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Österreich

740 - 1254                Part of the German Empire

800 - 1806                Part of the Holy Roman Empire

   Sep 955  - 17 Sep 1156 Östliche Mark/Bairisches Ostland (Margravate of Austria/Eastern Bavarian March)

17 Sep 1156 - 06 Jan 1453 Herzogtum Österreich (Duchy of Austria)

06 Jan 1453               Erzherzogtum Österreich (Archduchy of Austria)

24 Oct 1526 - 28 Oct 1918 Bohemia in personal union with Austria

17 Dec 1526 - 17 Oct 1918 Kingdom of Hungary in personal union with Austria

11 Jun 1742               Silesia ceded to Prussia

11 Aug 1804               Kaiserthum Österreich (Austrian Empire)

26 Dec 1805               Holy Roman Empire dissolved

30 Dec 1849               Divided into Lower and Upper Austria

21 Dec 1867               Imperial lands of the Austrian Crown (Zisleithanien [Cisleithania]),

                           one component of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary

11 Nov 1918               End of Habsburg dynastic rule

12 Nov 1918 - 21 Oct 1919 Republik Deutsch-Österreich (Republic of German-Austria) declared

23 Mar 1919               The last emperor goes into exile in Switzerland

21 Oct 1919               Republik Österreich (Republic of Austria)

01 Jul 1934               Bundesstraat Österreich (Fedeal State of Austria)

13 Mar 1938 - 13 Apr 1945 Anschluss (link-up) annexes Austria to the German Reich

14 Mar 1938               State of Ostmark

01 May 1939               Ostmark dissolved into Reichsgaue

13 Apr 1945 - 27 Aug 1955 Allied occupation

27 Jul 1955 -             Republik Österreich (Republic of Austria)

01 Jan 1995               Accession to the EU


Austria, a mountainous, Alpine, country in central Europe that was once the centre of a large continental empire. The name and exact territory that comprised Austria has been a source of some confusion. The original territory of Austria Ger: Österreich meaning “eastern realm” was located in the modern regions of Upper and Lower Austria that was known as the Duchy of Austria with its capital in Vienna. The ruling Habsburg dynasty also acquired the neighbouring states of Carinthia, Styria, Tirol and Carniola. Until 1806 all these territories comprised the Austrian Circle within the Holy Roman Empire, an area that is roughly coterminous with the modern state of Austria. By the seventeenth century the Habsburg dynasty was one of Europe’s most powerful Royal Houses with the senior branch ruling the Spanish empire and the junior branch having secured the thrones of Bohemia and Hungary and including the elected crown of the Holy Roman Empire. These lands that included the Austrian territories (Erblande or “hereditary lands”), the Kingdom of Hungary and Croatia, Kingdom of Bohemia, Duchy of Milan, Southern Netherlands and other territories in Southern Germany and Northern Italy became known as the Habsburg Monarchy. This was not an empire or unitary state but separate countries and territories ruled in union by the same Monarch. In this system the German and Italian speaking territories and Bohemia were within the Holy Roman Empire, while the Hungarian and Eastern territories of Galicia and Bukovina were not. In 1804 the last Holy Roman Emperor created the Austrian Empire out the territories of the Habsburg Monarchy to pre-empt the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire by Napoleonic France. This was the first time all the Habsburg lands had been united as a centralised empire that would also be challenged by nationalism from the various nationalities. A historic compromise was eventually reached in 1867 that divided the empire into the Austrian Empire and Kingdom of Hungary as separate governments under the same Monarch (Lombardy and Venice were lost to Italy in 1866). The reformed empire now called Austria-Hungary lasted until end of the First World War when the empire collapsed and split into independent states. The German speaking lands becoming the modern Republic of Austria.

Archduchy of Austria

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Wien (Vienna).

Languages: German, Slovene.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Jewish.

National Anthem:

National Emblem: Black Eagle.

National Day:

National Motto: Alles Erdreich ist Österreich untertan. (All territory is subject to Austria).

Currency: Silver Thaler.


Monarchs

   Sep 898 - 04 Jul 907 Aribo

Markgraffen

   Sep 955 - 21 Jul 976 Regensburg, Burchard .......................... 9..-982

21 Jul 976 - 10 Jul 994 Babenberg, Leopold I "der Durchlauchtigte" .... 923-994

10 Jul 994 - 23 Jun 1018 Babenberg, Heinrich I "der Starke" ........... 965-1018

23 Jun 1018 - 26 May 1055 Babenberg, Adalbert I "der Siegreiche" ...... 985-1055

26 May 1055 - 09 Jun 1075 Babenberg, Ernst I "der Tapfere" ............ 1027-1075

09 Jun 1075 - 12 Dec 1095 Babenberg, Leotpold II "der Schöne" ......... 1051-1095

12 Dec 1095 - 15 Nov 1136 Babenberg, Leopold III "der Heilige" ........ 1073-1136

15 Nov 1136 - 18 Oct 1141 Babenberg, Leopold IV "der Grossherzige" .... 1108-1141

18 Oct 1141 - 13 Jan 1177 Babenberg, Heinrich II "Jasomirgott" ........ 1114-1177

                          (Duke from 17 Sep 1156)

Herzogen

13 Jan 1177 - 31 Dec 1194 Babenberg, Leopold V "der Tugendreiche" ..... 1157-1194

01 Jan 1195 - 16 Apr 1198 Babenberg, Friedrich I "der Katolische" ..... 1155-1198

16 Apr 1198 - 28 Jun 1230 Babenberg, Leopold VI "der Glorreiche" ...... 1176-1230

28 Jun 1230 - 05 Jun 1246 Babenberg, Friedrich II "der Steitbare" ..... 1210-1246

   Apr      - 05 Jun 1237 Ekbert, Graf zu Meran,

                           Bischof zu Bamberg ......................... 1173-1237

                          (Imperial Vicar)

   Oct 1237 -    Dec 1239 Otto, Graf zu Eberstein (1st Time) .......... 12..-1279

                          (Imperial Vicar)

05 Jun 1246 - 1247        Przemysl, Vladislav z Moravie ............... 122.-1247

1247 - 1248               Otto, Graf zu Eberstein (2nd Time)

                          (Imperial Vicar)

       1248 - 06 Dec 1251 Wittelsbach, Otto, Herzog zu Bayern

                          (Imperial Vicar)

       1248 - 04 Oct 1250 Zähringen, Hermann Markgraf von Baden ....... 1220-1250

04 Oct 1250 - 29 Oct 1268 Zähringen, Friedrich III von Baden

                          (claiment)

06 Dec 1250 - 28 Aug 1278 Przemysl, Ottokar II of Böhmen .............. 1230-1278

21 Nov 1276 -    Jun 1278 Wittelsbach, Ludwig, Herzog zu Bayern

                          (Imperial Vicar)

28 Aug 1278 - 27 Dec 1282 Habsburg, Rudolf I

   May 1281 - 27 Dec 1282 Habsburg, Albrecht, Graf zu Habsburg

                           und Kyburg, Landgraf von Elsass ............ 1248-1308

                          (Imperial Vicar)

27 Dec 1282 - 01 May 1308 Habsburg, Albrecht I ........................ s.a

27 Dec 1282 - 01 Jun 1283 Habsburg, Rudolf II ......................... 1271-1290

                          (co-ruler)

01 May 1308 - 13 Jan 1330 Habsburg, Friedrich IV "der Schöne" ......... 1286-1330

01 May 1308 - 26 Feb 1339 Habsburg, Otto I "der Fröhliche" ............ 1301-1339

                          (co-ruler)

01 May 1308 - 28 Feb 1326 Habsburg, Leopold VII ....................... 1290-1326

                          (co-ruler)

01 May 1308 - 03 Feb 1327 Habsburg, Heinrich I ........................ 1290-1326

                          (co-ruler)

13 Jan 1330 - 20 Jul 1358 Habsburg, Albrecht III ...................... 1301-1339

                          (co-ruler to 1339)

20 Jul 1358 - 27 Jul 1365 Habsburg, Rudolf IV "der Stifter" ........... 1339-1365

18 Nov 1364 - 25 Sep 1379 Habsburg, Albrecht III ...................... 1348-1395

                          (co-ruler)

18 Nov 1364 - 25 Sep 1379 Habsburg, Leopold VIII ...................... 1351-1386

                          (co-ruler)

- Niederoestrreich Linie -

25 Sep 1379 - 29 Aug 1395 Habsburg, Albrecht III ...................... s.a

29 Aug 1395 - 14 Sep 1404 Habsburg, Albrecht IV ....................... 1377-1404

29 Aug 1395 - 15 Jul 1406 Habsburg, Wilhelm Herzog von Steiermark ..... 1370-1406

                          (co-ruler)

14 Sep 1404 - 27 Oct 1439 Habsburg, Albrecht V ........................ 1397-1439

15 Jul 1406 - 23 Apr 1411 Habsburg, Leopold Graf von Tirol ............ 1371-1411

                          (Regent)

13 Mar 1409 - 24 Apr 1411 Habsburg, Ernst II "der Eisener" ............ 1377-1424

                          (Regent)

27 Oct 1439 - 22 Feb 1440 Habsburg, Friedrich V ....................... 1415-1493

                          (1st Time)

22 Feb 1440 - 23 Nov 1457 Habsburg, Ladislaus ......................... 1440-1457

23 Nov 1457 - 02 Dec 1462 Habsburg, Friedrich V (2nd Time)

02 Dec 1462 - 02 Dec 1463 Habsburg, Albrecht VI ....................... 1418-1463

02 Dec 1463 - 19 Aug 1493 Habsburg, Friedrich V (3rd Time)

- Leopoldine Line -

25 Sep 1379 - 09 Jul 1386 Habsburg, Leopold III

09 Jul 1386 - 15 Jul 1406 Habsburg, Wilhelm Herzog von Steiermark ..... s.a

       1402 - 15 Jul 1406 Habsburg, Ernst II

       1402 - 15 Jul 1406 Habsburg, Friedrich IV mit der leeren Tasche" 1382-1439

15 Jul 1406 - 23 Apr 1411 Habsburg, Leopold

- Elder Leopoldine Line -

15 Jul 1406 - 1435        Habsburg, Friedrich IV ...................... s.a

15 Jul 1406 - 10 Jun 1424 Habsburg, Ernst II .......................... s.a

23 Nov 1457 - 19 Aug 1493 Habsburg, Friedrich V

23 Nov 1457 - 19 Aug 1493 Habsburg, Albrecht VI

- Younger Leopoldine Line -

15 Jul 1406 - 24 Jun 1439 Habsburg, Friedrich IV ...................... s.a

24 Jun 1439 - 1490        Habsburg, Sigismund ......................... 1427-1496

       1490 - 19 Aug 1493 Habsburg, Maximilian I ...................... 1459-1519

Erzherzogen (Archdukes)

19 Aug 1493 - 12 Jan 1519 Habsburg, Maximilian I ...................... s.a

12 Jan 1519 - 28 Apr 1521 Habsburg, Karl I ............................ 1500-1558

28 Apr 1521 - 25 Jul 1564 Habsburg, Ferdinand I ....................... 1503-1564

- Austria Proper -

25 Jul 1564 - 12 Oct 1576 Habsburg, Maximilian II ..................... 1527-1576

12 Oct 1576 - 20 Jan 1612 Habsburg, Rudolf V .......................... 1552-1612

20 Jan 1612 - 20 Mar 1619 Habsburg, Matthias .......................... 1557-1619

20 Mar      - 09 Oct 1619 Habsburg, Albrecht VII ...................... 1559-1621

- Innerösterreich -

25 Jul 1564 - 10 Jul 1590 Habsburg, Karl II Franz ..................... 1540-1590

10 Jul 1590 - 09 Oct 1619 Habsburg, Ferdinand III ..................... 1578-1637

- Austria Reunited -

20 Jun 1619 - 15 Feb 1637 Habsburg, Ferdinand III ..................... s.a

15 Feb 1637 - 02 Apr 1657 Habsburg, Ferdinand IV ...................... 1608-1657

- Ober Oestrreich -

       1623 - 13 Sep 1632 Habsburg, Leopold V ......................... 1586-1623

13 Sep 1632 - 30 Dec 1662 Habsburg, Ferdinand Karl .................... 1628-1662

30 Dec 1662 - 25 Jun 1665 Habsburg, Sigismund Franz ................... 1630-1665

- Austria Reunited -

       1665 - 05 May 1705 Habsburg, Leopold IX ........................ 1640-1705

05 May 1705 - 17 Apr 1711 Habsburg, Joseph I .......................... 1678-1711

17 Apr 1711 - 20 Oct 1740 Habsburg, Karl III .......................... 1685-1740

20 Oct 1740 - 29 Nov 1780 Habsburg, Maria Therese ..................... 1717-1780

21 Nov 1740 - 18 Aug 1765 Vaudemonte, Franz I Stefan .................. 1708-1765

                          (co-ruler with Maria Therese, also Duke of Lorraine)

29 Nov 1780 - 20 Feb 1790 Habsburg, Joseph II ......................... 1741-1790

20 Feb 1790 - 01 Mar 1792 Habsburg, Leopold X ......................... 1747-1792

01 Mar 1792 - 02 Mar 1835 Habsburg, Franz II .......................... 1768-1835

02 Mar 1835 - 02 Dec 1848 Habsburg, Ferdinand IV ...................... 1793-1875

04 Mar 1835 - 04 Apr 1848 Habsburg, Ludwig Erzherzog von Österreich ... 1784-1864

                          (Regent)

25 Jun      - 02 Dec 1848 Habsburg, Johann Erzherzog von Österreich ... 1782-1859

                          (Regent

02 Dec 1848 - 21 Nov 1916 Habsburg, Franz Joseph I .................... 1830-1916

21 Nov 1916 - 03 Apr 1919 Habsburg, Karl IV ........................... 1887-1922

                          (in exile in Switzerland from 24 Mar 1919)

 

 




Full style of the Monarch: Ertzhertzog zu Österreich, Hertzog zu Steienmark, zu Kärnten,

zu Krain, Graf zu Tirol ("Archduke of Austria, Duke of Styria, of Carinthia, of

Carniola, Count of Tyrol") Lat: Archidux Austria.


Orders: Orden vom Goldenen Vlies (Order of the Golden Fleece).


Republic of Austria 1919-1934

Presidents

05 Mar 1919 - 09 Dec 1920 Karl Josef Seitz ............................ 1869-1950

09 Dec 1920 - 10 Dec 1928 Michael Arthur Josef Jakob Hainisch ......... 1858-1940

10 Dec 1928 - 30 Jun 1934 Wilhelm Miklas .............................. 1872-1956



Chancellors

12 Nov 1918 - 07 Jul 1920 Karl Renner ................................. 1870-1950

07 Jul 1920 - 21 Jun 1921 Michael Mayr ................................ 1864-1922

21 Jun 1921 - 26 Jan 1922 Johann Schober .............................. 1874-1932

                          (1st Time)

26 Jan      - 27 Jan 1922 Walter Breisky .............................. 1871-1944

27 Jan      - 31 May 1922 Johann Schober (2nd Time)

01 Jun 1922 - 20 Nov 1924 Ignaz Seipel ................................ 1876-1932

                          (1st Time)

20 Nov 1924 - 20 Oct 1926 Rudolf Ramek ................................ 1881-1941

20 Oct 1926 - 04 May 1929 Ignaz Seipel (2nd Time)

04 May      - 26 Sep 1929 Ernst Streeruwitz ........................... 1874-1952

26 Sep 1929 - 30 Sep 1930 Johann Schober (3rd Time)

30 Sep      - 04 Dec 1930 Karl Vaugoin ................................ 1873-1949

04 Dec 1930 - 20 Jun 1931 Otto Ender .................................. 1875-1960

20 Jun 1931 - 20 May 1932 Karl Buresch ................................ 1878-1936

20 May 1932 - 29 Jul 1934 Engelburt Dollfuß ........................... 1892-1934

Federal State of Austria

Head of State

01 Jul 1934 - 13 Mar 1938 Wilhelm Miklas .............................. 1872-1956


Kanzler

29 Jul 1934 - 11 Mar 1938 Kurt Alois Josef Johann Schuschnigg ......... 1897-1977

Republic of Austria

Government: Federal Republic.

Capital: Wien (Vienna).

Languages: German, Slovene, Yugoslavian.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Orthodox Christian, Islam.

National Anthem: "Land der Burge, Land am Strome"

                  ("Land of Mountains, Land on the River").

National Emblem: Black Eagle.

National Day: Independence Day, 27 July (1955).

National Motto: None.

EU Accession: 1st January 1995.

Currency: Euro, Austrian Schilling 1945-2001.


Presidents

29 Apr 1945 - 31 Dec 1950 Karl Renner ................................. 1870-1950 SPÖ

31 Dec 1950 - 21 Jun 1951 Leopold Figl ................................ 1902-1965 ÖVP

21 Jun 1951 - 04 Jan 1957 Theodor Körner Edler von Siegringen ......... 1873-1957 SPÖ

22 May 1957 - 28 Feb 1965 Adolf Scharf ................................ 1890-1965 SPÖ

28 Feb 1965 - 24 Apr 1974 Franz Josef Jonas ........................... 1899-1974 ÖVP

24 Apr 1974 - 08 Jul 1986 Rudolf Kirchschlager ........................ 1915-2000 ÖVP

08 Jul 1986 - 08 Jul 1992 Kurt Josef Waldheim ......................... 1918-2007 ÖVP

08 Jul 1992 - 06 Jul 2004 Thomas Klestil .............................. 1932-2004 ÖVP

08 Jul 2004 - 08 Jul 2016 Heinz Fischer ............................... 1938-     SPÖ

08 Jul 2016 - 26 Jan 2017 National Council

                        - Karlheinz Kopf .............................. 1957-     ÖVP

                        - Doris Bures ................................. 1962-     SPÖ

                        - Norbert Gerwald Hofer ....................... 1971-     FPÖ

04 Dec 2016 -             Alexander van der Bellen .................... 1944-     DGA

                          (officially from 26 Jan 2017)



Kanzleren (Chancellors)

29 Apr      - 20 Dec 1945 Karl Renner ................................. s.a

20 Dec 1945 - 02 Apr 1953 Leopold Figl ................................ s.a       ÖVP

02 Apr 1953 - 11 Apr 1961 Julius Raab ................................. 1891-1964 ÖVP

11 Apr 1961 - 02 Apr 1964 Alfons Gorbach .............................. 1898-1972 ÖVP

02 Apr 1964 - 21 Apr 1970 Josef Klaus ................................. 1910-2001 ÖVP

21 Apr 1970 - 24 May 1983 Bruno Kreisky ............................... 1911-1990 SPÖ

24 May 1983 - 16 Jun 1986 Alfred Sinowatz ............................. 1929-2008 SPÖ

16 Jun 1986 - 28 Jan 1997 Franz Vranitzky ............................. 1937-     SPÖ

28 Jan 1997 - 04 Feb 2000 Viktor Klima ................................ 1947-     SPÖ

04 Feb 2000 - 11 Jan 2007 Wolfgang Schüssel ........................... 1945-     ÖVP

11 Jan 2007 - 02 Dec 2008 Alfred Gusenbauer ........................... 1960-     SPÖ

02 Dec 2008 - 09 May 2016 Werner Faymann .............................. 1960-     SPÖ

09 May      - 17 May 2016 Reinhold Mitterlehner ....................... 1955-     ÖVP

                          (acting)

17 May 2016 - 18 Dec 2017 Christian Kern .............................. 1966-     SPÖ

18 Dec 2017 - 28 May 2019 Sebastian Kurz .............................. 1986-     ÖVP

28 May      - 03 Jun 2019 Hartwig Löge ................................ 1965-     ÖVP

                          (acting)

03 Jun 2019 -             Brigitte Bierlein ........................... 1949- 

 

 

DGA=Die Grünen Alternative (The Green Alternative, Environmentalist)

FPÖ=Freiheitliche partei Österreich  (Austrian freedom party, Nationalist)

KPÖ= Kommunistische Partei Österreichs (Communist Party Austria, Communist)

ÖVP=Österreichische volkspartei (Austrian Peoples Party, Conservative)

SPÖ=Sozialdemokratische Partei Österreichs, (Social Democratic Party Austria)

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