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Suriya
Coat of arms of Syria.svg
Adopted 21 Jun 1980
           1972-1980 
File:Coat of arms of Syria-1963.svg
        1969-1972 
   1932-58, 1961-63
 
3300-1200 Part of Egyptian Empire
724-612 Assyrian Empire
612-539 Part of Babylonian Empire
539-332 Part of Persia
332-319 Annexed by Makedonia
319-301 Antigonid Kingdom
301-198 Part of Egyptian Empire
198-63 Part od Seleucid Empire
64 BC - 261 AD Annexed by Roman Empire
261-271 Part of Palmyria
271-395 Part of Roman Empire
395-529 Part of Byzantine Empire
529-638 Kingdom of Ghassan
638     Arab conquest begins
1076 - 1154               Kingdom of the Seljuks
1154 - 1261               To Egypt
1260 - 1261               Mongol occupation
1261 - 1521               Egyptian control restored
1275 - 1521               Emirate of Damamscus
23 Aug 1516 - 14 Jun 1832 To Ottoman Empire
14 Jun 1832 - 10 Oct 1840 Annexed by Egypt
10 Oct 1840 - 30 Sep 1918 Part of Ottoman Empire
30 Sep 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Independence, Kingdom of Greater Syria
25 Oct 1918               French occupation beguins
28 Jul 1920 - 29 Sep 1923 French Syria
29 Sep 1923 - 31 Dec 1943 League of Nations Mandate under France
28 Jun 1922 - 31 Dec 1924 Union of Syrian States
       1936               Independence declared (Not recognised)
23 Jul 1939               Antioch annexed by Turkey (Not recognised by Syria)
19 Jul 1939 - 16 Sep 1941 State of Syria
16 Sep 1941 - 28 Sep 1961 Syrian Republic
01 Jan 1944 - 22 Feb 1958 Syrian Arab Republic
17 Apr 1946               Independence recognised by France
22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961 Part of the United Arab Republic
28 Sep 1961               Syrian Arab Republic
10 Jun 1967 -             Golan Heights under Israeli occupation,
                           annexed 14 Dec 1981 (Not recognised)
01 Jan 1972 - 11 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics
15 Mar 2011 -             Civil War
 
Government: Republic.
Capital: Damascus.
Language: Syrian Arabic, Kurdish, Armenian, French.
Religion: Sunni Muslim, Alawite Muslim, Orthodox, Greek Catholic, Druz.
National Anthem: "Homet el Diyar" (Guardians of the Homeland).
National Emblem: Eagal of Salahdin.
National Day: Independence day, 17th April (1946).
National Motto: Wahdah Hurriyah Ishtirakiyah (Unity, Freedom, Socialism).
Currency: Syrian Pound.
 
Kings of Assyria
1380-1353 Eriba Adad
1353-1317 Ashur Uballit
1317-1307 Enlil Nirari
1307-1295 Arik
1295-1263 Adad Nirari
1263-1233 Shalmaneser
1233-1196 Tukulti Ninura
1196-1193 Ashur-nadin-apli
1193-1187 Ashur-nirari III
1187-1182 Enlil Kudurri-usur
1182-1179 Ninurta-Tukulti Ashur
873-810 Benhadad I
810     Hazael
810-791 Benhadad II
740-730 Rezin
Ghassanid Kingdom
220-265 Ghassanid, Jafnah I
265-270 Ghassanid, Amr I
270-287 Ghassanid, Thalabah
287-307 Ghassanid, al-Harith I
307-317 Ghassanid, Jabalah I
317-327 Ghassanid, al-Harith II
327-330 Ghassanid, al-Mundhir I
327-330 Ghassanid, al-Aiharm
327-342 Ghassanid, al-Numan I
330-356 Ghassanid, Amr II
327-361 Ghassanid, Jabalah II
361-362 Ghassanid, al-Numan II
361-391 Ghassanid, Jafnah II
391-418 Ghassanid, al-Numan III
418-434 Ghassanid, Jabalah III
434-455 Ghassanid, al-Numan IV
434-453 Ghassanid, al-Numan V
434-456 Ghassanid, al-Harith III
453-465 Ghassanid, Hijr ibn al-Numan
453-472 Ghassanid, al-Mundhir II
453-486 Ghassanid, Amr III
486-512 Ghassanid, al-Harith IV
512-529 Ghassanid, Jabalah IV
529-569 Ghassanid, al-Harith V
569-581 Ghassanid, al-Mundhir III
570-582 Ghassanid, Abu Kirab
582-583 Ghassanid, al-Numan VI
583     Ghassanid, al-Harith VI
583-600 Ghassanid, al-Numan VII
600-614 Ghassanid, al-Aiham ibn Jabalah
614-616 Ghassanid, al-Mundhir IV
614-618 Ghassanid, Sharahil ibn Jabalah
618-628 Ghassanid, Amr IV
628-632 Ghassanid, Jabalah V
632-638 Ghassanid, Jabalah VI
The Omayyad Caliphs
661-680 Mu'awiya
680-683 Yazid I
683-684 Mu'awiya II
684-685 Marwan
685-705 Abd 'al-Malik
705-715 al-Walid I
715-717 Sulayman
717-720 Umar
720-724 Yazid II
724-743 Hishman
743-744 al-Walid II
744     Yazid III
744     Ibrahim
744-750 Marwan II
Seljuk Kings of Syria
1085 - 1086               Seljuk, Tutush (1st Time)
1086 - 1087               Seljuk, Malik Shah "The Great"
1087 - 1094               Seljuk, Aq Sunqur al Hajib
1094 - 1095               Seljuk, Tutush (2nd Time)
       1095 - 10 Dec 1113 Seljuk, Radwan
10 Dec 1113 - 1114        Seljuk, Alp Arslan al Akhras
1114 - 1117               Seljuk, Sultan Shah
Heads of States
30 Sep      - 01 Oct 1918 Muhammad Said al-Jazairi
01 Oct      - 05 Oct 1918 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi ..................... 1864-1943
King of Greater Syria
05 Oct 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim, Faisal I ............................. 1885-1933
Heads of State
28 Jul      - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Basha ................... 18..-1920
21 Aug      - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi ............................... 1883-1951
28 Jun 1922 - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakay al-Khalidi ................. 1883-1939
28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay ............ 1873-1962
15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani .................. 1885-1943
19 Nov 1931 - 11 Jun 1932 Leon Solomiac
Presidents
11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936 Muhammad Ali Bay al-Abid ..................... 1868-1939
21 Dec 1936 - 07 Jul 1939 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st Time) ........... 1875-1960
10 Jul 1939 - 04 Apr 1941 Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib ....................... 1895-1981
16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani
17 Jan      - 25 Mar 1943 Jamil al-Ulshi
                          (acting)
25 Mar      - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi ............................ 1877-1951
17 Aug 1943 - 30 Mar 1949 Shukri al-Kuwatli (1st Time) ................. 1891-1967
30 Mar      - 14 Aug 1949 Husni az-Zaim ................................ 1897-1949
15 Aug 1949 - 02 Dec 1951 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd Time)
03 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953 Fawsi as-Silu ................................ 1905-1972
11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954 Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli ..................... 1909-1964
28 Feb 1954 - 06 Sep 1955 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd Time)
06 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958 Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd Time)
14 Dec 1961 - 08 Mar 1963 Nazim al-Kudsi ............................... 1906-1998
09 Mar      - 27 Jul 1963 Louai ai-Atassi .............................. 1926-2003 B
27 Jul 1963 - 23 Feb 1966 Muhammad Amin al-Hafez ....................... 1911-2009 B
23 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970 Nureddin Muhammad Mustafa al-Atassi .......... 1929-1992 B
18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971 Sayyid Ahmedal-Hasan al-Khatib ............... 1933-     B
22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad ......... 1930-2000 B
10 Jun      - 17 Jul 2000 Abdul-Halim Khaddam .......................... 1932-     B
                          (acting)
17 Jul 2000 -             Bashar Hafez al-Assad ........................ 1965-     B
 
 
Prime Ministers
01 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1919 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (1st Time)
14 Dec      - 30 Dec 1919 Abdul Hamad Pasha
30 Dec 1919 -    May 1920 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (2nd Time)
   May      - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim al-Khalid al-Atassi
28 Jul      - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha
21 Aug      - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi
01 Jan      - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi
21 Dec      - 06 Jan 1926 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (1st Time)
27 Apr 1926 - 09 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay
15 Apr 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (2nd Time)
07 Jun 1932 - 16 Mar 1934 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955
16 Mar 1934 - 22 Feb 1936 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (3rd Time)
22 Feb      - 21 Dec 1936 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (1st Time)
21 Dec 1936 - 18 Feb 1939 Jamil Mardam Bay ............................. 1893-1960
18 Feb      - 13 Mar 1939 Lutfi al-Haffar .............................. 1885-1968
06 Apr      - 09 Jul 1939 Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari
04 Apr      - 21 Sep 1941 Khalid al-Azm (1st Time)
21 Sep 1941 - 19 Apr 1942 Hassan al-Hakim .............................. 1886-1988
25 Mar      - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (2nd Time)
19 Apr 1942 - 10 Jan 1943 Husni al-Barazi (1st Time) ................... 1893-1949
17 Aug 1943 - 14 Oct 1944 Saadallah al-Jabiri (1st Time) ............... 1893-1947
14 Oct 1944 - 01 Oct 1945 Faris al-Khuri (1st Time) .................... 1879-1962
01 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946 Saadallah al-Jabiri (2nd Time)
16 Dec 1946 - 17 Dec 1948 Jamil Mardan Bay
17 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 Khalid al-Azm (2nd Time)
17 Apr      - 26 Jun 1949 Husni al-Barazi (2nd Time)
26 Jun      - 14 Aug 1949 Muhsin al-Bazazi ............................. 1904-1949
24 Dec      - 27 Dec 1949 Nazim al-Kudsi (1st Time)
27 Dec 1949 - 04 Jun 1950 Khalid al-Azm (3rd Time)
04 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951 Nazim al-Kudsi (2nd Time)
27 Mar      - 09 Aug 1951 Khalid al-Azm (4th Time)
09 Aug      - 13 Nov 1951 Hassan al-Hakim
13 Nov      - 28 Nov 1951 Zaki al-Khatib ............................... 1887-1961
28 Nov      - 29 Nov 1951 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (1st Time) ................. 1907-2004
03 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953 Fawzi as-Silu
19 Jul 1953 - 01 Mar 1954 Adib ash-Shishakli
01 Mar      - 18 Jun 1954 Sabri al-Assali (1st Time) ................... 1903-1976
18 Jun      - 03 Nov 1954 Said al-Ghazzi (1st Time) .................... 1893-1967
03 Nov 1954 - 13 Feb 1955 Faris al-Khuri (2nd Time)
13 Feb      - 13 Sep 1955 Sabri al-Assali (2nd Time)
13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956 Said al-Ghazzi (2nd Time)
14 Jun 1956 - 06 Mar 1958 Sabri al-Assali (3rd Time)
Chairmen of the Executive Council of the Northern Region
07 Oct 1958 - 20 Sep 1960 Nur al-Din Kuhala ............................ 1910-
20 Sep 1960 - 16 Aug 1961 Abdul Hamid al-Serraj ........................ 1925-2013
Prime Ministers
28 Sep      - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ 1914-1998
20 Nov      - 14 Dec 1961 Izzat an-Nuss ................................ 1900-1972
14 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (2nd Time)
16 Apr      - 14 Sep 1962 Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah ........................ 1910-1992
17 Sep 1962 - 09 Mar 1963 Khalid al-Azm (5th Time)
09 Mar      - 12 Nov 1963 Salah ad-Din al-Bitar ........................ 1912-1980 B
12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (1st Time)                        B
13 May      - 04 Oct 1964 Salah ad-Din Bitar (2nd Time)
04 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (2nd Time)
23 Sep      - 31 Dec 1965 Yusuf Zuaiyin (1st Time) ..................... 1931-     B
01 Jan      - 23 Feb 1966 Salah ad-Din Bitar (3rd Time)
25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968 Yusuf Zuaiyin (2nd Time)
29 Oct 1968 - 21 Nov 1970 Nureddin Mustafa al-Assad                                B
21 Nov 1970 - 03 Apr 1971 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad                     B
03 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (1st Time) ............ 1930-     B
21 Dec 1972 - 07 Aug 1976 Mahmoud al-Ayyubi ............................ 1932-     B
07 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (2nd Time)
27 Mar 1978 - 09 Jan 1980 Muhammad Ali al-Halabi ....................... 1937-     B
09 Jan 1980 - 01 Nov 1987 Abdul Rauf al-Kasm ........................... 1932-     B
01 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000 Mahmoud Zuabi ................................ 1938-2000 B
13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003 Muhammad Mustafa Mero ........................ 1941-     B
10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011 Muhammad Naji al-Otari ....................... 1944-     B
14 Apr 2011 - 23 Jun 2012 Adel Safar ................................... 1953-     B
23 Jun      - 06 Aug 2012 Riyad Farid Hajib ............................ 1966-     B
06 Aug      - 09 Aug 2012 Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji ...................... 1954-     B
                          (acting)
09 Aug 2012 -             Wael al-Halki ................................ 1964-     B
 
 
B=Hizb al-Baath al'Arabi al-Ishtriraki (Arab Socialist rebirth Party, Socialist, Arab nationalist)
 
__________________________________________________________________________________________________
 
 
Flag of the opposition from 2011
 
President of the Syrian National Council (in Istanbul, Turkey)
02 Oct 2011 - 10 Jun 2012 Burhan Ghalioun
10 Jun      - 09 Nov 2012 Abdul Baset Saida
Presidents National Coalition for the Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces
11 Nov 2012 - 22 Apr 2013 Ahmad Mouaz Al-Khatib Al-Hasani .............. 1960-
22 Apr      - 06 Jul 2013 George Sabra ................................. 1947-
06 Jul 2013 -             Ahmad Jarba .................................. 1969-
 
Prime Ministers
19 Mar      - 08 Jul 2013 Ghassan Hitto ................................ 1963-
14 Sep 2013 -             Ahmad Saleh Touma
 

 
Syrian Kurdistan
 
Ala kurdên rojava.svg
   Flag of the PYD
 
19 Jul 2012 -             Kurdish rebels fighting both the Syrian army,
                           Free Syrian Army and Islamic militants, begin
                            the capture of Kurdish inhabited territory in Northern Syria
 
Chairman of the Democratic Union Party
2010 -                    Salih Muslim Muhammad ........................ 1951-    PYD
 
 
PYD=Partiya Yekitiya Demokrat (Kurdish nationalist, left-wing)

 
Alawite Territory (Latakia)
 
1850 - 1170 BC         Latakia Kingdom
 865 - 1035            Alawite Emirate
02 Sep 1920            Alawite Territory
01 Jan 1925            Alawite State
22 Sep 1930            State of Latakia
05 Dec 1936            To Syria thereafter
 
Monarchs
1850-1825 Niqmaddu I
1825-1800 Yaqarum I
1600-.... Ibiranu I
1390-1360 Ammishtamru I
1360-1330 Niqmaddu II
1330-1324 Arhalbu
1324-1274 Niqmepa
1274-1240 Ammishtamru II
1240-1230 Ibiranu II
1230-1225 Niqmaddu III
1225-1180 Ammurapi
1180-1170 Yaqurum II
Emires
865 - 880 Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Namiri
880 - 890 Muhammad ibn Djundab
890 - 900 Abu Muhammad Abdullah al-Djunbulani
900 - 957 Abu Abdullah al-Hussein ibn Hamdan al-Khasibi
957 - 994 Muhammad ibn Ali al-Djilli
994 - 1035 Surur ibn al-Qasim al-Tabarani
 
Governors
03 Nov 1918 - 1919        .... Minault
       1919 - 20 Sep 1920 .... de la Roche
20 Sep 1920 - 20 Sep 1921 Marie Joseph Émile Niéger .................... 1874-1951
20 Sep 1921 - 17 Nov 1922 Gaston Henri Gustave Billotte ................ 1875-1940
17 Nov      - 31 Dec 1922 .... Desclaux
01 Jan 1923 -    Sep 1925 Léon Henri Charles Cayla ..................... 1881-1965
01 Jan 1925 - 05 Dec 1936 Ernest Marie Hubert Schoeffler ............... 1877-1952
05 Dec 1936 - 01 Oct 1938 Eugène Paul Aimé Joseph Cahour ............... 1886-1954
01 Oct 1938 - 07 Dec 1939 Pierre Bart
07 Dec 1939 - 10 Dec 1940 .... Malartre
10 Dec 1940 - 27 Oct 1941 Jean Janvier Vital Jourdan
27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey ........................ 1892-1964
25 Oct 1942 - 1945        .... des Essars
1945                      .... Bonnot
 

 
Aleppo
 
1800 BC - 1400 AD         Kingdom of Yamkhand
1400 - 1200               To the Hittites
1200 - 900                To Aramaeanes
900 - 609                 To Assyria
945 - 1260                Emirate of Aleppo
1260                      To Egypt
1516                      To Ottoman Empire
   Oct 1918 - 30 Nov 1920 Part of Syria
01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Aleppo
28 Jun 1922               To Syria thereafter
 
Monarchs
1800 - ....               Yarimlim I
.... - ....               Hammurabi I
.... - ....               Abbael I
.... - ....               Yarimlim II
.... - ....               Niqmiepu I
.... - ....               Irkabtum
.... - ....               Hammurabi I
.... - ....               Yarimlim III
.... - ....               Abbael II
.... - ....               Ilimilimma I
1550 - ....               Idrimi I
.... - ....               Niqmiepu II
.... - ....               Ilimilimma II
1300 - 1330               Telipinu
1330 - ....               Talmi-Sharruma
120. - ....               Rimisharina
Emires of Aleppo
       945 - 09 Feb 967 Hamdanid, Saif ud-Dawlah Ali
09 Feb 967 -    Dec 991 Hamdanid, S'ad ud-Dawlah Sharif
991 - 1002               Hamdanid,Sa'id ud-Dawlah Sa'id
1002 - 1004               Hamdanid, Abu'l-Hassan Ali II
1004                      Hamdanid, Abu l-Ma'ali Sharif II
1004 - 1009               Fatmid, Abu Muhammad Lu'lu' al-Kabir
1009 - 1016               Fatmid, Murtada al-Dawla Mansur
1016 - 1017               Fatmid, Mubarak al-Dawla Fatah
1017 - 1023               Fatmid, Fatik Aziz al-Dawla
1023 - 1029               Mirdasid, Salih ibn Mirdas
1029 - 1037               Mirdasid, Shibl ud-Dawlah Nasr
1042 - 1057               Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (1st Time)
1060 - 1061               Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (1st Time)
1061 - 1062               Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (2nd Time)
1062                      Mirdasid, Abu Du'aba Atiya
1062 - 1075               Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (2nd Time)
1075 - 1076               Mirdasid, Djalal ud-Dawlah Nasr
1076 - 1079               Mirdasid, Abu'l-Fada'il Sabiq
1080 - 1085               Uqaylid, Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim
1085                      Uqaylid, Ibrahim ibn Quraysh
1085 - 1086               Uqaylid, Al Sharif ibn al-Habibi
1086 - 1094               Seljuq, Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hadjib
1094 - 1095               Seljuq, Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush
       1095 - 10 Dec 1113 Seljuq, Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan
10 Dec 1113 - 1114        Seljuq, Tadj ad-Dawla Alp-Arslan al-Akhras
1114 - 1123               Seljuq, Sultan Shah ibn-Radwan
1117                      Artuqid, Ghazi ibn-Artuq
1117 - 1118               Artuqid, Timurtash ibn-al-Ghazi (1st Time)
1118 - 1121               Artuqid, Suleyman I ibn-al-Ghazi
1121 - 1123               Artuqid, Suleyman II
1123 - 1124               Artuqid, Nur ad-Dawla Balaq
1124 - 1127               Artuqid, Aq Sunqur al-Bursuqi
1127 - 1128               Artuqid, Masul ibn-Aq Sunkur
       1128 - 14 Sep 1146 Zengid, Zenghi I ibn Ak Sunkur Qasim el Awla
14 Sep 1146 - 15 May 1174 Zengid, Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Imad-ad-Din
15 Sep 1174 - 1181        Zengid, Isma'il as Salih
1182 - 1183               Zengid, Zenghi II Imad ud-Din
1183 - 1186               Ayyubid, al-Adil Muhammad Sayf Abu-Bakr ud-Din
       1186 - 08 Oct 1216 Ayyubid, az-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Din
08 Oct 1216 - 1236        Ayyubid, al-Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din
1236 - 1259               Ayyubid, al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din
1259 - 1260               Ayyubid, al-Muazzam Turan Shah
 
Governor
01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Kamil Pasha al-Qudsi ......................... 1845-1926

 
Damascus
1076 - 1521               Emirate of Damascus
1521 - 1918               Part of Ottoman Empire
       1918               Made capital of Greater Syria
       1920               French occupation
01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Damascus
28 Jun 1922               Incorporated into Syria
 
Monarchs
2500 BC Caananite, Uz ben Shem
c.1300 BC Caananite, Biryawaza
c.950 BC Aramaean, Rezon I
...-914 Aramaean, Tab-Rimmon I
914-880 Aramaean, Bar Haddad I
880-843 Aramaean, Bar Haddad II
843-804 Aramaean, Hazael I
804-796 Aramaean, Bar Haddad III
796-770 Aramaean, Tan-El I
740-732 Aramaean, Rezon II
978-983 Fatamid, Qassam at-Turab
Emires
1076 - 1079               Seljuk, Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi
1079 - 1095               Seljuk, Tadj ad-Dawla Abu Said Tutush I
       1095 - 08 Jun 1104 Seljuk, Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq I
08 Jun      - 1104        Seljuk, Tutush I
       1104               Seljuk, Muhi ad-Din Baqtash
       1104 - 12 Feb 1128 Burid, Saif-ul-Islam Zahir ud-Din Tughtigin
12 Feb 1128 - 06 Jun 1132 Burid, Taj ul-Muluk Buri
06 Jun 1132 - 1135        Burid, Shams ul-Muluk Ismail
1135 - 1139               Burid, Shihab ud-Din Mahmud
1139 - 1140               Burid, Djamal ud-Din Muhammad
       1140 - 28 Aug 1149 Burid, Mi`id ad-Din Unur al-Atabeki
1140 - 1154               Burid, Mujir ud-Din `Abd al-Dawla Abu Sa`id Abaq
                           ibn Jamal ad-Din Muhammad
       1154 - 15 May 1174 Zangid, Nur ad-Din Mahmud
15 May      - 23 Nov 1174 Zangid, As-Salih Ismail al-Malik
27 Nov 1174 - 1186        Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub
1186 - 1196               Ayyubid, al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din
       1196 -    Aug 1218 Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Adil I Sayf al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub
   Aug 1218 - 1227        Ayyubid, Sharaf ad-Din
1227 - 1229               Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din II
       1229 - 27 Aug 1237 Ayyubid, Asharaf Musa Abu'l-Fath al-Muzaffar ad-Din
1237 - 1245               Ayyubid, Imad ad-Din al-Malik as-Salih Ismail bin Saif ad-Din Ahmad
1250 - 1260               Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf Salidin III
1275 - 1280               Mameluk, Sunkur al-Ashkar
1280 - 1290               Mameluk, Lajin al-Ashkar
1290 - 1294               Mameluk, Akush Beg
1294 - 1296               Mameluk, Izz ad-Din Ayback
1296 - 1297               Mameluk, Shuja ad-Din Adirlu
1297 - 1312               Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Kipchak
1312 - 1340               Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanqiz as-Nasiri
1340 - 1350               Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri
1350 - 1370               Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Manjak
1370 - 1380               Mameluk, Tash Timur
1380 - 1393               Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri
1393 - 1399               Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanibak
1399 - 1400               Mameluk, Sudun
1401 - 1441               Mameluk, Taghribirdi al-Zahiri
1470 - 1500               Mameluk, Kijmas
1500 - 1516               Mameluk, Ghazali Arab
1516 - 1517               Mameluk, Shihab ad-Din Ahmad
       1517 -    Feb 1521 Mameluk, Janbiridi al-Ghazali
 
Governor
01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955

 
Jebel Druze (Souaida)
01 May 1921 - 1941        Autonomous State of Souaida
       1927               Renamed Jebel Bruze
02 Dec 1936               Incorporated into Syria
 
Governors
01 May 1921 - 15 Sep 1923 Amir Salim Basha al-Atrash ................... 18..-1923
15 Sep 1923 - 06 Mar 1924 Trenga
06 Mar 1924 - 28 May 1925 Gabriel Marie Victor Carbillet ............... 1890-1941
28 May      -    Jul 1925 .... Raynaud
                          (acting)
   Jul      -    Oct 1925 Thomas Martin
18 Jul 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Amir Sultan Basha al-Atrash .................. 1885-1982
                          (in rebellion)
14 Oct 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Charles Andréa ............................... 1871-1954
       1927               Marie Joseph Léon Augustin Henry ............. 1870-1942
       1927 - 01 Feb 1932 Abel Jean Ernest Clément-Grancourt ........... 1873-1948
03 Feb 1932 - 28 Jan 1934 Claude Gabriel Rebaud Massiet ................ 1877-1947
1934 - 1935               Justin Antoine Devicq
05 Feb 1935 - 02 Dec 1936 Pierre Joseph François Tarrit ................ 1881-1965
02 Dec 1936 - 1937        Nasib al-Bakri ............................... 1888-1966
       1937 - 17 Feb 1938 Bahig al-Hatib
17 Feb 1938 - 1939        Hasna Yahya al-Atrash ........................ 1905-1977
1937 - 1939               Paul Bouvier ................................. 1885-1972
1939 - 1942               Fernand-François Oliva-Roget ................. 1891-1949
27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey

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