. Home .

France

Gallia Celtica

50 BC Gaul Part of the Roman Empire

260 - 274 AD Imperium Gallia (Gallic Empire)*

447 - 511 Kingdom of Franks

457 - 487 Domain of Soissons a Roman rump state in northern France,

later becomes the Kingdom of Neustria

511 - 719 Kingdoms of Austasia, Neustria and Burgundy

Aug 843 - 21 Jun 987 Kingdom of West Franks

06 Dec 884 - 13 Jan 888 To Holy Roman Empire

987 Kingdom of France (from 1589 France and Navarra)

21 Oct 1422 - 17 Jul 1453 Personal Union with England

24 Oct 1648 Alsace annexed to France

30 Sep 1681 Free Imperial City of Straßburg annexed

23 Feb 1766 Lorraine annexed to France

14 Jul 1789 - 20 Nov 1799 French Revolution

01 Oct 1791 Royaume de France (Kingdom of France)

21 Sep 1792 République Française (First Republic)

1792 - 15 Feb 1800 Royalist insurgency in Brittany, Normandy and Anjou

18 May 1804 Republic headed by an Emperor

01 Jan 1809 Empire Française (First French Empire)

14 Apr 1814 - 13 Mar 1815 Royaume de France (restored)

13 Mar - 08 Jun 1815 Empire Française (restored)

07 Jun 1815 - 30 Nov 1818 Allied Occupation

08 Jul 1815 Royaume de France et Navarre (re-restored)

24 Feb 1848 (Second) République Française

01 Dec 1852 (Second) Empire Française

24 Mar 1860 Savoy and the county of Nice ceded to France by Piedmonte-Sardinia

02 Sep 1870 - 16 Sep 1873 German occupation

04 Sep 1870 (Third) République Française

10 Jun 1940 - 03 Sep 1944 German Occupation

15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945 Alsace-Lorraine reincorporated into Germany

10 Jul 1940 - 20 Aug 1944 État Français (French State), "Vichy France",

Fascist pro-axis client state.

16 Jan 1947 Forth République Française

10 Feb 1947 France annexes Italian border villages to

Alpes-Maritimes department

01 Jan 1958 Accession to the EEC

08 Jan 1959 - Fifth République Française

 

 

Ancient Gaul

 

Roman Governors

125 - 123 Marcus Fulvius Flaccus

123 - 122 Gaius Sextius Calvinus

122 - 120 Gnaeus Domitius Ahmenobarbus

121 - 120 Quintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus

116 Lucius Caecilius Metellus Diadematus

115 Marcus Aemilius Scaurus

109 - 108 Marcus Julius Silanus

107 Lucius Cassius Longinus

106 - 105 Quintus Servilius Caepio

105 Gnaeus Mallius Maximus

104 Gaius Flavius Fimbria

102 - 101 Quintus Lutatius Catulus

95 Quintus Mucius Scaevola

94 Lucius Licinius Crassus

91 Marcus Porcius Cato

85 - 81 Gaius Valerius Flaccus

78 Lucius Manlius

77 Marcus Aemilius Lepidus

74 - 73 Gaius Aurelius Cotta

74 - 72 Marcus Fonteius

72 Gaius Cassius Longinus Varus

67 - 65 Gaius Calpurnius Piso

64 - 63 Lucius Licinius Murena

62 Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer

62 - 60 Gaius Pomptius

59 Lucius Afranius

58 - 47 Gaius Julius Caesar

49 Marcus Considius Nonianus

49 Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus

48 - 46 Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus

46 - 45 Marcus Junius Brutus

45 Aulus Hirtius

45 - 44 Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus

44 - 43 Marcus Aemilius Lepidus

44 - 43 Lucius Munatius Plancus

44 - 43 D. Junius Brutus Albinus

01 Jun 44 - 42 Marcus Antonius

 

Emperors

260 - 269 Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus

Feb - Jun 269 Ulpius Cornelius Laelianus

(usurper)

269 Marcus Aurelius Marius

269 - 271 Marcus Piavonius Victorinus

271 Domitianus

(usurper)

271 - 273 Gaius Pius Esuvius Tetricus I

273 - 274 Caius Pius Esuvius Tetricus II

457 - 464 Aegidius (ruler of Soissons)

464 - 487 Sygrius

(styled "Patriacus")

 

Note: Following the Barbarian invasions of Rome the commander Postumus established a

breakaway empire in the northwest of the Roman Empire. Though it included the provinces

of Britanica, Germania and Belgica and its capitals were Cologne and Trier, the core of

the empire was in Gallia or modern France. Later historians retrospectively refered to

the empire as Imperium Gallia (Gallic Empire), though it was not known by this name during

its existence. Rome had fully re-conquered the territory by 274 AD. From 457 to 487 a Roman

military commander and his son established a separate Roman state in northern Gaul. This

state survived the fall of Roman Empire before it was conqured by the Franks. The former

state later became the basis of the Frankish Kingdom of Neustria.

___________________________________________________________________________________________

Kingdom of France and the Navarre

 

447 - 511 Kingdom of Franks

511 - 719 Kingdoms of Austasia, Neustria and Burgundy

Aug 843 - 21 Jun 987 Kingdom of West Franks

06 Dec 884 - 13 Jan 888 To Holy Roman Empire

987 Kingdom of France (from 1589 France and Navarra)

21 Oct 1422 - 17 Jul 1453 Personal Union with England

24 Oct 1648 Alsace annexed to France

30 Sep 1681 Free Imperial City of Straßburg annexed

23 Feb 1766 Lorraine annexed to France

14 Jul 1789 - 20 Nov 1799 French Revolution

01 Oct 1791 Royaume de France (Kingdom of France)

Aug 1792 - 15 Feb 1800 Royalist insurgency in Northern and Western France

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Paris (Versailles 1682-1789).

Language: French, Occitan, German, Bretton, Corsican, Catalan, Flemish.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Vive le France, vive le roi Henri"

National Day: King's birthday, 23 August (1754).

National Emplem: fleur de lys.

National Motto: Montjoye Saint Denis!

Currency: Livre.

- Kings of the Salii Franks -

428 - 448 Salian, Clodion

448 - 458 Salian, Mérovée

458 - 481 Salian, Childéric I

481 - 509 Salian, Clovis I

- King of the Franks -

509 - 27 Nov 511 Salian, Clovis I

- Kings of Austrasia -

27 Nov 511 - Dec 533 Thierry I

(Theodobert, at Rheims)

Dec 533 - Dec 547 Théodebert I

Dec 547 - Nov 555 Théobald

Nov 555 - 20 Dec 560 Clotaire I

(King of all Franks)

Dec 555 - Dec 559 Chram

(co-Monarch)

Dec 560 - Nov 575 Sigebert I

Nov 575 - Sep 595 Childebert I

Sep 595 - 611 Théodebert II

611 - 612 Thierry II

612 - 613 Sigebert II

613 - 18 Oct 629 Clotaire II

623 - 19 Jan 639 Dagobert I

(co-Monarch to 629)

634 - 01 Feb 656 St.Sigebert II

(co-Monarch to 639)

01 Feb 656 - 661 St.Dagobert II (1st Time)

01 Feb 656 - 662 Childerbert II

(anti-King)

662 - Oct 675 Childéric II

675 - 23 Dec 679 St.Dagobert II (2nd Time)

24 Dec 679 - 691 Thierry III

691 - 718 To Neustria

718 - 719 Clotair IV

- Kings of Aurelianum -

27 Nov 511 - 25 Jun 524 Clodomir

27 Nov 511 - 20 Dec 560 Clotaire I

(King of all Franks)

Dec 560 - 28 Mar 592 Gontram

582 - 585 Gundowald

(usurper; in Limousin)

28 Mar 592 - Sep 595 Childebert II

Sep 595 - 612 Thierry II

612 - 613 Sigebert II

613 - 18 Oct 629 Clotaire II

18 Oct 629 - 19 Jan 639 Dagobert I

(King of all Franks)

19 Jan 639 - 24 Sep 768 To Neustrasia

- Kings of Neustria -

27 Nov 511 - 23 Dec 558 Childebert I

23 Dec 558 - 20 Dec 560 Clotaire I

(King of all Franks)

20 Dec 560 - 567 Charibert I

20 Dec 560 - Sep 584 Chilpéric I

Sep 584 - 18 Oct 629 Clotaire II

(King of all Franks 613-629)

584 - 585 Gombaud

Dec 629 - 632 Charibert II

(co-Monarch)

18 Oct 629 - 19 Jan 639 Dagobert I

(King of all Franks)

635 - 01 Feb 660 Sigebert III

19 Jan 639 - Nov 657 Clovis II

Nov 657 - 11 Mar 673 Clotaire III

11 Mar 673 - Oct 675 Childéric II

Nov 675 - 691 Thierry III

675 - 676 Clovis

(userper)

691 - Mar 695 Clovis III

Mar 695 - Feb 711 Childerbert IV

Feb 711 - Dec 715 Dagobert III

Dec 715 - Apr 721 Chilpéric II

Apr 721 - Mar 737 Thierry IV

Mar 737 - 15 Oct 741 Charles Martel

(Mayor of the Palace)

18 Oct 741 - 24 Sep 768 Carolingien, Pépin III le Bref

(Mayor of the Palace 741-751)

Feb 743 - Nov 751 Carolingien, Childéric III

(co-Monarch)

09 Oct 768 - 28 Jan 814 Carolingien, Charles I le Grand

(Charlemagne; Holy Roman Emperor from 800)

09 Oct 768 - 04 Dec 771 Carolingien, Carloman I

(co-Monarch; in Austrasia and Burgundy)

Aug 781 - 08 Jul 810 Carolingien, Pépin IV

(co-Monarch; in Pavia)

11 Sep 813 - Jun 833 Carolingien, Louis I le Pieux (1st Time)

(co-Monarch to 28 Jan 814)

05 Apr 833 - Mar 834 Carolingien, Lothaire

Mar 833 - 30 Jun 840 Carolingien, Louis I le Pieux (2nd Time)

- Kings of the West Franks; France from 987 -

30 Jun 840 - 06 Oct 877 Carolingien, Charles II le Chauve

06 Oct 877 - 10 Apr 879 Carolingien, Louis II le Bègue

10 Apr 879 - 05 Aug 882 Carolingien, Louis III

10 Apr 879 - 06 Dec 884 Carolingien, Carloman II

06 Dec 884 - 13 Jan 888 Carolingien, Charles le Gros

29 Feb 888 - 01 Jan 898 Carolingien, Eudes I de Paris

01 Jan 898 - 30 Jun 922 Carolingien, Charles III le Simple

30 Jun 922 - 15 Jun 923 Carolingien, Robert I

13 Jul 923 - 14 Jan 936 Carolingien, Raoul I

19 Jun 936 - 10 Sep 954 Carolingien, Louis IV d'Outrmer

12 Nov 954 - 02 Mar 986 Carolingien, Lothaire I

08 Jun 986 - 22 May 987 Carolingien, Louis V le Fainéant

03 Jul 987 - 24 Oct 996 Capet, Hugues I .............................................. 940-996

24 Oct 996 - 20 Jul 1031 Capet, Robert II "le Pieux"

09 Jun 1017 - 17 Sep 1025 Capet, Hughes .............................................. 997-1025

(co-ruler, junior King)

20 Jul 1031 - 04 Aug 1060 Capet, Henri I ............................................ 1008-1060

04 Aug 1060 - 29 Jul 1108 Capet, Philippe I ......................................... 1052-1080

29 Jul 1108 - 01 Aug 1137 Capet, Louis VI "le Gros" ................................. 1012-1067

14 Apr 1129 - 13 Oct 1131 Capet, Philippe ........................................... 1116-1131

(junior King)

01 Aug 1137 - 18 Sep 1180 Capet, Louis VII "le Jeune" ............................... 1078-1137

01 Nov 1179 - 14 Jul 1223 Capet, Philippe II Auguste ................................ 1165-1223

Jun 1190 - 27 Dec 1191 de Champagne, Guillaume de Blois aux Blanches Mains,

Archeveque de Reimes (Regent) ............................ 1135-1202

14 Jul 1223 - 08 Nov 1226 Capet, Louis VIII "le Lion" ............................... 1187-1226

08 Nov 1226 - 25 Apr 1236 Queen Blanca de Castilla .................................. 1188-1252

(1st Time, Regent for Louis IX)

08 Nov 1226 - 25 Aug 1270 Capet, Louis IX ........................................... 1214-1270

25 Aug 1248 - 1249 Alphonse, comte de Poitiers et de Toulouse ................ 1220-1271

(Regent for absent Louis IX)

1249 - 17 Jul 1254 Queen Blanca de Castilla

(2nd Time, Regent for absent Louis IX)

25 Aug 1270 - 05 Oct 1285 Capet, Philippe III "le Hardi" ............................ 1245-1285

05 Oct 1285 - 29 Nov 1314 Capet, Philippe IV "le Bel" ............................... 1268-1314

29 Nov 1314 - 05 Jun 1316 Capet, Louis X "le Hutin" ................................. 1289-1316

15 Nov - 20 Nov 1316 Capet, Jean I "le Posthume" ............................... 1316-1316

20 Nov 1316 - 03 Jan 1322 Capet, Philippe V "le Long" ............................... 1293-1322

03 Jan 1322 - 01 Feb 1328 Capet, Charles IV "le Bel" ................................ 1294-1328

01 Feb 1328 - 22 Aug 1350 Valois, Philippe VI ....................................... 1293-1350

22 Aug 1350 - 08 Apr 1364 Valois, Jean II "le Bon" .................................. 1319-1364

(English prisoner 19 Sep 1356 - 24 Oct 1360)

08 Apr 1364 - 16 Sep 1380 Valois, Charles V "le Sage" ............................... 1338-1380

(Regent 14 Mar 1358 - 04 Oct 1360)

16 Sep 1380 - 1382 Valois-Anjou, Louis, duc d'Anjou .......................... 1339-1384

(Regent)

16 Sep 1380 - 31 Oct 1388 Valois-Burgundy, Philippe, duc de Bourgogne ............... 1342-1404

(co-regent)

16 Sep 1380 - 21 Oct 1422 Valois, Charles VI "le Fol" ............................... 1368-1422

23 Dec 1417 - 21 May 1460 Wittelsbach, Queen Elisabeth von Bayern-Ingolstadt ........ 1370-1435

(Queen-Regent for Charles VI)

21 Oct 1422 - 22 Jul 1461 Valois, Charles VII "le Victorieux ou le Bien Servi" ...... 1403-1461

22 Jul 1461 - 30 Aug 1483 Valois, Louis XI "le Prudent" ............................. 1423-1483

30 Aug 1483 - 1491 Valois, Anne de Beaujeu ................................... 1461-1522

(Regent for Charles VIII)

30 Aug 1483 - 07 Apr 1498 Valois, Charles VIII "l'Affable" .......................... 1470-1498

07 Apr 1498 - 01 Jan 1515 Valois, Louis XII "le Père du Peuple" ..................... 1462-1515

01 Jan 1515 - 1516 Savoia, Luisa di Savoia, duchesse de Nemours .............. 1476-1531

(Regent, 1st Time)

01 Jan 1515 - 31 Mar 1547 Valois, François I ........................................ 1494-1515

12 Aug 1523 - 1526 Savoia, Luisa di Savoia, duchesse de Nemours

(Regent, 2nd Time)

31 Mar 1547 - 10 Jul 1559 Valois, Henri II .......................................... 1519-1559

10 Jul 1559 - 05 Dec 1560 Valois, François II ....................................... 1554-1560

05 Dec 1560 - 17 Aug 1563 Queen Caterina Maria Romola de Medici ..................... 1519-1589

(Regent for Charles IX)

05 Dec 1560 - 30 May 1574 Valois, Charles IX ........................................ 1550-1574

30 May 1574 - 02 Aug 1589 Valois, Henri III ......................................... 1551-1589

02 Aug 1589 - 14 May 1610 Bourbon, Henri IV "le Grand" .............................. 1553-1610

21 Nov 1589 - 09 May 1590 Charles Cardinal Bourbon .................................. 1523-1590

(Charles (X), prisoner)

21 Nov 1589 - 30 Mar 1594 Charles de Lorraine, duc de Mayenne ....................... 1554-1611

(Lieutenant-general)

14 May 1610 - 14 May 1643 Bourbon, Louis XIII "le Juste" ............................ 1601-1643

14 May 1610 - 27 Sep 1614 Queen Marie de Medici ..................................... 1575-1642

(Queen-Regent)

14 May 1643 - 01 Sep 1715 Bourbon, Louis XIV ........................................ 1638-1715

"le Grand ou le Roi-Soleil"

14 May 1643 - 05 Sep 1651 Habsburg, Queen Ana María Mauricia de España .............. 1601-1666

(Queen-Regent [Anne de Austriche])

01 Sep 1715 - 10 May 1774 Bourbon, Louis XV "le Roi-Citoyen" ........................ 1710-1774

01 Sep 1715 - 15 Feb 1723 Philippe Charles, duc d'Orléans ........................... 1674-1723

(Regent)

10 May 1774 - 21 Sep 1792 Bourbon, Louis XVI ........................................ 1754-1793

(suspended from 21 Jun 1791)

21 Jun - 14 Sep 1791 Marguerite-Louis-François Duport-Dutertre ................. 1754-1793

(acting for suspended Louis XVI)

10 Aug - 21 Sep 1792 Georges-Jacques Danton .................................... 1759-1794

(acting for suspended Louis XVI)

21 Jan 1793 - 08 Jun 1795 Bourbon, Louis XVII* ...................................... 1785-1795

(prisoner, never reigned)

16 Jun 1795 - 1800 Bourbon, Louis XVIII* ..................................... 1755-1824

Chief Ministers to the King

02 Aug 1589 - 29 Jan 1611 Maximilien de Béthune, duc de Scully ...................... 1560-1641

29 Jan 1611 - 1614 Nicolas IV de Neufville, seigneur de Villeroy ............. 1543-1617

1616 - 27 Apr 1617 Concini, conde della Penna,

marquis et Maréchal d'Ancre .............................. 1575-1617

12 Aug 1624 - 04 Dec 1642 Armand Jean du Plessis,

Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu et de Fronsac .................. 1585-1642

05 Dec 1642 - 09 Mar 1661 Jules Raimond Cardinal Marazin ............................ 1602-1661

10 Mar 1661 - 06 Sep 1683 Jean-Baptiste Colbert ..................................... 1619-1683

01 Sep 1715 - 10 Aug 1723 Guillaume Cardinal Dubois ................................. 1656-1723

10 Aug - 02 Dec 1723 Philippe II Charles, duc d'Orléans ........................ s.a

02 Dec 1723 - 11 Jul 1726 Louis Henri Joseph de Bourbon, duc d'Bourbon, duc d'Guise

Prince de Condé .......................................... 1692-1740

11 Jul 1726 - 29 Jan 1743 André-Hercule Cardinal de Fleury .......................... 1653-1743

03 Dec 1758 - 31 Dec 1770 Étienne-François, comte de Stainville,

duc de Choiseul .......................................... 1719-1785

01 Jan 1771 - 10 May 1774 Emmanuel-Armand de Vignerot du Plessis de Richelieu,

duc d'Aiguillon .......................................... 1720-1782

11 May 1774 - 21 Nov 1781 Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Maurepas ............... 1701-1781

22 Nov 1781 - 13 Jan 1787 Charles Gravier, conde de Vergennes ....................... 1717-1787

01 May 1787 - 25 Aug 1788 Étienne Charles de Loménie de Brienne ..................... 1727-1794

26 Aug 1788 - 11 Jul 1789 Jacques Necker (1st Time) ................................. 1732-1804

11 Jul - 16 Jul 1790 Louis Charles Auguste le Tonnelier,

baron de Breteuil, baron de Preuilly ..................... 1730-1807

16 Jul 1789 - 03 Sep 1790 Jacques Necker (2nd Time)

03 Sep 1790 - 20 Nov 1791 Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin de Saint Herem ............ 1745-1792

Note: Louis-Charles was Dauphin of France from 1789 to 1791 when the title was changed to simply

"Prince Royal de France" following the adoption of the new constitution. Though the monarchy

was abolished in 1792 and Louis XVI executed on 21 January 1793, royalists and foreign powers

recognised Louis-Charles as King Louis XVII. Louis XVII was never King of France and never ruled,

remaining a prisoner of the revolution, he most likely died of abuse and neglect at the hands

of the revolutionary authorities after the executions of the remaining royal household.

However, his death was never officially acknowledged by the Republic leading to many imposters

claiming his identity in later years. His uncle, Louis-Stanislas, duc de Anjou, who became King of France after the Bourbon restoration in 1814 styled himself Louis XVIII as an implicit acknowledgment of his nephew being the rightfull King of France after Louis XVI had died.

 

Louis XVIII was recognised by Royalist counter revolutionaries during the wars of resistence

against the republic. He remained in exile from 1791, having succeeded in escaping to Germany

during the failed 'Flight to Varennes.' In exile he unilateraly proclaimed himself regent for his brother and then nephew rejecting the new revolutionary government, this proclamation was never recognised by Louis XVI and was acknowledged only by foreign powers and royalist exiles.

 

Style of the Monarch: roi de France (roi de France et de Navarre) Latin: Rex Franciæ.

1789-1792 roi des Français ("King of the French").

 

Senior Orders: Ordre de Saint-Michel (Order of the St. Michael).

Ordre des chevaliers du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Khights of the Holy Spirit).

Ordre Royal et Militaire de Saint-Denis (Royal and Military Order of St. Denis)

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

First French Republic

22 Sep 1792 République Française (First Republic)

Presidents of the National Assembly

25 Jun - 02 Jul 1791 Alexandre-François-Marie,

vicomte de Beauharnais (1st Time) ........................ 1760-1794

02 Jul - 19 Jul 1791 Charles-Malo-François,

comte de Lameth .......................................... 1757-1832

19 Jul - 30 Jul 1791 Joseph-Jacques Defermon,

dit Defermon des Chapelières ............................. 1752-1831

30 Jul - 13 Aug 1791 Alexandre-François-Marie,

vicomte de Beauharnais (2nd Time)

13 Aug - 27 Aug 1791 Charlesl-Louis-Victor,

prince de Broglie ........................................ 1756-1794

27 Aug - 10 Sep 1791 Théodore Vernier .......................................... 1731-1818

10 Sep - 14 Sep 1791 Jacques-Guillaume Thouret ................................. 1746-1794

Presidents of the National Assembly

10 Aug - 19 Aug 1792 Jean François Honoré Merlet ............................... 1761-1830

19 Aug - 02 Sep 1792 Jean-François Delacroix,

dit Lacroix .............................................. 1754-1793

02 Sep - 16 Sep 1792 Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles ........................... 1759-1794

16 Sep - 20 Sep 1792 Pierre Joseph Cambon ...................................... 1756-1820

Presidents of the National Convention

20 Sep - 04 Oct 1792 Jèrôme Pétion de Villeneurve .............................. 1756-1794

04 Oct - 18 Oct 1792 Jean-François Delacroix dit Lacroix ....................... (s.a)

18 Oct - 31 Oct 1792 Marguerite Élie Guadet .................................... 1755-1794

01 Nov - 15 Nov 1792 Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles (1st Time) ................ (s.a)

15 Nov - 29 Nov 1792 Henri Baptiste Grégoire ................................... 1750-1831

29 Nov - 13 Dec 1792 Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac ................................ 1755-1841

13 Dec - 27 Dec 1792 Joseph-Jacques Defermon,

dit Defermon des Chapelières ............................. (s.a)

27 Dec 1792 - 10 Jan 1793 Jean Baptiste Treilhard ................................... 1742-1810

10 Jan - 24 Jan 1793 Pierre Victurnien Vergniaud ............................... 1753-1793

24 Jan - 07 Feb 1793 Jean-Paul Rabaut,

dit Rabaut Saint-Étienne ................................. 1743-1793

07 Feb - 21 Feb 1793 Jean-Jacques Bréard,

dit Bréard-Duplessis ..................................... 1751-1840

21 Feb - 07 Mar 1793 Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de Crancé,

dit Dubois-Crancé ........................................ 1747-1814

07 Mar - 21 Mar 1793 Arnaud Gensonné ........................................... 1758-1793

21 Mar - 04 Apr 1793 Jean Antoine Joseph de Bry ................................ 1760-1834

04 Apr - 18 Apr 1793 Jean François Bertrand Delmas ............................. 1751-1798

18 Apr - 02 May 1793 Marc David Alba, dit Alba-Lasource ........................ 1763-1793

02 May - 16 May 1793 Jean-Baptiste Boyer-Fonfrède .............................. 1765-1793

16 May - 30 May 1793 Honoré Maximin Isnard ..................................... 1758-1825

30 May - 13 Jun 1793 François René Auguste Mallarmé ............................ 1755-1831

13 Jun - 27 Jun 1793 Jean-Marie Collot,

dit Collot d'Herbois (1st Time) .......................... 1749-1796

27 Jun - 11 Jul 1793 Jacques-Alexis Thuriot de la Rosière ......................

11 Jul - 25 Jul 1793 André Jeanbon,

dit Jeanbon Saint-André .................................. 1749-1813

25 Jul - 08 Aug 1793 Georges-Jacques Danton .................................... s.a

08 Aug - 22 Aug 1793 Marie-Jean Hérault de Séchelles (2nd Time) ................ (s.a)

22 Aug - 05 Sep 1793 Maximilien François Marie Isidor de Robespierre ........... 1758-1794

(1st Time)

05 Sep - 19 Sep 1793 Jacques Nicolas Billaud,

dit Billaud-Varenne ...................................... 1756-1819

19 Sep - 03 Oct 1793 Pierre Joseph Cambon

03 Oct - 22 Oct 1793 Charles Louis Joseph Charlier ............................. 1754-1797

22 Oct - 06 Nov 1793 Moïse Antoine Pierre Jean Bayle ........................... 1755-1811

06 Nov - 21 Nov 1793 Pierre Antoine Laloy ...................................... 1749-1846

21 Nov - 06 Dec 1793 Charles Gilbert Romme ..................................... 1750-1795

06 Dec - 21 Dec 1793 Jean-Henri Voulland ....................................... 1751-1801

21 Dec 1793 - 05 Jan 1794 Georges Auguste Couthon ................................... 1755-1794

05 Jan - 20 Jan 1794 Jacques Louis Alexis ...................................... 1748-1825

20 Jan - 04 Feb 1794 Marc Guillaume Alexis Vadier .............................. 1736-1828

04 Feb - 19 Feb 1794 Joseph Nicolas Barbeau Du Barren,

dit Dubarran ............................................. 1761-1816

19 Feb - 06 Mar 1794 Louis de Saint-Just ....................................... 1767-1794

06 Mar - 21 Mar 1794 Philippe Jacques Ruhl ..................................... (s.a)

21 Mar - 05 Apr 1794 Jean-Lambert Tallien ...................................... 1767-1794

05 Apr - 20 Apr 1794 Jean Baptiste André Amar .................................. 1755-1816

20 Apr - 05 May 1794 Jean Baptiste Robert Lindet ............................... 1746-1825

05 May - 20 May 1794 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot .......................... 1753-1823

20 May - 04 Jun 1794 Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,

dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or (1st Time) .................... 1763-1821

04 Jun - 19 Jul 1794 Maximilien François Marie

Isidor de Robespierre (2nd Time)

19 Jun - 05 Jul 1794 Élie Lacoste .............................................. 1745-1806

05 Jul - 19 Jul 1794 Jean-Antoine Louis,

dit Louis du Bas-Rhin .................................... 1742-1796

19 Jul - 03 Aug 1794 Jean-Marie Collot,

dit Collot d'Herbois

03 Aug - 18 Aug 1794 Philippe Antoine Merlin,

dit Merlin de Douai ...................................... 1754-1838

18 Aug - 02 Sep 1794 Antoine Christophe Merlin,

dit Merlin de Thionville ................................. 1762-1833

02 Sep - 22 Sep 1794 André Antoine Bernard des Jeuzines,

dit Bernard de Saintes ................................... 1751-1818

22 Sep - 07 Oct 1794 André Dumont .............................................. 1765-1836

07 Oct - 22 Oct 1794 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès ............................. 1753-1824

22 Oct - 06 Nov 1794 Pierre Louis Prieur,

bit Prieur de la Marne ................................... 1756-1827

06 Nov - 24 Nov 1794 Louis Legendre ............................................ 1752-1797

24 Nov - 06 Dec 1794 Jean-Baptiste Clauzel ..................................... 1746-1803

06 Dec - 21 Dec 1794 Jean-François Reuball ..................................... 1747-1807

21 Dec 1794 - 06 Jan 1795 Pierre Louis Bentabole .................................... 1756-1798

06 Jan - 20 Jan 1795 Étienne François Louis Honoré

Le Tourneur .............................................. 1751-1817

20 Jan - 04 Feb 1795 Joseph Stanislas François ................................. 1748-1798

04 Feb - 19 Feb 1795 Jean Nicolas Paul François Barras ......................... 1755-1829

19 Feb - 06 Mar 1795 François Louis Bourdon,

dit Bourdon del'Oise ..................................... 1758-1798

06 Mar - 24 Mar 1795 Antoine Claire Thibaudeau ................................. 1765-1854

24 Mar - 05 Apr 1795 Jean Pelet, dit Pelet de la Lozère ........................ 1759-1842

05 Apr - 20 Apr 1795 François Antoine Boissey d'Anglas ......................... 1756-1826

20 Apr - 05 May 1795 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès .................................... 1748-1836

05 May - 25 May 1795 Théodore Vernier .......................................... (s.a)

25 May - 04 Jun 1795 Jean Baptiste Charles Mathieu,

dit Mathieu-Mirampal ..................................... 1752-1795

04 Jun - 19 Jun 1795 Jean-Denis Lanjuinais ..................................... 1753-1827

19 Jun - 04 Jul 1795 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray ........................... 1760-1797

04 Jul - 19 Jul 1795 Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de

Pontécoulant ............................................. 1764-1853

19 Jul - 03 Aug 1795 Louis Marie La Revellière,

dit La Revellière-Lépeaux ................................ 1753-1824

03 Aug - 19 Aug 1795 Pierre Claude François Daunou ............................. 1761-1840

19 Aug - 02 Sep 1795 Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier ............................... 1764-1811

02 Sep - 23 Sep 1795 Théophile Berlier ......................................... 1761-1844

23 Sep - 08 Oct 1795 Pierre Charles Louis Baudin,

dit Baudin des Ardennes .................................. 1748-1799

08 Oct - 26 Oct 1795 Charles François Jean Joseph

Victor Génissieu ......................................... 1749-1804

Directors of the Republic

02 Nov 1795 - 31 Jan 1796 Jean-François Reubell ..................................... 1747-1807

01 Feb - 30 Apr 1796 Étienne François Louis Honoré

Le Tourneur .............................................. 1751-1817

01 May - 29 Jul 1796 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot .......................... (s.a)

29 Jul - 31 Oct 1796 Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux ...................... 1753-1824

01 Nov 1796 - 30 Jan 1797 Jean Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras ................. 1755-1829

30 Jan - 30 Apr 1797 Jean François Reubell ..................................... (s.a)

01 May - 26 May 1797 Étienne François Louis Honoré ............................. (s.a)

26 May - 24 Aug 1797 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot .......................... (s.a)

24 Aug - 27 Nov 1797 Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux ...................... (s.a)

27 Feb 1797 - 25 Feb 1798 Jean Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras ................. (s.a)

25 Feb - 26 May 1798 Philippe Antoine Merlin,

dit Merlin de Douai (1st Time) ........................... 1754-1838

26 May - 24 Aug 1798 Jean-François Reubell ..................................... (s.a)

24 Aug - 27 Nov 1798 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard

27 Nov 1798 - 25 Feb 1799 Louis Marie de La Révellière-Lépeaux ...................... (s.a)

25 Feb - 26 May 1799 Jean Paul François Jean Nicolas de Barras ................. (s.a)

26 May - 18 Jun 1799 Philippe Antoine Merlin,

dit Merlin de Douai (2nd Time)

18 Jun - 23 Sep 1799 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès .................................... 1748-1836

23 Sep - 10 Nov 1799 Louis-Jèrôme Gohier ....................................... 1746-1830

10 Nov - 25 Dec 1799 Consular Executibe Commission

- Napoléon Bonaparte ........................................ 1769-1821

- Pierre Roger Ducos, Comte de Ducos ........................ 1747-1816

- Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès .................................... (s.a)

- Charles François Lebrun de Plaisance ...................... 1739-1824

First Consul of the Republic

25 Dec 1799 - 18 May 1804 Napoléon Bonaparte ........................................ (s.a)

Committee of Public Safety of the National Convention

20 Apr - 27 Jul 1794 Georges Auguste Couthon

20 Apr - 27 Jul 1794 Maximilien François Marie

Isidor de Robespierre .................................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 27 Jul 1794 Louis Antoine Léon de Saint-Just .......................... 1767-1794

20 Apr - 31 Jul 1794 Pierre Louis Prier dit,

Prieurde la Mare ......................................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 31 Jul 1794 André Jeanbon, dit Jeanbon Saint-André .................... 1745-1792

20 Apr - 01 Sep 1794 Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac ................................ (s.a)

20 Apr - 01 Sep 1794 Jacques Nicolas Billaud,

dit Billaud-Varenne ...................................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 01 Sep 1794 Jean-Marie Collot,

dit Collot d'Herbois ..................................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 06 Oct 1794 Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot .......................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 06 Oct 1794 Jean Baptiste Robert Lindet ............................... (s.a)

20 Apr - 06 Oct 1794 Claude Antoine Prieur-Duvernois,

dit Prieur de la Côte d'Or ............................... (s.a)

31 Jul - 05 Nov 1794 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard ................................... (s.a)

31 Jul - 05 Dec 1794 Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit

Bréard-Duplessis ......................................... (s.a)

05 Dec 1794 - 04 Apr 1795 François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas (1st Time)

05 Dec 1794 - 04 Apr 1795 Edmond Louis Alexis Dubois de Crancé, dit Dubois-Crancé ... (s.a)

05 Dec 1794 - 05 Mar 1795 André Dumont .............................................. (s.a)

04 Jan - 04 May 1795 Jean-Jacques Bréard, dit Bréard-Duplessis (2nd Time)

04 Jan - 04 May 1795 Jean-Pierre Chazal ........................................ 1766-1840

04 Jan - 04 May 1795 Pierre Marec (1st Time) ................................... 1739-1828

03 Feb - 03 Jun 1795 Antoine François Fourcroy (2nd Time)

03 Feb - 03 Jun 1795 Pierre Jean Lacombe, dit

Lacombe Saint-Michel ..................................... 1751-1812

03 Feb - 03 Jun 1795 Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit

Merlin de Douai (2nd Time)

05 Mar - 03 Jul 1795 Marie François Sébastien

Christophe Delaporte, dit Laporte ........................ 1760-1823

05 Mar - 03 Jul 1795 Jean-François Reubell (1st Time) .......................... (s.a)

05 Mar - 03 Jul 1795 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (1st Time) ......................... (s.a)

04 Apr - 02 Aug 1795 François Aubry ............................................ 1747-1798

04 Apr - 02 Aug 1795 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès (2nd Time)

04 Apr - 04 May 1795 Jacques Antoine Creuzé de La .............................. 1749-1800

Touche, dit Creuzé-Latouche

04 Apr - 03 Jul 1795 Pierre Mathurin Gillet .................................... 1766-1795

04 Apr – 04 May 1795 Bernard Marie Lesage (1st Time) ........................... 1758-1796

04 Apr - 03 Jul 1795 Louis Félix Roux .......................................... 1753-1817

04 Apr - 02 Aug 1795 Jean-Lambert Tallien (2nd Time)

04 May - 01 Sep 1795 Joseph-Jacques Defermon,

dit Defermon des Chapelières ............................. (s.a)

04 May - 01 Sep 1795 Louis Gustave Le Doulcet de Pontécoulant

04 May - 01 Sep 1795 Jacques Antoine Rabaut, dit Rabaut-Pomier ................. 1744-1820

04 May - 02 Aug 1795 Jean-Baptiste Treilhard (2nd Time)

04 May - 01 Sep 1795 Théodore Vernier .......................................... (s.a)

03 Jun - 07 Oct 1795 Charles Antoine Augustin Blad ............................. 1764-1802

03 Jun - 07 Oct 1795 François Joseph Gamon ..................................... 1767-1832

03 Jun - 07 Oct 1795 Pierre François Joachim Henry-Larivière ................... 1761-1838

03 Jun - 07 Oct 1795 Pierre Marec (2nd Time)

03 Jul - 04 Nov 1795 François Antoine Boissy d'Anglas (2nd time)

03 Jul - 04 Nov 1795 Jean Antoine Joseph De Bry ................................ (s.a)

03 Jul - 04 Nov 1795 Bernard Marie Lesage (2nd Time)

03 Jul - 04 Nov 1795 Jean-Baptiste Louvet de Couvray ........................... (s.a)

02 Aug - 04 Nov 1795 Étienne François Louis Honoré

Le Tourneur, dit Le Tourneur ............................. (s.a)

02 Aug - 04 Nov 1795 Philippe Antoine Merlin, dit .............................. (s.a)

Merlin de Douai (3rd time)

02 Aug - 04 Nov 1795 Jean-François Reubell (2nd Time)

02 Aug - 04 Nov 1795 Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (2nd Time)

01 Sep - 04 Nov 1795 Théophile Berlier ......................................... (s.a)

01 Sep - 04 Nov 1795 Jean Jacques Régis Cambacérès (3rd Time)

01 Sep - 04 Nov 1795 Pierre Claude François Daunou ............................. (s.a)

01 Sep - 04 Nov 1795 Louis Marie La Revellière, dit

La Revellière-Lépeaux .................................... (s.a)

07 Oct - 04 Nov 1795 Marie Joseph Blaise Chénier ............................... (s.a)

07 Oct - 04 Nov 1795 Joseph Eschassériaux ...................................... 1753-1824

07 Oct - 04 Nov 1795 Charles Claude Christophe Gourdan ......................... 1744-1804

07 Oct - 04 Nov 1795 Antoine Claire Thibaudeau ................................. 1765-1854

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

French Empire 1804-1814, 1815, 1852-1870

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Paris.

Language: French, Italian, German, Catalan, Dutch, Serbo-Croat, Slovene (1804-14 empire).

Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Chant du Départ" ("Song of the departure" 1804-1814),

"Partant pour la Syrie" ("Departing for Syria" 1852-70).

National Day:

National Emplem: Eagle and "golden bees".

National Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité.

Currency: Franc.

 

Emperors

18 May 1804 - 11 Apr 1814 Bonaparte, Napoléon I (1st Time) .......................... (s.a)

23 Jan - 28 Mar 1814 Empress Marie Luise von Habsburg .......................... 1791-1947

(regent)

28 Mar - 30 Mar 1814 Joseph Napoléon de France ................................. 1768-1844

(Lieutenant-general for the Empire)

11 Apr 1814 - 20 Mar 1815 Position Abolished

20 Mar - 22 Jun 1815 Bonaparte, Napoléon I (2nd Time)

(in exile in Elba 30 Apr 1814 - 01 Mar 1815)

22 Jun - 07 Jul 1815 Bonaparte, Napoléon II .................................... 1811-1832

(in Vienna, Austrian Empire)

- Joseph, comte Fouché, duc d'Otrante ....................... 1759-1820

- Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot,

comte Carnot ............................................. 1753-1823

- Paul, comte Grenier ....................................... 1768-1827

- Armand-Augustin-Louis Caulaincourt, ....................... 1773-1827

marquis de Caulaincourt, duc de Vicence

- Nicolas Marie Quinette, baron de Quinette de Rochemont .... 1762-1821

07 Jul 1815 - 01 Dec 1852 Possition Abolished

02 Dec 1852 - 04 Sep 1870 Bonaparte, Louis-Napoléon III ............................. 1808-1873

(German prisoner from 02 Sep 1870)

26 Jul 1870 - 11 Jan 1871 Empress Eugénie de Montijo ................................ 1826-1920

(Regent, in exile from 04 Sep 1870)

Archchancellor

10 Nov 1799 - 11 Apr 1814 Jean Jacques Regis de Cambaceres, duc de Parme ............ 1753-1824

Secretaries of State

25 Dec 1799 - 14 Apr 1811 Hugues Bernard Maret,

duc de Bassano (1st Time) ................................ 1763-1839

14 Apr 1811 - 20 Nov 1813 Pierre Antoine Noel Bruno, comte Daru ..................... 1767-1829

20 Nov 1813 - 01 Apr 1814 Hugues Bernard Maret,

duc de Bassano (2nd Time)

20 Apr - 22 Jun 1815 Hugues Bernard Maret,

duc de Bassano (3rd Time)

Minister presidents of the Council of State

30 Dec 1852 - 23 Jun 1863 Pierre Jules Baroche ...................................... 1802-1870

23 Jun - 18 Oct 1863 Eugène Roucher ............................................ 1814-1884

18 Oct 1863 - 28 Sep 1864 Gustave Rouland ........................................... 1806-1878

28 Sep 1864 - 17 Jul 1869 Adolphe Vuitry ............................................ 1813-1885

17 Jul 1869 - 02 Jan 1870 Justin de Chasseloup-Laubat

02 Jan - 09 Aug 1870 Olivier Émile Ollivier .................................... 1825-1913

09 Aug - 04 Sep 1870 Charles Guillaume Marie Appollinaire Antoine

Cousin Montauban, comte de Palikao ....................... 1796-1878

Prussian Commander

02 Sep 1870 - 25 Jun 1871 Hemuth Graf von Moltke .................................... 1800-1891

Governor-general

Dec 1870 - 25 Jun 1871 Georg Friedrich Alfred,

Graf von Frabrice ........................................ 1818-1891

Commander of the German Army of Occupation

25 Jun 1871 - 16 Sep 1873 Edwin von Manteuffel ...................................... 1809-1855

 

Style of the Ruler: Empereur des Français ("Emperor of the French").

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Kingdom of France 1814-1848

Government: Constitutional Monarchy.

Capital: Paris.

Language: French, Occitan, German, Bretton, Corsican, Catalan, Flemish.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Le Retour des Princes Français à Paris" (1815-1830). "La Parisienne" (1830-1848).

National Day:

National Emplem: fleur de lys (1814-1830.

National Motto: Montjoye Saint Denis! (1814-1830).

Currency: Franc.

 

Kings

02 May 1814 - 16 Sep 1824 Bourbon, Louis XVIII ...................................... s.a

(in exile 20 Mar - 22 Jun 1815)

16 Sep 1824 - 02 Aug 1830 Bourbon, Charles X ........................................ 1757-1836

02 Aug 1830 (20 minuets) Bourbon, Louis XIX Antoine, duc de Anglouleme ............. 1775-1844

02 Aug - 09 Aug 1830 Bourbon, Henri V .......................................... 1820-1883

31 Jul 1830 - 24 Feb 1848 d'Orléans, Louis-Philippe I "le Roi-Citoyen" .............. 1773-1850

(Lieutenant-general for the Kingdom to 09 Aug 1830)

24 Feb 1848 d'Orléans, Louis-Philippe II .............................. 1838-1894

(proclaimed, never reigned)

Prime Ministers

09 Jul - 26 Sep 1815 Prince Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord ............. 1754-1838

26 Sep 1815 - 29 Dec 1818 Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septemanie du Plessis .............. 1766-1822

(1st Time)

29 Dec 1818 - 19 Nov 1819 Jean-Joseph Paul Augustin, Marquis Dessolles .............. 1767-1828

19 Nov 1819 - 20 Feb 1820 Élie Decazes, duc Decazes et de Glücksbieg ................ 1780-1860

20 Feb 1820 - 14 Dec 1821 Armand Emmanuel Sophie Septemanie du Plessis (2nd Time)

14 Dec 1821 - 04 Jan 1828 Jean-Baptiste Guillaume Joseph Marie Anne Séraphin ........ 1773-1854

04 Jan 1828 - 08 Aug 1829 Jean-Baptiste Sylvère Gay,

vicomte de Martignac ..................................... 1778-1832

08 Aug 1829 - 29 Jul 1830 Prince Jules Auguste Armand Marie de Polignac ............. 1780-1847

13 Aug - 02 Nov 1830 Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles duc de Broglie .............. 1785-1870

(1st Time)

02 Nov 1830 - 13 Mar 1831 Jacques Laffitte .......................................... 1767-1844

13 Mar 1831 - 16 May 1832 Casimir Pierre Perier ..................................... 1777-1832

11 Oct 1832 - 18 Jul 1834 Nicolas-Jean-de-Dieu Soult,

duc de Dalmatie .......................................... 1769-1851

(1st Time)

18 Jul - 10 Nov 1834 Étienne Maurice Gérard, comte Gérard ...................... 1773-1852

10 Nov - 18 Nov 1834 Hugues-Bernard Maret,

duc de Bassano ........................................... 1763-1839

18 Nov 1834 - 12 Mar 1835 Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier,

duc de Trévise ........................................... 1768-1835

12 Mar 1835 - 22 Feb 1836 Achille-Léonce-Victor-Charles,

duc de Broglie (2nd Time)

22 Feb - 06 Sep 1836 Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (1st Time)

06 Sep 1836 - 31 Mar 1839 Louis Mathieu, comte Molé ................................. 1781-1855

12 May 1839 - 01 Mar 1840 Nicolas-Jean-de-Dieu Soult,

duc de Dalmatie (2nd Time)

01 Mar - 29 Oct 1840 Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers (2nd Time)

29 Oct 1840 - 19 Sep 1847 Nicolas-Jean-de-Dieu Soult,

duc de Dalmatie (3rd Time)

19 Sep 1847 - 23 Feb 1848 François Pierre Guillaume Guizot .......................... 1787-1874

Commander of the Allied Occupation Army

07 Jun 1815 - 30 Nov 1818 Sir Arthur Wellesley,

Viscount Wellesley of Wellington (Great Britain) ......... 1769-1852

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Second French Republic

Presidents of the Provisional Government of the Republic

24 Feb - 09 May 1848 Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure .......................... 1767-1855

09 May - 10 May 1848 Philippe Joseph Benjamin Buchez

10 May - 24 Jun 1848 Dominique François Jean Arago ............................. 1786-1853

24 Jun - 28 Jun 1848 Antoine Maria Jules Sénard

28 Jun - 20 Dec 1848 Louis-Eugène Cavaignac .................................... 1802-1857

President

20 Dec 1848 - 01 Dec 1852 Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte .................................. (s.a)

Prime Ministers

24 Feb - 09 May 1848 Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure .......................... 1767-1855

09 May - 24 Jun 1848 Francesc Joan Domènec Aragó ............................... 1786-1853

28 Jun - 20 Dec 1848 Louis-Eugène Cavaignac .................................... 1802-1857

20 Dec 1848 - 31 Oct 1849 Camille Hyacinthe Odilon Barrot ........................... 1791-1873

01 Nov 1849 - 10 Apr 1851 Alphonse Henri, comte d'Hautpoul .......................... 1789-1865

10 Apr - 26 Oct 1851 Léonard Joseph Léon Faucher ............................... 1803-1854

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Third French Republic

Presidents

04 Sep 1870 - 13 Feb 1871 Louis Jules Trochu ........................................ 1815-1896 Mil

(Chairman of the government of national defence)

12 Feb - 16 Feb 1871 Denis Emmanuel, comte Benoist d'Azy ....................... 1796-1880

(acting)

16 Feb - 17 Feb 1871 François Jules Paul Grévy (1st Time) ...................... 1807-1891

17 Feb 1871 - 24 May 1873 Marie Joseph Louis Adolphe Thiers ......................... 1797-1877

24 May 1873 - 30 Jan 1879 Marie Edmé Patrice Maurice de MacMahon,

comte de McMahon, duc de Magenta ......................... 1808-1893

30 Jan 1879 - 02 Dec 1887 François Jules Paul Grévy (2nd Time)

03 Dec 1887 - 25 Jun 1894 Marie François Sadi Carnot ................................ 1837-1894

27 Jun 1894 - 16 Jan 1895 Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier ........................... 1847-1907

17 Jan 1895 - 16 Feb 1899 François Félix Faure ...................................... 1841-1899

18 Feb 1899 - 18 Feb 1906 Émile François Loubet ..................................... 1838-1929

18 Feb 1906 - 18 Feb 1913 Clément Armand Fallières .................................. 1841-1931

18 Feb 1913 - 18 Feb 1920 Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré ........................... 1860-1934

18 Feb - 21 Sep 1920 Paul Eugene Louis Deschanel ............................... 1855-1922

21 Feb 1920 - 11 Jun 1924 Étienne Alexandre Millerand ............................... 1859-1943

13 Jun 1924 - 13 Jun 1931 Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue ........................ 1863-1937

13 Jun 1931 - 07 May 1932 Joseph Athanase Gaston Paul Doumer ........................ 1857-1932

10 May 1932 - 11 Jun 1940 Albert François Lebrun .................................... 1871-1946

Prime Ministers

04 Sep 1870 - 18 Jan 1871 Louis Jules Trochu ........................................ (s.a)

19 Feb 1871 - 24 May 1873 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufraure ........................... 1798-1881

(1st Time)

24 May 1873 - 22 May 1874 Jacques-Victor-Albert, duc de Broglie ..................... 1821-1901

(1st Time)

22 May 1874 - 10 Mar 1875 Ernest Louis Octave Courlot de Cissey ..................... 1810-1882

10 Mar 1875 - 23 Feb 1876 Louis Joseph Buffet ....................................... 1818-1898

23 Feb - 12 Dec 1876 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufraure (2nd Time)

12 Dec 1876 - 17 May 1877 Jules François Simon ...................................... 1814-1896

14 May - 23 Nov 1877 Jacques-Victor-Albert, duc de Broglie (2nd Time)

23 Nov - 13 Dec 1877 Gaëtan de Grimaudet de Rochebouët ......................... 1813-1899

13 Dec 1877 - 04 Feb 1879 Jules Armand Stanislas Dufraure (3rd Time)

04 Feb - 28 Dec 1879 William Henry Waddington .................................. 1826-1894

28 Dec 1879 - 23 Sep 1880 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet ..................... 1828-1923

(1st Time)

23 Sep 1880 - 14 Nov 1881 Jules François Camille Ferry (1st Time) ................... 1832-1893

14 Nov 1881 - 30 Jan 1882 Léon Gambetta ............................................. 1838-1882

30 Jan - 07 Aug 1882 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (2nd Time)

07 Aug 1882 - 29 Jan 1883 Charles Théodore Eugène Duclerc ........................... 1882-1883

21 Feb 1883 - 06 Apr 1885 Jules François Camille Ferry (2nd Time)

29 Jan - 21 Feb 1883 Clément Armand Fallières .................................. 1841-1921

06 Apr 1885 - 07 Jan 1886 Eugène Henri Brisson ...................................... 1835-1912

07 Jan - 19 Dec 1886 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (3rd Time)

19 Dec 1886 - 30 May 1887 René Goblet ............................................... 1828-1905

30 May - 12 Dec 1887 Maurice Rouvier (1st Time) ................................ 1842-1911

12 Dec 1887 - 03 Apr 1888 Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (1st Time) ......................... 1827-1893

03 Apr 1888 - 22 Feb 1889 Charles Thomas Floquet .................................... 1828-1896

22 Feb 1889 - 17 Mar 1890 Pierre Emmanuel Tirard (2nd Time)

17 Mar 1890 - 27 Feb 1892 Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet (4th Time)

27 Feb - 06 Dec 1892 Émile François Loubet

06 Feb 1892 - 04 Apr 1893 Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (1st Time) ................... 1842-1923

04 Apr - 03 Dec 1893 Charles Alexandre Dupuy (1st Time) ........................ 1851-1923

03 Dec 1893 - 30 May 1894 Jean Paul Pierre Casimir-Perier ........................... 1847-1907

30 May 1894 - 26 Jan 1895 Charles Alexandre Dupuy (2nd Time)

26 Jan - 31 Oct 1895 Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (2nd Time)

01 Nov 1895 - 29 Apr 1896 Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois ............................. 1851-1925

29 Apr 1896 - 28 Jun 1898 Félix Jules Méline ........................................ 1838-1925

01 Nov 1898 - 22 Jun 1899 Charles Alexandre Dupuy (3rd Time)

22 Jun 1899 - 07 Jun 1902 Pierre Marie René Ernest Waldeck-Rousseau ................. 1846-1904

07 Jun 1902 - 24 Jan 1905 Émile Combes .............................................. 1835-1921

24 Jan 1905 - 12 Mar 1906 Maurice Rouvier (2nd Time)

12 Mar - 25 Oct 1906 Jean Marie Ferdinand Sarrien .............................. 1840-1915

25 Oct 1906 - 24 Jul 1909 Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (1st Time) .................... 1841-1929

24 Jul 1909 - 02 Mar 1911 Aristide Briand (1st Time) ................................ 1862-1932

02 Mar - 27 Jun 1911 Antoine Emmanuel Ernest Monis ............................. 1846-1929

27 Jun 1911 - 21 Jan 1912 Joseph-Marie-Auguste Caillaux ............................. 1863-1944

21 Jan 1912 - 21 Jan 1913 Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (1st Time)

21 Jan - 22 Mar 1913 Aristide Briand (2nd Time)

22 Mar - 09 Dec 1913 Jean Louis Barthou ........................................ 1862-1934

09 Dec 1913 - 09 Jun 1914 Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (1st Time)

09 Jun - 13 Jun 1914 Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (3rd Time)

13 Jun 1914 - 29 Oct 1915 Jean Raphaël Adrien René Viviani .......................... 1863-1925

29 Oct 1915 - 20 Mar 1917 Aristide Briand (3rd Time)

20 Mar - 12 Sep 1917 Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (3rd Time)

12 Sep - 16 Nov 1917 Paul Painlevé ............................................. 1863-1913

16 Nov 1917 - 20 Jan 1920 Georges Benjamin Clemenceau (2nd Time)

20 Jan - 24 Sep 1920 Étienne Alexandre Millerand

24 Sep 1920 - 16 Jan 1921 Georges Leygues ........................................... 1857-1933

16 Jan 1921 - 15 Jan 1922 Aristide Briand (4th Time)

15 Jan 1922 - 08 Jun 1924 Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (2nd Time)

08 Jun - 15 Jun 1924 Frédéric François-Marsal .................................. 1874-1958

15 Jun 1924 - 17 Apr 1925 Édouard Hérriot (1st Time) ................................ 1872-1957

28 Nov 1925 - 20 Jul 1926 Aristide Briand (5th Time)

20 Jul - 23 Jul 1926 Édouard Hérriot (2nd Time)

17 Apr - 28 Nov 1928 Paul Painlevé (2nd Time)

23 Jul 1926 - 29 Jul 1929 Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (3rd Time)

29 Jul - 02 Nov 1929 Aristide Briand (6th Time)

02 Nov 1929 - 21 Feb 1930 André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu ....................... 1876-1945

21 Feb - 02 Mar 1930 Camille Chautemps (1st Time) .............................. 1885-1963

02 Mar - 13 Dec 1930 André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu (2nd Time)

13 Dec 1930 - 27 Jan 1931 Théodore Steeg ............................................ 1868-1950

27 Jan 1931 - 20 Feb 1932 Pierre Laval .............................................. 1883-1945

20 Feb - 03 Jun 1932 André Pierre Gabriel Amédée Tardieu (3rd Time)

03 Jun - 18 Dec 1932 Édouard Hérriot (3rd Time)

18 Dec 1932 - 31 Jan 1933 Augustin Alfred Joseph Paul-Boncour ....................... 1873-1972

31 Jan - 26 Oct 1933 Édouard Daladier .......................................... 1884-1970

26 Oct - 26 Nov 1933 Albert-Pierre Sarraut ..................................... 1872-1962

26 Nov 1933 - 30 Jan 1934 Camille Chautemps (2nd Time)

30 Jan - 09 Feb 1934 Édouard Daladier (2nd Time)

09 Feb 1934 - 08 Nov 1935 Pierre Paul Henri Gaston Doumergue (2nd Time)

08 Nov 1934 - 01 Jun 1935 Pierre Étienne Flandin .................................... 1889-1958

01 Jun - 07 Jun 1935 Fernand Bouisson .......................................... 1874-1959

07 Jun 1935 - 24 Jan 1936 Pierre Laval (2nd Time)

22 Jun 1937 - 19 Mar 1938 Camille Chautemps (3rd Time)

04 Jun 1936 - 22 Jun 1937 André Léon Blum (1st Time) ................................ 1872-1950

13 Mar - 10 Apr 1938 André Léon Blum (2nd Time)

10 Apr - 21 Mar 1940 Édouard Daladier (3rd Time)

21 Mar - 16 Jun 1940 Paul Reymaund ............................................. 1878-1966

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

French State (Vichy France)

Government: Axis client state.

Capital: Vichy (de facto), Paris (de jure).

Language: French.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

National Anthem: "Maréchal, nous voilà!," ("Marshal we are here!").

National Day:

National Emplem: Francisca.

National Motto: Travail, famille, patrie (Labour, Family, Fatherland).

Currency: Franc.

 

Chief of State

11 Jun 1940 - 20 Aug 1944 Henri Pilippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain ................... 1856-1951 Mil

(continues in exile Sigmaringen, Germany to 08 May 1945)

Prime Ministers

11 Jul - 13 Dec 1940 Pierre Laval (1st Time) ................................... s.a

13 Dec 1940 - 09 Feb 1941 Pierre Étienne Flandin .................................... 1889-1958

09 Feb 1941 - 18 Apr 1942 Jean Louis Xavier François Darlan ......................... 1881-1942

18 Apr 1942 - 20 Aug 1944 Pierre Laval (2nd Time)

___________________________________________________________________________________________________

Forth French Republic

Presidents

20 Aug 1944 - 16 Jan 1947 The Heads of Government

16 Jan 1947 - 16 Jan 1954 Jules Vincent Auriol ...................................... 1884-1966

16 Jan 1954 - 08 Jan 1959 René Jules Gustave Coty ................................... 1882-1962

Prime Ministers

03 Jun 1944 - 26 Jan 1946 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (1st Time) ........... (s.a)

26 Jan - 24 Jun 1946 Félix Gouin ............................................... 1884-1977

24 Jun - 28 Nov 1946 Georges-Augustine Bidault ................................. 1899-1983

28 Nov - 16 Dec 1946 Vincent Jules Auriol ...................................... 1884-1966

16 Dec 1946 - 16 Jan 1947 André Léon Blum (3rd Time)

22 Jan - 24 Nov 1947 Paul Ramadier ............................................. 1888-1961

24 Nov 1947 - 26 Jul 1948 Robert Schuman ............................................ 1886-1963

26 Jul - 05 Sep 1948 André Marie ............................................... 1897-1974

11 Sep 1948 - 28 Oct 1949 Henri Queuille ............................................ 1884-1970

02 Jul - 12 Jul 1950 Henri Queuille (2nd Time)

12 Jul 1950 - 10 Mar 1951 René Pleven (1st Time) .................................... 1901-1993

10 Mar - 11 Aug 1951 Henri Queuille (3rd Time)

11 Aug 1951 - 20 Jan 1952 René Pleven (2nd Time)

20 Jan - 08 Mar 1952 Edgar Faure ............................................... 1908-1988

08 Mar 1952 - 08 Jan 1953 Antoine Pinay ............................................. 1891-1994

08 Jan - 28 Jun 1953 René Mayer ................................................ 1895-1972

28 Jul 1953 - 19 Jun 1954 Joseph Laniel ............................................. 1889-1975

19 Jun 1954 - 23 Feb 1955 Pierre Mendès France ...................................... 1907-1982

23 Feb - 17 Mar 1955 Christian Pineau .......................................... 1904-1995

17 Mar 1955 - 31 Jan 1956 Edgar Faure (2nd Time)

01 Feb 1956 - 12 Jun 1957 Guy Mollet ................................................ 1905-1975

13 Jun - 06 Nov 1957 Maurice Jean Marie Bourgès-Maunoury ....................... 1914-1993

06 Nov 1957 - 13 May 1958 Félix Gaillard d'Aimé ..................................... 1919-1970

14 May - 31 May 1958 Pierre Eugène Jean Pflimlin ............................... 1907-2000

01 Jun 1958 - 08 Jan 1959 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (2nd Time)

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Fifth Republic

Government: Presidential Republic.

Capital: Paris.

Language: French (official), Occitan, German, Bretton, Corsican, Catalan, Flemish.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Islam, Protestant, Buddhist, Jewish.

National Anthem: "La Marseillaise"

National Day: Bastille day, 14 July (1789).

National Emplem:

National Motto: Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité.

Currency: Euro (Franc to 2001).

 

Presidents

08 Jan 1959 - 28 Apr 1969 Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ...................... 1890-1970 UNR

28 Apr - 20 Jun 1969 Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher ............................. 1909-1996 CD

(1st Time, interim)

20 Jun 1969 - 03 Apr 1974 Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou ............................. 1911-1974 UDR

03 Apr - 27 May 1974 Alain Émile Louis Marie Poher ............................. s.a

(2nd Time, interim)

27 May 1974 - 21 May 1981 Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing ....................... 1926- RI

21 May 1981 - 17 May 1995 François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand .................. 1916-1996 PS

17 May 1995 - 17 May 2007 Jacques René Chirac ....................................... 1932- RPR (UMP from 2002)

17 May 2007 - 15 May 2012 Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa ............... 1955- UMP

15 May 2012 - 14 May 2017 François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande .................. 1954- PS

14 May 2017 - Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron ...................... 1977- EM!

Prime Ministers

08 Jan 1959 - 14 Apr 1962 Michel Jean-Pierre Debré .................................. 1912-1996 UNR

14 Apr 1962 - 10 Jun 1968 Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou ............................. s.a

10 Jun 1968 - 20 Jun 1969 Maurice Couve de Murville ................................. 1907-1999 UNR

20 Jun 1969 - 05 Apr 1973 Jacques Michel Pierre Chaban-Delmas ....................... 1915-2000 UDR

05 Apr 1973 - 27 May 1974 Pierre Joseph Augustin Messmer ............................ 1916-2007 UDR

27 May 1974 - 26 Aug 1976 Jacques René Chirac (1st Time)

26 Aug 1976 - 21 May 1981 Raymond Octave Joseph Barre ............................... 1924-2007 UDR

21 May 1981 - 17 Jul 1984 Pierre Mauroy ............................................. 1928-2013 PS

17 Jul 1984 - 20 Mar 1986 Laurent Fabius ............................................ 1946- PS

20 Mar 1986 - 10 May 1988 Jacques René Chirac (2nd Time)

10 May 1988 - 15 May 1991 Michel Rocard ............................................. 1930-2016 PS

15 May 1991 - 02 Apr 1992 Édith Campion Cresson ..................................... 1934- PS

02 Apr 1992 - 29 Mar 1993 Pierre Eugene Bérégovy .................................... 1925-1993 PS

29 Mar 1993 - 18 May 1995 Édouard Balladur .......................................... 1929- RPR

18 May 1995 - 05 Jun 1997 Alain Marie Juppé ......................................... 1945- RPR

05 Jun 1997 - 06 May 2002 Lionel Jospin ............................................. 1937- PS

06 May 2002 - 31 May 2005 Jean-Pierre Raffarin ...................................... 1948- UMP

01 Jun 2005 - 17 May 2007 Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin ....... 1953- UMP

17 May 2007 - 15 May 2012 François Charles Amand Fillon ............................. 1954- UMP

15 May 2012 - 01 Apr 2014 Jean-Marc Ayrault ......................................... 1950- PS

01 Apr 2014 - 06 Dec 2016 Manuel Carles Valls Galfetti .............................. 1962- PS

06 Dec 2016 - 10 May 2017 Bernard Cazeneuve ......................................... 1963- PS

15 May 2017 - Édouard Philippe .......................................... 1970- LR

 

 

CD=Centre démocrate (Democratic Centre, Centerist, dissolved 1976).

DVG=Divers Gauche (Miscellaneous Left).

EM!=EN Marche! (Forward, Onward!, Centerism, social-liberal, third-way).

FN=Front National (National Front, Nationalist, populist, isolationist).

LR=Les Républicains (The Republicans, center-right, former UMP).

LV=Les Verts (The Greens, Enviromentalist, Leftist).

PCF=Parti communiste français (French Communist Party, Communist).

PS=Parti Socialiste (Socialist Party, Social Democratic).

RI=Fédération Nationale des Républicains Indépendants.

(National federation of independant republicans, Conservative [Now dissolved]).

RPR=Rassemblement pour la Republique (Rally for the Republic, Gaullist, Consevative 1976-2002).

UDR=Union pour la défense de la République (Gaullist, became UNR 1976).

UMP=Union pour un Moverment Populaire (Union for a popular movement,

Rightwing, Conservative; former UNR/UDR [LR from 2015]).

UNR=L'Union pour la nouvelle République (Gaullist, renamed UDR 1968).

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

 

©2015

©2005