar
1398-1400 Yahya ibn Abi Bakr
1470-1472 Sheikh Mansur
1472-1480 Yusef
1480-1492 Mohammed
1492-1510 Abdullah ibn Sharef
1610-1620 Suleiman
1620-1631 Mstafa Sharif
1631      Kasim
1631      Ramadan Agha
1631-1649 Mehmad Saqizli
07 Nov 1649 - 1672        Osman Saqizli
            - 28 Nov 1672 Osman Reis as-Suhali
28 Nov 1672 - 26 Apr 1673 Bali Javush
26 Apr 1673 - 1675        Arnavut Halil
       1675               Mustafa Pehlevan
   May 1675 - 03 Apr 1676 Ibrahim Misirli-Oglu
03 Apr      - 07 Apr 1676 Ibrahim Jelebi
07 Apr 1676 - 04 Apr 1677 Mustafa Kapudan
04 Apr 1677 - 27 Apr 1678 Baba Osman
27 Apr 1678 - 09 Sep 1679 Ak Mahmed
09 Sep 1679 - 11 Jun 1683 Hassan Abaza
11 Jun      - 13 Jun 1683 Yulk Mahumd
13 Jun 1683 - 18 Jun 1684 Ali Jezairli
18 Jun 1684 - 08 Feb 1687 Hajji Abdullah Izimirli
   May      -    Nov 1687 Ibrahim Terzi
   Nov 1687 - 19 May 1701 Mehmed Iman Kerdeki
19 May      - 11 Aug 1701 Osman
11 Aug 1701 - 29 Jul 1702 Mustafa Galibuli
29 Jul 1702 -    Oct 1706 Mehmed Iman Kerdeki
                          (2nd Time)
   Oct 1706 -    Nov 1709 Halil
   Nov 1709 - 23 Nov 1710 Ibrahim Alayali
23 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1711 Ismail Hoca
20 Jan 1711               Haci Receb
20 Jan      - 04 Jul 1711 Mehmed Huseyin Cavush
04 Jul      - 29 Jul 1711 Abu Umays Mahmud
29 Jul 1711 - 04 Nov 1745 Ahmad I Pasha
04 Nov 1745 - 24 Jul 1754 Mehmed Pasha
24 Jul 1754 - 30 Jul 1793 Ali I Pasha
30 Jul 1793 - 20 Jan 1795 Ali II Burghul Pasha Cezayril
20 Jan      - 11 Jun 1795 Ahmad II Pasha
11 Jun 1795 - 20 Aug 1832 Yusuf I Pasha
20 Aug 1832 - 26 May 1835 Ali III Pasha
   Oct 1911 - 16 Nov 1918 Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah al-Baruni ............ 1870-1940
Head of State
16 Nov 1918 - 1923        Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid
Governors
24 Dec 1951 - 14 May 1953 Fadhill bin Zikri
14 May 1953 - 1954        Al-Saddiq al-Muntasir
1954 - 1955               Abdessalam Bussairy
1955 - 1958               Jamal Bashaga
1958 - 1960               Taher Bekir
       1960 - 13 Jun 1961 Abu Bakr Na'ama
13 Jun 1961 - 25 Apr 1963 Fadhill bin Zikri (2nd Time)
 
 
Prime Ministers
       1949 - 24 Dec 1951 Mahmud al-Muntasir ........................... 1903-1970
1951 - 1954               Ali al-Dib (1st Time)
1954                      Mohieddin Fikini
1954 - 1958               Mahmud el-Bishti
1958 - 1961               Abdul Dansouf
       1961 - 25 Apr 1963 Ali al-Dib (2nd Time)

2009
2005