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German States to 1945

Anhalt

10 Jul 1603 Principality of Anhalt partitioned into

three lines; Anhalt-Bernburg, Anhalt-Dessau

Anhalt-Kothen, Anhalt-Plotzkau and Anhalt-Zerbst

30 Aug 1863 Duchy of Anhalt reunified

12 Nov 1918 Free State of Anhalt

09 Jul 1945 Part of Sachsen-Anhalt

 

Capital: Dessau.

Anthem: "Dessauer Marsch" (1919-1935). "Anhalt Lied" (1871-1918).

 

Dukes of Anhalt-Bernburg

08 Apr 1806 - 24 Mar 1834 Askanien, Alexius Friedrich Christian

24 Mar 1834 - 19 Aug 1863 Askanien, Alexander Karl ..................... 1805-1863

08 Oct 1855 - 19 Aug 1863 Herzogin Friederike Karoline Juliane ......... 1811-1902

(regent)

Dukes of Anhalt-Dessau

18 Apr 1807 - 09 Aug 1817 Askanien, Leopold III

09 Aug 1817 - 02 May 1853 Askanien, Leopold IV ......................... 1794-1871

Dukes of Anhalt-Köthen

01 Jun 1807 - 05 May 1812 Askanien, August Christian Friedrich

05 May 1812 - 18 Dec 1818 Askanien, Ludwig II

05 May 1812 - 09 Aug 1817 Askanien, Leopold III von Anhalt-Dessau

(regent)

09 Aug 1817 - 18 Dec 1818 Askanien, Alexius von Anhalt-Bernburg

(regent)

18 Dec 1818 - 23 Aug 1830 Askanien, Friedrich Ferdinand

23 Aug 1830 - 23 Nov 1847 Askanien, Heinrich

Duke of Anhalt-Dessau-Köthen

02 May 1853 - 30 Aug 1863 Askanien, Leopold IV ......................... s.a

Dukes

30 Aug 1863 - 22 May 1871 Leopold IV ................................... s.a

22 May 1871 - 24 Jan 1904 Friedrich I .................................. 1831-1904

24 Jan 1904 - 21 Apr 1918 Friedrich II ................................. 1856-1918

21 Apr - 13 Sep 1918 Eduard ....................................... 1861-1918

13 Sep - 12 Nov 1918 Joachim Ernst ................................ 1901-1947

13 Sep - 12 Nov 1918 Prince Aribert ............................... 1864-1933

(regent for Joachim Ernst)

Reishstatthalther (Reichs Governors)

05 May 1933 - 23 Oct 1935 Friedrich Wilhelm Loeper ..................... 1883-1935 NSDAP

25 Oct 1935 - 20 Apr 1937 Friedrich Sauckel ............................ 1894-1946 NSDAP

20 Apr 1937 - 15 Apr 1945 Rudolf Jordan ................................ 1902-1988 NSDAP

Ministers

12 Sep 1863 - 1868 Carl Friedrich Ferdinand Sintenis

1868 - 1875 Karl August Alfred von Larisch

1875 - 1892 Anton von Krosigk

1892 - 1902 Kurt von Koseritz

1902 - 31 Dec 1909 Nikolaus Michael Louis Hans

von Dallwitz

01 Jan 1910 - 08 Nov 1918 Ernst Laue

08 Nov - 14 Nov 1918 Maximilian Gutknecht

Minister-Presidents

14 Nov 1918 - 23 Jul 1919 Wolfgang Heine ............................... 1861-1944

23 Jul 1919 - 09 Jul 1924 Heinrich Deist ............................... 1874-1962

(1st Time)

09 Jul - 25 Nov 1924 Reine Wilhelm Knorr .......................... 1878-1937

25 Nov 1924 - 21 May 1932 Heinrich Deist (2ns Time)

21 May 1932 - 08 Jan 1940 Alfred Freyberg .............................. 1892-1945 NSDAP

08 Jan 1940 - 15 Apr 1945 Rudolf Jordan ................................ s.a

__________________________________________________________________________________

Baden

21 Oct 1771 Baden reunited as Margravate of Baden

25 Jul 1803 Electorate of Baden

25 Jul 1806 Grand Duchy of Baden

14 May - 25 Jun 1849 Rebellion establishes Republic of Baden

22 Nov 1918 Republic of Baden

07 Jul 1945 State divided

07 Jul 1945 Südbaden

02 Dec 1946 Baden

25 Apr 1952 Merged with Baden-Württemberg

 

Capital: Karlsrhul.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish.

Anthem: "Badener Lied"

 

Grossherzogen (Grand Dukes)

25 Jul 1806 - 10 Jun 1811 Zähringen, Karl Friedrich .................... 1728-1811

(Margrave to 25 Jul 1806)

10 Jun 1810 - 08 Dec 1818 Zähringen, Karl Ludwig Friedrich ............. 1786-1818

08 Dec 1818 - 30 Mar 1830 Zähringen, Ludwig I .......................... 1763-1830

30 Mar 1830 - 24 Apr 1852 Zähringen, Leopold ........................... 1790-1852

24 Apr 1852 - 05 Sep 1856 Zähringen, Ludwig II ......................... 1824-1858

05 Sep 1856 - 28 Sep 1907 Zähringen, Friedrich I ....................... 1826-1907

28 Sep 1907 - 22 Nov 1918 Zähringen, Friedrich II ...................... 1857-1928

Reichsstatthalter

08 Mar 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Robert Heinrich Wagner ....................... 1895-1946 NSDAP

Chief Ministers

27 Dec 1806 - 1808 .....

Jul 1808 Emmerich Josef Freiherr

von Dalberg

1808 - 1809 Carl Wilhelm Freiherr von

Marschall von Bieberstein

Ministers of State

1809 - 1810 Sigismund Karl Freiherr von

Reitzenstein

1810 - 13 Jan 1812 Christian Heinrich Freiherr

Gayling von Altheim

13 Jan 1812 - 1817 Karl Christian Freiherr

von Berckheim

1817 - 1818 Sigismund Karl Freiherr von

Reitzenstein

Presidents of the Ministry of State

Dec 1818 - 08 Oct 1831 Wilhelm Ludwig Leopold Reinhard

Freiherr von Berstett

08 Oct 1831 - Dec 1832 Sigismund Karl Freiherr von

Reitzenstein

Jan 1833 - 27 Mar 1838 Georg Ludwig Winter

27 Mar 1838 - 1839 Karl Friedrich Nebenius (1st Time)

1839 - Mar 1845 Christian Friedrich von Boeck

Mar 1845 - 19 Dec 1846 Karl Friedrich Nebenius (2nd Time)

19 Dec 1846 - 09 Mar 1848 Johann Baptist Bekk

09 Mar 1848 - 01 Jul 1849 Karl Georg Hoffmann

14 May - 25 Jun 1849 Lorenz Peter Brentano

(Chairman of the provisional government[in rebellion])

Ministers of State

01 Jul 1849 - May 1856 Friedrich Adolf Klüber

May 1856 - 02 Apr 1860 Franz Freiherr von Stengel

02 Apr 1860 - 27 Jul 1866 Anton von Stable

Presidents of the Ministry of State

27 Jul 1866 - 03 Feb 1868 Karl Mathy

12 Feb 1868 - 24 Sep 1876 Julius August Isaak Jolly

24 Sep 1876 - 07 Mar 1893 Ludwig Karl Friedrich Turban

07 Mar 1893 - Jun 1901 Franz Wilhelm Nokk

Jun 1901 - 08 Mar 1905 Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Arthur

von Brauer

08 Mar 1905 - 22 Dec 1917 Alexander Freiherr von Dusch

22 Dec 1917 - 14 Nov 1918 Heinrich Freiherr von und zu Bodman

State Presidents

14 Nov 1918 - 14 Aug 1920 Anton Geiss

14 Aug 1920 - 23 Nov 1921 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk

(1st Time)

23 Nov 1921 - 23 Nov 1922 Hermann Hummel

23 Nov 1922 - 23 Nov 1923 Adam Remmele (1st Time)

23 Nov 1923 - 23 Nov 1924 Heinrich Franz Köhler

(1st Time)

23 Nov 1924 - 23 Nov 1925 Wilhelm Hugo Hellpach

23 Nov 1925 - 23 Nov 1926 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk

(2nd Time)

23 Nov 1926 - 03 Feb 1927 Heinrich Franz Köhler

(2nd Time)

03 Feb - 23 Nov 1927 Gustav Josef Ludwig Trunk

(3rd Time)

23 Nov 1927 - 23 Nov 1928 Adam Remmele (2nd Time)

23 Nov 1928 - 20 Nov 1930 Franz Josef Schmitt

(1st Time)

20 Nov 1930 - 10 Sep 1931 Franz Josef Wittemann

18 Sep 1931 - 11 Mar 1933 Franz Josef Schmitt

(2nd Time)

11 Mar - 08 May 1933 Robert Wagner

08 May 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Walter Friedrich Julius Köhler

02 Jun 1945 - 30 Nov 1946 State Administration

- Paul Hausser

- Karl Otte

- Alfred Bund

- Friedrich Leibbrandt

- Carl Deiz

- Philipp Martzloff

- Paul Zürcher

01 Dec 1946 - 25 Apr 1952 Leo Wohleb

________________________________________________________________________

Bayern (Bavaria)

911 - 25 Feb 1623 Duchy of Bavaria

25 Feb 1623 - 31 Dec 1805 Electorate of Bavaria

01 Jan 1806 Kingdom of Bayern

13 Nov 1918 Freistaat von Bayern

22 Feb - 01 May 1919 Bayerisch Sowjet Republik (in rebellion)

15 Sep 1935 - 28 May 1945 State abolished (de jure)

Capital: München.

Language: German.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Evangelical Lutheran.

Anthem: "Königsstrophe" (Kings Stanze).

Emblem: Herzschilde (Hearts shield).

Currency to 1873: Bavarian Gulden.

Kings

01 Jan 1806 - 13 Oct 1825 Wittlesbach, Maximilan I ..................... 1756-1825

13 Oct 1825 - 21 Mar 1848 Wittlesbach, Ludwig I ........................ 1786-1868

13 Oct 1848 - 10 Mar 1864 Wittlesbach, Maximilian II ................... 1811-1864

10 Mar 1864 - 13 Jun 1886 Wittlesbach, Ludwig II ....................... 1845-1886 "der Mond König"

13 Jun 1886 - 05 Nov 1913 Wittlesbach, Otto ............................ 1848-1916

13 Jun 1886 - 12 Dec 1912 Prince Luitpold von Bayern ................... 1821-1912

(Regent, acting for insane Otto)

12 Dec 1912 - 05 Nov 1913 Prince Ludwig von Bayern ..................... 1845-1921

(Regent, acting for insane Otto)

05 Nov 1913 - 13 Nov 1918 Wittlesbach, Ludwig III ...................... s.a

Staatskommissar (State Commissioner)

26 Sep 1923 - 18 Feb 1924 Gustav Ritter von Kahr ....................... 1862-1934

Reishstatthalther (Reichs Governor)

16 Mar 1933 - 08 May 1945 Franz Xavier Ritter von Epp .................. 1868-1946 NSDAP

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

02 Feb 1817 - 26 Oct 1825 Heinrich Aloys Graf von Reigersberg .......... 1770-1865

01 Jan 1826 - 02 Jan 1832 Georg Friedrich Freiherr von Zenter .......... 1752-1835

02 Jan 1832 - 01 Nov 1837 Friedrich August Koch

Reichsfreiherr von Gise ..................... 1783-1860

01 Nov 1837 - 01 Mar 1847 Karl von Abel ................................ 1788-1859

01 Mar - 01 Dec 1847 Friedrich August Karl Maria Philipp Joseph

Freiherr von zu Rhein ....................... 1802-1870

01 Dec 1847 - 14 Mar 1848 Ludwig Fürst von Ottingen-Wallerstein ........ 1791-1870

14 Mar - 29 Apr 1848 Klemens August Graf von Waldkirch ............ 1806-1858

(acting)

29 Apr 1848 - 18 Apr 1849 Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von Bray-Steinburg ... 1807-1899

18 Apr 1849 - 01 May 1859 Karl Ludwig Heinrich

von der Pforden (1st Time) .................. 1811-1880

01 May 1859 - 04 Oct 1864 Karl Freiherr von Schrenk

von Nozing .................................. 1806-1884

04 Oct - 04 Dec 1864 Maximilian von Neumayr ....................... 1810-1881

04 Dec 1864 - 31 Dec 1866 Karl Ludwig Heinrich Freiherr

von der Pforden (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1867 - 07 Mar 1870 Chlodwig Carl Victor, Fürst zu

Hohenlohe-Schillingfürst, Prinz

von Ratibor und Corvey ...................... 1819-1901

07 Mar 1870 - 25 Jul 1871 Otto Camillus Hugo Graf von

Bray-Steinburg (2nd Time)

21 Aug 1871 - 02 Jul 1872 Friedrich Adam Justus Freiherr

von Hegenberg-Dux ........................... 1810-1872

01 Oct 1872 - 04 Mar 1880 Adolf von Pfretzschner ....................... 1820-1901

04 Mar 1880 - 31 May 1890 Johann Freiherr von Lutz ..................... 1826-1890

01 Jun 1890 - 01 Mar 1903 Krafft Freiherr von Crailsheim ............... 1841-1926

01 Mar 1903 - 09 Feb 1912 Klemens Freiherr von Podewils-Dürnitz ........ 1850-1922

09 Feb 1912 - 10 Nov 1917 Georg Freiherr von Hertling .................. 1843-1919

11 Nov 1917 - 07 Nov 1918 Otto Ritter von Dandl ........................ 1868-1942

Minister-Presidents

08 Nov 1918 - 21 Feb 1919 Kurt Eisner .................................. 1867-1919

01 Mar - 17 Mar 1919 Martin Segitz ................................ 1853-1927

17 Mar 1919 - 16 Mar 1920 Johannes Hoffman ............................. 1867-1930

16 Mar 1920 - 21 Sep 1921 Gustav von Kahr .............................. 1862-1934

21 Sep 1921 - 08 Nov 1922 Hugo Graf von und zu Köfering

und Schönburg ............................... 1871-1944

08 Nov 1922 - 30 Jun 1924 Eugen Ritter von Knilling .................... 1865-1927

09 Nov 1923 Ernst Pöhner ................................. 1875-1925

(in opposition)

01 Jul 1924 - 16 Mar 1933 Heinrich Held ................................ 1868-1938

12 Apr 1933 - 01 Nov 1942 Ludwig Georg Siebert ......................... 1874-1942 NSDAP

01 Nov 1942 - 28 Apr 1945 Paul Giesler ................................. 1895-1945 NSDAP

__________________________________________________________________________________

 

Bavarian Soviet Republic

07 Apr 1919 Bayerisch Sowjet Republik (in Munich)

02 May 1919 Extinguished by intervention from the Imperial Army

Chairmen of the People's Council

22 Feb - 08 Apr 1919 Ernst Karl August Niekisch ................... 1889-1967

08 Apr - 12 Apr 1919 Ernst Toller ................................. 1893-1939

Chairmen of the Action Committee

13 Apr - 27 Apr 1919 Eugen Levine Niessen ......................... 1883-1919

27 Apr - 28 Apr 1919 Ernst Toller

28 Apr - 01 May 1919 Rudolf Eglhofer .............................. 1896-1919

__________________________________________________________________________________

Braunschweig (Brunswick)

28 Aug 1807 - 30 Oct 1813 Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel annexed by Westphalia

30 Oct - 06 Nov 1813 Allied occupation

06 Nov 1813 Duchy of Braunschweig

18 Oct 1884 Accession of the Duke of Cumberland blocked by Prussia

18 Oct 1884 - 01 Nov 1913 Under federal regency

08 Nov 1918 Freistaat Braunschweig (Free State of Brunswick)

09 Dec 1946 Part of Niedersachsen

Dukes

06 Nov 1813 - 16 Jun 1815 Welf, Friedrich Wilhelm ...................... 1771-1815

16 Jun 1815 - 20 Apr 1831 Welf, Karl II ................................ 1804-1873

20 Apr 1831 - 18 Oct 1884 Welf, Wilhelm ................................ 1806-1884

20 Apr 1884 - 02 Nov 1885 Wilhelm Otto Hans Hermann,

Görtz-Wrisberg, Graf von Schlitz ............ 1819-1889

(President of the Regency Council)

02 Nov 1885 - 13 Sep 1906 Hohenzollern, Albrecht, Fürst von Preussen ... 1837-1906

(Regent)

13 Sep 1906 - 05 Jun 1907 Albrecht von Otto ............................ 1836-1921

(President of the Regency Council)

05 Jun 1907 - 31 Oct 1913 Johann Albrecht, Herzog von

Mecklenburg-Schwerin ........................ 1837-1920

(Regent)

01 Nov 1913 - 08 Nov 1918 Welf, Ernst August I ......................... 1887-1953

04 Aug 1914 - 08 Nov 1918 Hohenzollern, Viktoria Luise von Preussen .... 1892-1980

President

10 Nov 1918 - 22 Feb 1919 August Ernst Reinhold Merges ................. 1870-1945

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 15 Apr 1945 The Reichsstatthalter for Anhalt

Chairmen of the People's Commissioners

10 Nov 1918 - 17 Apr 1919 Josef "Sepp" Oerter .......................... 1870-1928

Minister-Presidents

17 Apr 1919 - 22 Jun 1920 Heinrich Otto Jasper (1st Time) .............. 1875-1945

22 Jun 1920 - 25 Nov 1921 Josef Oerter

25 Nov 1921 - 23 Mar 1922 August Junke ................................. 1877-1926

23 Mar - 23 May 1922 Otto Friedrich Wilhelm Antrick ............... 1858-1924

23 May 1922 - 24 Dec 1924 Heinrich Otto Jasper

(2nd Time)

24 Dec 1924 - 14 Dec 1927 Gerhard August Marquordt ..................... 1881-1950

14 Dec 1927 - 01 Oct 1930 Heinrich Otto Jasper

(3rd Time)

01 Oct 1930 - 05 May 1933 Werner Küchenthal ............................ 1882-1976 NSDAP

05 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 Dietrich Klaggers ............................ 1891-1971

24 Apr 1945 - Jan 1946 Hubert Schlebusch ............................ 1893-1955

Jan - 09 Dec 1946 Alfred Kubel ................................. 1909-1999

__________________________________________________________________________________

Bremen

1358 - 1646 Member of the Hanseatic league

1646 - 1810 Free Imperial City of Bremen

13 Dec 1810 - 06 Nov 1813 French occupation

06 Nov 1813 Free Hanseatic City of Bremen

First Mayors

1853 - 31 Dec 1856 Johann Smidt

01 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1863 Arnold Duckwitz

01 Jan 1864 - 31 Dec 1867 Karl Friedrich Cottreid Moor

(1st Time)

01 Jan 1868 - 03 Oct 1871 Johann Daniel Meier

03 Oct 1871 - 31 Dec 1875 Otto Gildemeister (1st Time)

01 Jan 1876 - 12 Apr 1879 Friedrich Moritz Christian

Pfeiffer

12 Apr - 31 Dec 1879 Otto Gildemeister (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1880 - 1882 Friedrich Ludwig Grave

- 31 Dec 1882 Otto Gildemeister (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1883 Karl Friedrich Christian Buff

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1984 Otto Gildemeister (4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1885 Karl Friedrich Christian Buff

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1886 Otto Gildemeister (5th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1887 Stephan August Lürman

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1888 Karl Friedrich Christian Buff

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1889 Stephan August Lürman

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1890 Karl Friedrich Christian Buff

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1891 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1892 Stephan August Lürman

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1893 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1894 Stephan August Lürman

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1895 Albert Gröning (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1896 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1897 Albert Gröning (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1898 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1899 Friedrich August Schultz

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1900 Albert Gröning (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1901 Friedrich August Schultz

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1902 Albert Gröning (4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1903 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(5th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1904 Carl Georg Barkhausen

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1905 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(6th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1906 Carl Georg Barkhausen

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1907 Victor Wilhelm Marcus

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1908 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(7th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1909 Victor Wilhelm Marcus

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1910 Alfred Dominicus Pauli

(8th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1911 Carl Georg Barkhausen

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1912 Victor Wilhelm Marcus

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1913 Carl Georg Barkhausen

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1914 Karl Friedrich Stadtländer

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1915 Clemmens Carl Buff (1st Time) ..... 1853-1940

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1916 Carl Georg Barkhausen

(5th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1917 Clemmens Carl Buff (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1918 - 10 Jan 1919 Hermann Christian Hildebrand ...... 1849-1939

Chairmen of the Workers and Soldiers Council

14 Nov 1918 - 10 Jan 1919 Alfred Henke

10 Jan - 04 Feb 1919 Adam Frasunkiewicz

- Johann Knief

- Karl Jannek

First Mayors

04 Feb 1919 - 18 May 1920 Karl Deichmann .................... 1863-1940

18 May 1920 - 18 Mar 1933 Martin Donatus Ferdinand Donandt .. 1852-1937

18 Mar 1933 - 23 Oct 1934 Ernst Otto Richard Market ......... 1891-1957

05 May 1933 - 15 May 1942 Karl Röver ........................ 1889-1942

(Reichsstaathalter)

23 Oct 1934 - 22 Jan 1937 Karl Hermann Otto Heider .......... 1896-1960

22 Jan 1937 - 16 Jun 1944 Johann Heinrich Böhmcker .......... 1896-1944

15 May 1942 - 30 Apr 1945 Paul Wegener ...................... 1908-1993

(Reichsstaathalter)

16 Jun 1944 - 26 Apr 1945 Richard Duckwitz .................. 1886-1972

26 Apr - 30 Apr 1945 Johannes Schroers ................. 1885-1960

_______________________________________________________________________

Elsass-Lothringen (Alsace-Lorraine)

30 Sep 1681 Strassburg annexed by France

23 Feb 1766 Lorraine annexed by France

21 Aug 1870 Prussian occupation

10 May 1871 Ceded to Germany by Treaty of Frankfurt

04 Aug 1879 Elsass-Lothringen an imperial territory

31 May 1911 - 22 Nov 1918 Autonomy

11 Nov 1918 Strassburg Soviet proclaimed

12 Nov 1918 State sovereignty proclaimed

22 Nov 1918 French occupation

05 Dec 1918 Annexed by France

28 Jun 1919 Ceded to France by Germany by Treaty of Versailles

15 Jun 1940 - 20 Mar 1945 Annexed by Germany (see under Reichsgaue)

Military governor-general

21 Aug 1870 - 31 Aug 1871 Friedrich Graf von Bismark-Bohlen ............ 1818-1894

Reichsstatthalter

01 Sep 1871 - 30 Sep 1879 Edward von Möller ............................ 1814-1880

01 Oct 1879 - 17 Jun 1885 Edwin Freiherr von Manteuffel ................ 1809-1885

05 Oct 1885 - 1894 Chlodwig Karl Viktor Fürst zu

Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst ................... 1819-1901

Oct 1894 - 31 Oct 1907 Hermann Ernst Franz Fürst von

Hohenlohe-Langenburg und Graf

von Gleichen .............................. 1832-1913

01 Nov 1907 - 30 Apr 1914 Karl Leo Julius Graf von Wedel ............... 1842-1919

01 May 1914 - 14 Oct 1918 Nikolaus Michael Louis Johann

von Dallwitz ................................ 1855-1919

14 Oct - 21 Nov 1918 Rudolf Schwander ............................. 1868-1950

Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Strassburg Soviet

11 Nov - 21 Nov 1918 Johannes Rebholz ............................. 1885-1960

(in rebellion)

 

Civil Commissioner

26 Aug 1870 - 31 Aug 1871 Friedrich Christian Hubert

von Kühlwetter .............................. 1809-1882

Secretaries of State

01 Oct 1879 - 1880 Karl Joseph Benjamin Herzog .................. 1827-1902

Oct 1880 - 1887 Karl von Hofmann ............................. 1827-1910

1887 - 1901 Maximilian von Puttkamer ..................... 1831-1906

1901 - 1908 Ernst-Matthias von Köller .................... 1841-1928

1908 - 1914 Hugo Anton Marie Ernst Anna

Freiherr Zorn von Bulach .................... 1851-1921

14 Feb 1914 - 22 May 1916 Siegfried Friedrich Wilhelm

Erdmann Graf von Roedern .................... 1870-1954

01 Jun 1916 - 11 Oct 1918 Georg Freiherr von Tschammer und Quaritz ..... 1869-1918

11 Oct - 12 Nov 1918 Karl Hauss ................................... 1871-1925

__________________________________________________________________________________

Frankfurt

1372 Free Imperial City

19 Feb 1806 - 16 Feb 1810 Incorporated into the Prince-Primate's

territorial possessions

19 Feb 1806 Principality of Frankfurt

16 Feb 1810 - 14 Dec 1813 Grand Duchy of Frankfurt

19 Oct 1813 Occupied by Prussia

14 Dec 1813 Free City of Frankfurt

18 Jul 1866 Prussian administration

08 Oct 1866 Annexed by Prussia

 

Grand Dukes

16 Feb 1810 - 28 Oct 1813 Carl Theodor Reichsfreiherr

von Dalberg

28 Oct - 23 Dec 1813 Prince Eugène-Rose-Napoléon de

Beauharnais, prince de Venise

Governors-general

06 Nov - 31 Dec 1813 Philipp Prinz zu Hessen-Homburg

31 Dec 1813 - 20 Jun 1815 Heinrich XIII Fürst von

Reuss-Greiz

Senior Mayors

01 Jan 1814 - 03 Sep 1816 Adolf Karl von Humbracht

03 Sep 1816 - 31 Dec 1817 Johann Wilhelm Metzler

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1818 Georg Steitz

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1819 Johann Wilhelm Metzler

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1820 Carl Wilhelm Freiherr

von Günderrode (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1821 Johann Büchner

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1822 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1823 Johann Wilhelm Metzler

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1824 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1825 Johann Friedrich von Meyer

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1826 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1827 Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp

Freiherr von Malapert

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1828 Ferdinand Maximilian Stark

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1829 Johann Peter Hieronymus Hoch

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1830 Friedrich Wilhelm Philipp

Freiherr von Malapert

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1831 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1832 Johann Gerhard Christian

Thomas (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1833 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(5th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1834 Ferdinand Maximilian Stark

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1835 Johann Gerhard Christian

Thomas (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1836 Ferdinand Maximilian Stark

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1837 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(6th Time)

01 Jan - 01 Nov 1838 Johann Gerhard Christian

Thomas (3rd Time)

01 Nov - 31 Dec 1838 Georg Friedrich von Guaita

(6th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1839 Johann Friedrich von Meyer

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1840 Gottfried Scharff (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1841 Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm

Freiherr von Günderrode

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1842 Gottfried Scharff (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1843 Johann Friedrich von Meyer

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1844 Gottfried Scharff (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1845 Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1846 Gottfried Scharff (4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1847 Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm

Freiherr von Günderrode

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1848 Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1849 Samuel Gottlieb Müller (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1850 Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1851 Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm

Freiherr von Günderrode

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1852 Johann Georg Neuburg (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1853 Carl Heinrich Georg von Heyden

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1854 Johann Georg Neuburg (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1855 Ernst Ludwig von Harnier

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1856 Johann Georg Neuburg (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1857 Ernst Ludwig von Harnier

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1858 Johann Georg Neuburg (4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1859 Ernst Ludwig von Harnier

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1860 Samuel Gottlieb Müller (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1861 Friedrich Carl Hector Wilhelm

Freiherr von Günderrode

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1862 Johann Georg Neuburg (5th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1863 Samuel Gottlieb Müller (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1864 Anton Heinrich Emil von Oven

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1865 Philipp Friedrich Gwinner

01 Jan - 18 Jul 1866 Carl Constanz Victor Fellner ................. 1807-1866

Governor

18 Jul - 08 Oct 1866 Ernst Eduard Vogel von

Falckenstein ................................ 1797-1885

 

Chief of the Civil Administration

01 Jan 1814 - 1815 Johann Aloys Joseph Reichsfreiherr

von Hügel ................................... 1794-1825

__________________________________________________________________________________

Hamburg

1189 - 1510 Free City of Hamburg

1358 - 1669 Member of the Hanseatic league

1510 - 1806 Free Imperial City of Hamburg

13 Nov 1806 Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg

19 Nov 1806 - 31 May 1813 French occupation (annexed 13 Dec 1810)

20 Dec 1819 Free Hanseatic City of Hamburg

01 Apr 1938 Hanseatic City of Hamburg

First Mayors

01 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862 Friedrich Sieveking (1st Time)

01 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864 Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1865 Friedrich Sieveking (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1866 - 31 Dec 1867 Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1868 Friedrich Sieveking (3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1869 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1870 Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller

(3rd Time)

01 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(2nd Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1873 Nicolaus Ferdinand Haller

(4th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1874 Hermann Gossler

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1875 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(3rd Time

01 Jan 1876 - 31 Dec 1877 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1878 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(4th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1879 Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1880 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1881 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(5th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1882 Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1883 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(3rd Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1884 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(6th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1885 Hermann Anthony Cornelius Weber

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1886 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(4th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1887 Gustav Heinrich Kirschenpauer

(7th Time

14 Mar 1887 - 31 Dec 1888 Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1889 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1890 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1891 Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1892 Carl Friedrich Petersen

(3rd Time

01 Jan 1892 - 31 Dec 1893 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1894 Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1895 Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1896 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(3rd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1897 Johannes Georg Andreas Versmann

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1898 Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1899 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(4th Time)

01 Jan - 15 Sep 1900 Johannes Christian Eugen Lehmann

(3rd Time

15 Sep 1900 - 31 Dec 1901 Georg Hachmann (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1902 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(5th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1903 Johann Heinrich Burchard

(1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1904 Georg Hachmann (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1904 - 31 Dec 1905 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(6th Time

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1906 Johann Heinrich Burchard

(2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1907 Johann Otto Stamann

01 Jan - 27 Mar 1908 Johannes Georg Möckeberg

(7th Time

27 Mar 1908 - 31 Dec 1909 Johann Heinrich Burchard

(3rd Time

01 Jan 1910 - 31 Dec 1911 Maximilian Predöhl (1st Time)

01 Jan - 06 Sep 1912 Johann Heinrich Burchard

(3rd Time

06 Sep 1912 - 31 Dec 1913 Carl August Schroeder (1st Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1914 Maximilian Predöhl (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1915 Werner von Meller (1st Time) ....... 1853-1937

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1916 Carl August Schroeder (2nd Time)

01 Jan - 31 Dec 1917 Maximilian Predöhl (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1918 - 31 Dec 1919 Werner von Meller (2nd Time)

Chairmen of the Workers' and Soldiers' Council (in opposition)

12 Nov 1918 - 11 Jan 1919 Heinrich Lauffenberg ............... 1872-1932

11 Jan - 31 Mar 1919 Carl Hense ......................... 1861-1946

Minister-Presidents

01 Jan - 02 Feb 1920 Gustav Friedrich Carl Johann Sthamer 1856-1921

02 Feb 1920 - 03 Jan 1924 Arnold Friedrich Georg Diesrel ..... 1857-1924

09 Jan 1924 - 31 Dec 1929 Carl Wilhelm Petersen (1st Time) ... 1868-1933

01 Jan 1930 - 31 Dec 1931 Rudolf Adolf Wilhelm Ross .......... 1872-1951

01 Jan 1932 - 08 Mar 1933 Carl Wilhelm Petersen (2nd Time)

08 Mar 1933 - 30 Jul 1936 Carl Vincent Krogmann .............. 1889-1978

30 Jul 1936 - 03 Mar 1945 Karl Otto Kurt Kaufmann ............ 1900-1969

(Reichsstaathalter from 16 May 1933)

________________________________________________________________________

Hannover

19 Dec 1692 Electorate of Braunschweig und Lüneburg

(also styled Electorate of Hanover)

01 Apr 1806 Annexed by Prussia

12 Nov 1806 French occupation

01 Mar 1810 - 29 Oct 1813 Incorporated into Westphalia

01 Aug 1714 - 20 Jun 1837 Personal union with Great Britain

12 Oct 1814 - 20 Sep 1866 Kingdom of Hanover

20 Sep 1866 Annexed by Prussia

Princes

1305 - 24 Apr 1367 Ernst I ...................................... 1305-1367

24 Apr 1367 - 13 Dec 1394 Otto I "der Quade" ........................... 1340-1394

13 Dec 1394 - 1435 Otto II "der Einäugige" ...................... 1380-1464

Kings

06 Nov 1813 - 29 Jan 1820 Welf, Georg III .............................. 1738-1820

29 Jan 1820 - 26 Jan 1830 Welf, Georg IV ............................... 1762-1830

26 Jan 1830 - 20 Jun 1837 Welf, Wilhelm Heinrich ....................... 1765-1837

20 Jun 1837 - 18 Nov 1851 Welf, Ernst August ........................... 1771-1851

18 Nov 1851 - 20 Sep 1866 Welf, Georg V ................................ 1819-1878

Minister-Presidents

20 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1850 Alexander Levin Graf Bennigsen ............... 1809-1893

28 Oct 1850 - 22 Nov 1851 Alexander Freiherr von Müchhausen ............ 1813-1886

22 Nov 1851 - 21 Nov 1853 Eduard Freiherr von Schele

zu Schelenburg .............................. 1805-1875

22 Nov 1853 - 31 Jul 1855 Eduard Christian von Lütcken ................. 1800-1865

01 Aug 1855 - Dec 1862 Eduard Graf Kielmansegg-Gülzow ............... 1804-1872

Dec 1862 - 21 Oct 1865 Wilhelm, Freiherr

von Hammerstein ............................. 1801-1872

21 Oct 1865 - 28 Jun 1866 Georg Heinrich Justus Bacmeister ............. 1807-1890

__________________________________________________________________________________

Hessen

31 Mar 1567 Division into four lines, conventionally styled Hesse-Kassel,

Hesse-Marburg, Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Darmstadt

13 Aug 1806 Grossherzogtum Hessen (Grand Duchy of Hessen)

(informally styled Hessen-Darmstardt to 1866)

03 Sep 1866 Mainz, Worms and Hesse-Homburg ceded to Prussia

02 Mar 1919 - 05 May 1933 Volksstaates Hessen (People's State of Hesse)

 

Capital: Darmstadt.

Religion: Lutheran, Roman Catholic.

Anthem: "Hessenlied"

Motto: Gott, Ehre, Vaterland (God, Honour, Fatherland).

Grand Dukes

13 Aug 1806 - 06 Apr 1830 Reginar, Ludwig I ............................ 1753-1830

06 Apr 1830 - 16 Jun 1848 Reginar, Ludwig II ........................... 1777-1848

16 Jun 1848 - 13 Jun 1877 Reginar, Ludwig III .......................... 1806-1877

13 Jun 1877 - 13 Mar 1892 Reginar, Ludwig IV ........................... 1837-1892

13 Mar 1892 - 09 Nov 1918 Reginar, Ernst Ludwig ........................ 1868-1937

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 25 Mar 1945 Jakob Sprenger ............................... 1884-1945 NSDAP

Chairmen of the Council of State

01 Aug 1819 - 14 Feb 1829 Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Grolman .............. 1775-1829

15 Feb 1829 - 05 Mar 1848 Karl Wilhelm Heinrich,

Freiherr Du Bos du Thil ..................... 1777-1859

05 Mar - Jun 1848 Heinrich Wilhelm August

Freiherr von Gagern ......................... 1799-1880

Jun - Jul 1848 Carl Wilhelm Zimmermann ...................... 1781-1856

16 Jul 1848 - 01 Jun 1850 Heinrich Carl Jaup ........................... 1781-1860

01 Jun 1850 - 06 Apr 1871 Reinhard Karl Friedrich

Freiherr von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels ......... 1802-1880

06 Apr 1871 - 13 Sep 1872 Friedrich Friedrich von Lindelof ............. 1794-1882

13 Sep 1872 - May 1876 Karl Wilhelm Hofmann ......................... 1827-1910

May 1876 - May 1884 Philip Gustav August Julius Rinck

Freiherr von Starck ......................... 1825-1910

May 1884 - 1898 Jakob Finger ................................. 1825-1904

1898 - 29 Jan 1906 Carl Friedrich Bernhard Rothe ................ 1840-1906

04 Feb 1906 - 11 Nov 1918 Christian Wilhelm Karl von Ewald ............. 1852-1932

Minister-Presidents

11 Nov 1918 - 02 Mar 1928 Karl Ulrich .................................. 1853-1933 SPD

02 Mar 1928 - 13 Mar 1933 Bernhard Adelung ............................. 1876-1943 SPD

13 Mar - May 1933 Heinrich Josef Philipp Müller ................ 1896-1945 NSDAP

May - 23 Sep 1933 Ferdinand Werner ............................. 1876-1961 NSDAP

23 Sep 1933 - 01 Mar 1935 Philipp Wilhelm Jung ......................... 1884-1965 NSDAP

01 Mar 1935 - 25 Mar 1945 Jakob Sprenger ............................... s.a

__________________________________________________________________________________

Hesse-Homburg

1680 - 1708 Hesse-Homburg under Hesse-Darmstadt

1806 Under suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt

1815 Sovereignty restored

24 Mar 1866 Incorporated into Hesse-Darmstadt

03 Sep 1866 Ceded to Prussia

 

Landgrafen

1815 - 20 Jan 1820 Limburg, Friedrich V ......................... 1748-1820

20 Jan 1820 - 02 Apr 1829 Limburg, Friedrich VI ........................ 1769-1829

02 Apr 1829 - 19 Jan 1839 Limburg, Ludwig .............................. 1770-1839

19 Jan 1839 - 15 Dec 1846 Limburg, Philipp ............................. 1779-1846

15 Dec 1846 - 08 Sep 1848 Limburg, Gustav .............................. 1781-1848

08 Sep 1848 - 24 Mar 1866 Limburg, Ferdinand ........................... 1783-1866

__________________________________________________________________________________

Hesse-Kassel

31 Mar 1567 Landgrafschaft von Hesse-Kassel

15 May 1803 Kurfürstentum Hessen, continued to use this

style after 1806 abolition of the empire

28 Aug 1807 - 30 Oct 1813 Incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia

20 Sep 1866 Incorporated into Prussia

 

Kurfürst und Landgraf

15 May 1803 - 28 Aug 1807 Limburg, Wilhelm I (1st Time) ................ 1743-1821

Landgrafen

30 Oct 1813 - 27 Feb 1821 Limburg, Wilhelm I (2nd Time)

27 Feb 1821 - 20 Nov 1847 Limburg, Wilhelm II .......................... 1777-1847

20 Nov 1847 - 20 Sep 1866 Limburg, Friedrich Wilhelm I ................. 1802-1875

__________________________________________________________________________________

Lippe

1130 Herrschaft Lippe (Lordship of Lippe)

1530 Graftschaft Lippe (County of Lippe)

1616 Divided into four lines: Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Brake,

Lippe-Schwalenberg and Lippe-Alverdissen

1749 Lippe-Detmold is the last remaining line

16 Dec 1789 Fürstentum Lippe (Principality of Lippe)

12 Nov 1918 Freistaat Lippe (Free State of Lippe)

21 Jan 1947 Incorporated into Nordrhein-Westfalen

Princes

16 Dec 1789 - 04 Apr 1802 Haholt, Leopold I ............................ 1767-1802

04 Apr 1802 - 01 Jan 1851 Haholt, Leopold II ........................... 1800-1851

04 Apr 1802 - 03 Jul 1820 Pauline Fürstin von Anhalt-Bernberg .......... 1769-1820

(regent for Leopold II)

01 Jan 1851 - 08 Dec 1875 Haholt, Leopold III .......................... 1821-1875

08 Dec 1875 - 20 Mar 1895 Haholt, Gunther Friedrich Woldemar ........... 1824-1895

20 Mar 1895 - 13 Jan 1905 Haholt, Karl Alexander ....................... 1831-1905

22 Jun 1895 - 10 Jul 1897 Prinz Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe .............. 1859-1916

(Prince-regent)

10 Jul 1897 - 26 Sep 1904 Ernst Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld ............. 1842-1904

(Regent for Alexander)

13 Jan 1905 - 12 Nov 1918 Haholt, Leopold IV ........................... 1871-1949

(regent 26 Sep 1904 - 25 Oct 1905)

Reichsstatthalter

16 May 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer ................... 1891-1945 NSDAP

Chairmen of the State Presidium

13 Feb 1919 - 17 Dec 1920 Clemens Backer ............................... 1869-1961

17 Dec 1920 - 08 Jun 1921 Heinrich Hermann Drake ....................... 1881-1970

08 Jun - 14 Jun 1921 Wilhelm Meier

14 Jun 1921 - 07 Feb 1933 Heinrich Hermann Drake (2nd Time)

Ministers of State

07 Feb - 22 May 1933 Ernst Krappe ................................. 1891-1977 NSDAP

22 May 1933 - 1936 Hans Joachim Riecke .......................... 1899-1987 NSDAP

1936 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer

1936 - 03 Apr 1945 Adolf Wedderwille ............................ 1895-1947 NSDAP

(acting for Meyer)

09 May 1945 - 21 Jan 1947 Heinrich Hermann Drake (3rd Time)

__________________________________________________________________________________

Lübeck

1181 - 1189 Free Imperial City

1189 - 1192 Part of Saxony

1192 - 1217 Part of Holstein

1217 - 1226 Danish rule

1226 - 1806 Free City

1358 - 1669 Member of the Hanseatic league

1806 - 1813 French occupation

1813 - 1937 Free Hanseatic city of Lübeck

31 Mar 1937 End of Free City status, incorporated into Prussia

 

Reichsstatthalter

26 May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937 Friedrich Hildebrandt ...................... 1898-1948 NSDAP

Presiding Mayors

01 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1850 Heinrich Brehmer (1st Time)

01 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1852 Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl (1st Time)

01 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1854 Bernhard Heinrich Frister (1st Time)

01 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1856 Karl Ludwig Röck (1st Time)

01 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1858 Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1860 Karl Ludwig Röck (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862 Heinrich Brehmer (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864 Karl Ludwig Röck (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1866 Heinrich Brehmer (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1868 Karl Ludwig Röck (4th Time)

01 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1870 Theodor Curtius (1st Time)

01 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872 Heinrich Theodor Behn (1st Time)

01 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1874 Theodor Curtius (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1876 Heinrich Theodor Behn (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1878 Theodor Curtius (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1880 Heinrich Theodor Behn (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1882 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (1st Time)

01 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1884 Heinrich Theodor Behn (4th Time)

01 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1886 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1888 Heinrich Theodor Behn (5th Time)

01 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1890 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1892 Heinrich Theodor Behn (6th Time)

01 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1894 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (4th Time)

01 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1896 Heinrich Theodor Behn (7th Time)

01 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1898 Wilhelm Brehmer (1st Time)

01 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1900 Heinrich Klug (1st Time)

01 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1902 Wilhelm Brehmer (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1904 Heinrich Klug (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1906 Johann Georg Eschenburg (1st Time)

01 Jan 1907 - 13 Oct 1908 Ernst Christian Johannes Schön

01 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1910 Johann Georg Eschenburg (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1912 Johann Hermann Eschenburg (1st Time)

01 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1914 Johann Georg Eschenburg (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1916 Johann Hermann Eschenburg (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1919 Emil Ferdinand Fehling ........................ 1847-1927

01 Jan 1920 - 1926 Johann Martin Andreas Neumann ................. 1865-1928

1926 - 26 May 1933 Paul B. Heinrich Löwigt ....................... 1873-1934

Oberbürgermeister

26 May 1933 - 05 May 1945 Otto Heinrich Drechsler ....................... 1895-1945 NSDAP

___________________________________________________________________________________

Mecklenburg-Schwerin

14 Jun 1815 Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Elevated to a Grand Duchy

14 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1933 Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

01 Jan 1934 United with Mecklenburg-Strelitz as

Mecklenburg (see under Gaue)

 

Grand Dukes

14 Jun 1815 - 01 Feb 1837 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz I

01 Feb 1837 - 07 Mar 1842 Pribislaw, Paul Friedrich .................... 1800-1842

07 Mar 1842 - 15 Apr 1883 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz II ................ 1823-1883

15 Apr 1883 - 10 Apr 1897 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz III ............... 1851-1897

10 Apr 1897 - 09 Apr 1901 Johann Albrecht -Regent ...................... 1857-1920

10 Apr 1897 - 14 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz IV ................ 1882-1945

Reichsstatthalter

26 May - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt ........................ 1898-1948 NSDAP

Prime Ministers

14 May 1783 - 17 May 1784 Carl Friedrich Graf von Bassewitz

17 May 1784 - 26 Jan 1800 Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf Cölpin ......... 1720-1800

26 Jan 1800 - 24 Nov 1808 Bernhard Friedrich Graf von Bassewitz ........ 1756-1816

24 Nov 1808 - 12 Apr 1836 August Georg Freiherr

von Brandenstein ............................ 1755-1836

1836 - 25 Apr 1837 Leopold Engelke von Plessen .................. 1769-1837

1837 - 1840 Christian Friedrich Krüger

1840 - 1850 Ludwig von Lützow ............................ 1793-1872

12 Apr 1850 - 1858 Hans Adolf Karl Graf von Bülow

29 May 1858 - 1869 Jasper Joachim Bernhard Wilhelm von Oertzen .. 1801-1874

1869 - 15 Dec 1885 Henning Carl Friedrich Graf

von Bassewitz ............................... 1814-1885

Jan 1886 - 1901 Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow

1901 - 1914 Karl Heinrich Ludwig Graf

von Bassewitz-Levetzow ...................... 1855-1921

1914 - 09 Nov 1918 Adolf Ferdinand Helmut August

Wilhelm Langfeld ............................ 1857-1935

Ministers of State

09 Sep 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Hugo Wendorff ................................ 1864-1945

28 Jul 1920 - 14 Jan 1921 Hermann Reincke-Bloch ........................ 1867-1928

14 Jan 1921 - 18 Mar 1924 Johannes Stelling ............................ 1877-1933

18 Mar 1924 - 08 Jul 1926 Joachim Freiherr von Brandenstein ............ 1864-1941

08 Jul 1926 - 10 Jul 1929 Paul Schroder ................................ 1875-1932

10 Jul 1929 - 13 Jul 1932 Karl Eschenburg .............................. 1877-1943

13 Jul 1932 - 10 Aug 1933 Walter Granzow ............................... 1887-1952

10 Aug - 31 Dec 1933 Hans Egon Engell ............................. 1897-1974 NSDAP

__________________________________________________________________________________

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

28 Jun 1815 Elevated to a Grand Duchy

14 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1933 Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz

01 Jan 1934 United with Mecklenburg-Schwerin as

Mecklenburg (see under Gaue)

 

Grand Dukes

28 Jun 1815 - 06 Nov 1816 Pribislaw, Karl II Ludwig Friedrich

06 Nov 1816 - 06 Sep 1860 Pribislaw, Georg Wilhelm ..................... 1779-1860

06 Sep 1860 - 30 May 1904 Pribislaw, Friedrich Wilhelm ................. 1819-1904

30 May 1904 - 11 Jun 1914 Pribislaw, Adolf Friedrich V ................. 1848-1914

11 Jun 1914 - 23 Feb 1918 Pribislaw, Adolf Friedrich VI ................ 1882-1918

27 Feb - 14 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz IV ................ 1882-1945

(Regent)

Reichsstatthalter

26 May - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt

Ministers

1760 - 1769 Christian Arnold von Zesterfleth

1769 - Apr 1784 Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf Cöpin

Apr 1784 - 1794 .....

1794 - 1800 Otto Ulrich von Dewitz ....................... 1747-1808

1800 - 1827 Karl Wilhelm Friedrich David von Pentz ....... 1776-1827

1827 - 1836 August Otto Ernest Freiherr

von Ortzen auf Klokow ....................... 1777-1837

1837 - 1848 Otto Ludwig Christian

von Dewitz auf Sallnow ...................... 1780-1864

1848 - 1850 Vacant

1850 - 1862 Wilhelm von Bernstorff

01 Nov 1862 - 1868 Bernhard Ernst von Bülow ..................... 1815-1879

1868 - 1872 Wilhelm Karl Konrad Freiherr

von Hammerstein-Loxten ...................... 1843-1905

1872 - 1885 Andreas von Piper ............................ 1805-1880

1885 - 1907 Friedrich Wilhelm Otto Ulrich

Karl Helmut von Dewitz ...................... 1843-1928

1907 - 10 Nov 1918 Heinrich Bossart ............................. 1857-1930

Ministers of State

11 Nov 1918 - 07 Jan 1919 Peter Franz Stubmann ......................... 1876-1942

07 Jan - 13 Oct 1919 Hans Krüger .................................. 1884-1933

13 Oct 1919 - 02 Aug 1923 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

Freiherr von Reibnitz (1st Time) ............ 1877-1937

02 Aug 1923 - 13 Mar 1928 Karl Schwabe ................................. 1877-1938

13 Mar 1928 - 12 Apr 1929 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

Freiherr von Reibnitz (2nd Time)

12 Apr - 16 Apr 1929 Kurt Häntzschel .............................. 1889-1941

(Reichskommissar)

16 Apr 1929 - 04 Dec 1931 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

Freiherr von Reibnitz (3rd Time)

04 Dec 1931 - 27 May 1933 Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand von Ferdinand ..... 1888-1942

27 May - 31 Dec 1933 Fritz Stichtenoth ............................ 1895-1935 NSDAP

__________________________________________________________________________________

Nassau

30 Aug 1806 Duchy of Nassau

20 Dec 1866 Annexed by Prussia

Dukes

30 Aug 1806 - 24 Mar 1816 von Nassau, Friedrich August ................. 1738-1816

30 Aug 1806 - 09 Jan 1816 von Nassau, Friedrich Wilhelm ................ 1768-1816

(co-ruler)

09 Jan 1816 - 20 Aug 1839 von Nassau, Wilhelm I ........................ 1792-1839

20 Aug 1839 - 20 Sep 1866 von Nassau, Adolf V .......................... 1817-1905

Ministers of State

30 Aug 1806 - 1811 Hans Christoph Ernst Freiherr von Gagern ..... 1766-1852

30 Aug 1806 - 22 Jan 1834 Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr Marschall

von Bieberstein (jointly to 1811) ........... 1770-1834

1834 - 1842 Karl Wilderich Graf von Walderdorff .......... 1799-1862

1842 - 1843 Friedrich George Karl Anton

Freiherr von Bock-Hermsdorff ................ 1798-1866

1843 - 1848 Ernst August Freiherr von Dugern

1828 - 02 Jan 1849 Jacob Ludwig Philipp Franz August Hergenhahn . 1804-1874

11 Jun 1849 - 07 Feb 1852 Friedrich Gerhard Freiherr von Winzingerode .. 1799-1870

07 Feb 1852 - 31 Jul 1866 August Ludwig Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-

Berleburg ................................... 1788-1874

01 Aug - 22 Dec 1866 Jacob Ludwig Philipp Franz August Hergenhahn (2nd Time)

__________________________________________________________________________________

Oldenburg

1148 County of Oldenburg

29 Dec 1774 Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg

Nov 1806 - 08 Jan 1807 Occupied by Holland

10 Dec 1810 - 30 Nov 1813 Annexed by France

01 Dec 1813 Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg restored

28 May 1829 Elevated to a Grand Duchy

11 Nov 1918 - 09 Dec 1946 Freistaat Oldenburg

09 Dec 1946 Part of Niedersachsen

Dukes

10 Dec 1810 - 02 Jul 1813 Oldenburg, Wilhelm (2nd Time)

02 Jul 1823 - 21 May 1829 Oldenburg, Peter I ............................ 1755-1829

Grand Dukes

21 May 1829 - 27 Feb 1853 Oldenburg, August ............................. 1783-1853

27 Feb 1853 - 13 Jun 1900 Oldenburg, Peter II ........................... 1827-1900

13 Jun 1900 - 11 Nov 1918 Oldenburg, Friedrich August II ................ 1852-1931

Reichsstatthalter für Oldenburg und Bremen

05 May 1933 - 15 May 1942 Carl George Röver ............................. 1889-1942 NSDAP

15 May 1942 - 23 May 1945 Paul Wegener .................................. 1908-1993 NSDAP

Chairmen of the State Ministeries

12 Oct 1814 - 30 Jun 1842 Karl Ludwig Friedrich Josef

Freiherr von Brandenstein .................... 1760-1847

01 Jul 1842 - 09 Sep 1843 Günther Heinrich Freiherr von Berg ............ 1765-1843

09 Sep 1843 - 01 Aug 1848 Wilhelm Ernst Freiherr

von Beaulieu-Marconnay ....................... 1786-1859

01 Aug 1848 - 13 Aug 1849 Johann Heinrich Jakob Schlifer ................ 1760-1867

13 Aug 1849 - 01 May 1851 Christian Diedrich von Buttel ................. 1801-1878

01 May 1851 - 23 Jun 1874 Peter Friedrich Ludwig

Freiherr von Rössing ......................... 1805-1874

23 Jun 1874 - 01 Oct 1876 Karl Heinrich Ernst von Berg .................. 1810-1894

01 Oct 1876 - 14 Mar 1890 Friedrich Andreas Ruhstrat .................... 1818-1896

14 Mar 1890 - 19 Aug 1900 Gerhard Friedrich Günther Jansen .............. 1831-1914

19 Aug 1900 - 17 Aug 1908 Wilhelm Friedrich Willich ..................... 1846-1917

17 Aug 1908 - 03 Jan 1916 Friedrich Julius Heinrich Ruhstray ............ 1854-1916

03 Jan 1916 - 06 Nov 1918 Franz Friedrich Paul Ruhstrat ................. 1859-1935

President of the Directory

14 Nov 1918 - 21 Jun 1919 Bernhard Kuhnt ................................ 1877-1946

Minister-presidents

21 Jun 1919 - 17 Apr 1923 Theodor Johann Tantzen (1st Time) ............. 1877-1947

17 Apr 1923 - 13 Jul 1930 Eugen von Finck ............................... 1860-1930

14 Dec 1930 - 16 Jun 1932 Friedrich Kassebohm ........................... 1872-1951

16 Jun 1932 - 06 May 1933 Carl George Röver

06 May 1933 - 23 May 1945 Georg Karl Joel ............................... 1898-1981 NSDAP

16 May 1945 - 09 Dec 1946 Theodor Johann Tantzen (2nd Time)

___________________________________________________________________________________

Preussen (Prussia)

20 May 965 Founding of Nordmark

11 Jun 1157 Mark Brandenburg

1230 Preußen part of the Teutonic Order

09 Sep 1309 East Prussia the seat of the Grand Master

06 Mar 1454 Prussia in personal union with Poland

19 Oct 1466 - 19 Sep 1657 Prussia a Polish fief

09 Apr 1525 Herzogtum von Preußen (Duchy of Prussia)

18 Jul 1618 In Personal union with Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia)

18 Jan 1701 Konigreich von Preußen (Kingdom of Prussia)

22 Jan 1758 - Sep 1762 East Prussia occupied by Russia, annexed 24 Jan 1758

05 Aug 1772 West Prussia annexed

Dec 1812 - Jan 1813 East Prussia cccupied by France

01 Jul 1867 - 31 Dec 1870 Chair of the North German Confederation

01 Jan 1871 Part of German Empire

09 Nov 1918 Freistaat von Preußen (Free State of Prussia)

13 Mar - 17 Mar 1920 Failed 'Kapp Putsch' against the Prussian government

20 Jul 1932 End of the Prussian central government

15 Sep 1935 Free State de facto abolished

25 Feb 1947 Prussia dissolved, areas west of the Oder and Niese rivers

and annexed in to Poland and USSR.

Capital: Berlin.

Languages: German, Polish.

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Preußenlied" ("Song of Prussia")

National Motto: Gott Mit Uns (God with us).

National Emblem: Black Eagel.

Currency: Reichsmark.

 

Reichskomissaren

20 Jul - 03 Dec 1932 Franz Josef Hermann Michael Maria von Papen ... 1879-1969

03 Dec 1932 - 28 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher ........................... 1882-1934

Reichsstatthalter

25 Apr 1933 - 30 Apr 1945 Adolf Hitler .................................. 1889-1945 NSDAP

 

 

Presidents of the Governemnt

09 Nov - 11 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert ............................... 1871-1925 SPD

11 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1920 Paul Hirsch ................................... 1868-1940 SPD

13 Mar - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp ................................. 1858-1922

(in rebellion)

27 Mar 1920 - 21 Apr 1921 Otto Braun .................................... 1872-1955 SPD

(1st Time)

21 Apr - 05 Nov 1921 Adam Stegerwald ............................... 1874-1945

05 Nov 1921 - 18 Feb 1925 Otto Braum (2nd Time)

18 Feb - 06 Apr 1925 Wilhelm Marx .................................. 1863-1946

06 Apr 1925 - 10 Apr 1933 Otto Braun (3rd Time)

10 Apr 1933 - 22 Apr 1945 Hermanm Wilhelm Göring ........................ 1893-1946 NSDAP

___________________________________________________________________________________

Sachsen

25 Dec 1356 Herzogtum von Sachsen (Duchy of Saxony)

11 Dec 1806 - 13 Nov 1918 Königreich von Sachsen (Kingdom of Sachsen)

13 Nov 1918 Freistaat Sachsen (Free State of Saxony)

Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919 Saxon Soviet (in rebellion)

1945 Schwartzenberg Free State proclaimed

by Anti-Nazi resistance for three weeks in

unoccupied Western Saxony

 

Capital: Dresden.

Language: German, Sorbian.

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Jewish.

Anthem: "Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen! (Praise your happiness, blessed Saxony!)

Emblem: Crancelin on Sable and Or.

Motto: Providentiae Memor.

Currency to 1873: Saxon Thaler.

 

 

Monarchs

20 Dec 1806 - 05 May 1827 Wettin, Friedrich August I

05 May 1827 - 06 Jun 1836 Wettin, Anton ............................ 1755-1836

06 Jun 1836 - 09 Aug 1854 Wettin, Friedrich August II .............. 1797-1854

09 Aug 1854 - 29 Oct 1873 Wettin, Johann ........................... 1801-1873

29 Oct 1873 - 19 Jun 1902 Wettin, Albrecht V ....................... 1828-1902

19 Jun 1902 - 15 Oct 1904 Wettin, Georg Friedrich August ........... 1832-1904

15 Oct 1904 - 13 Nov 1918 Wettin, Friedrich August II .............. 1865-1932

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 07 May 1945 Martin Mutschmann ........................ 1879-1947 NSDAP

Minister-Presidents

01 Dec 1831 - Sep 1843 Bernard August, Freiherr

von Lindenau

Sep 1843 - 13 Mar 1848 Julius Traugott Jakob

von Könneritz

16 Mar 1848 - 24 Feb 1849 Alexander Karl Hermann Braun ............. 1807-1868

24 Feb - 02 May 1849 Gustav Friedrich Held .................... 1804-1857

02 May 1849 - 28 May 1858 Ferdinand von Zschinski .................. 1797-1858

28 Oct 1858 - 15 Aug 1866 Ferdinand, Freiherr von Friesen .......... 1809-1886

15 Aug 1866 - 01 Oct 1871 Johann Paul, Freiherr

von Falkenstein ......................... 1801-1882

01 Oct 1871 - 01 Nov 1876 Richard, Reichsfreiherr

von Friesen ............................. 1808-1884

01 Nov 1876 - 25 Mar 1891 Georg Friedrich Alfred,

Graf von Fabrice ........................ 1818-1891

25 Mar - 23 Dec 1891 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm

von Gerber .............................. 1823-1891

24 Dec 1891 - 12 Feb 1895 Julius Hans von Thümmel .................. 1824-1895

12 Feb 1895 - 15 Jun 1901 Heinrich Rudolf

von Metzsch-Reichenbach ................. 1836-1927

30 Apr 1906 - 01 Dec 1910 Conrad Wilhelm von Ruger ................. 1837-1916

01 Dec 1910 - 26 Jul 1912 Viktor Alexander von Otto ................ 1852-1912

26 Jul 1912 - 21 May 1914 Max Clemens Lothar, Freiherr

von Hausen .............................. 1846-1922

21 May 1914 - 26 Oct 1918 Heinrich Gustav Beck ..................... 1857-1933

26 Oct - 13 Nov 1918 Karl Rudolf Heinz ........................ 1865-1928

15 Nov 1918 - 21 Jan 1919 Robert Richard Lipinski .................. 1867-1936

14 Mar 1919 - 04 May 1920 Georg Grandauer .......................... 1866-1946

04 May 1920 - 21 May 1923 Johann Wilhelm Buck ...................... 1869-1945

21 Mar - 29 Oct 1923 Erich Zeigner ............................ 1886-1949

29 Oct - 31 Oct 1923 Karl Rudolf Heinze (2nd Time)

01 Nov 1923 - 04 Jan 1924 Alfred Karl Fellisch ..................... 1884-1973

04 Jan 1924 - 25 Jun 1929 Max Wilhelm August Heidt ................. 1872-1933

25 Jun 1929 - 06 May 1930 Wilhelm Robert Ferdinand Bünger .......... 1870-1937

06 May 1930 - 10 May 1933 Karl Alfred Walter Schieck ............... 1874-1946

10 May 1933 - 28 Feb 1935 Manfred Freiherr von Killingen ........... 1886-1944 NSDAP

28 Feb 1935 - 07 May 1945 Martin Mutschmann ........................ s.a

______________________________________________________________________________

Sachs-Lauenburg

1806 - 1810 Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg occupied by France

13 Dec 1810 - 1813 Annexed by France

09 Jun 1815 (hours) Annexed by Prussia

09 Jun 1815 Incorporated into Denmark

16 Nov 1864 - 20 Aug 1865 Austro-Prussian administration

20 Aug 1865 In personal-union with Prussia

01 Jul 1876 Incorporated into Prussia, part of Schleswig-Holstein,

style Herzogtum Sachs-Lauenburg continued

Herzog von Lauenburg (Dukes of Lauenburg)

13 Mar 1808 - 03 Dec 1839 Oldemburg, Frederik VI of Denmark

03 Dec 1839 - 20 Jan 1848 Oldemburg, Christian VIII of Denmark

20 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863 Oldemburg, Frederik VII of Denmark

15 Nov 1863 - 16 Nov 1864 Oldemburg, Christian IX of Denmark

20 Aug 1865 - 30 Jun 1876 Hohenzollern, Wilhelm I of Prussia

18 Mar 1890 - 30 Jul 1898 Prinz Otto von Bismark-Schonhausen ....... 1815-1898

______________________________________________________________________________

Schaumburg-Lippe

19 Jul 1647 County of Schaumburg-Lippe separated from Lippe

18 Apr 1807 Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe

16 Nov 1918 Free State of Schaumburg Lippe

01 May 1946 Incorporated into Niedersachsen

Princes

18 Apr 1807 - 21 Nov 1860 Haholt, Georg I Wilhelm .................. 1787-1860

21 Nov 1860 - 08 May 1893 Haholt, Adolf I .......................... 1817-1893

08 May 1893 - 29 Apr 1911 Haholt, Georg II ......................... 1846-1911

29 Apr 1911 - 16 Nov 1918 Haholt, Adolf II ......................... 1883-1936

Reichsstatthalter

16 May 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer ............... s.a

Ministers of State

1849 - 1871 Eduard von Lauer-Münchhofen

1885 - 1895 Heinrich Spring

1895 - 19 Nov 1897 Martin Georg Martin von Wegnern .......... 1855-1897

1898 - 04 Dec 1918 Friedrich Rudolf Ernst

Freiherr von Feilitzsch ................. 1858-1942

Chairman of the Council of State

04 Dec 1918 - 14 Mar 1919 Heinrich Lorenz .......................... 1870-1947 SPD

State Councillors

14 Mar 1919 - 22 May 1922 Heinrich Friedrich Otto Bömers ........... 1857-1931

22 May 1922 - 28 May 1925 Konrad Wippermann ........................ 1858-1935

28 May 1925 - 07 Oct 1927 Erich Steinbrecher

07 Oct 1927 - 07 Mar 1933 Heinrich Lorenz

01 Apr - 23 May 1933 Hans Joachim Riecke ...................... 1899-1987 NSDAP

State President

23 May 1933 - 17 May 1945 Karl Heinrich Dreier ..................... 1898-1974 NSDAP

Minister

1945 - 30 Apr 1946 Heinrich Hermann Wilhelm Drake ........... 1881-1970 SPD

______________________________________________________________________________

Thüringen Duchies and Principalities

Reuss

Reuss aelterer Linie (Reuss Senior Line)

 

17 Mar 1768 Reuß-Untergrei and Reuß-Obergreiz combine to re-form,

Reuß-Greiz, encompassing the senior line polity

12 May 1778 Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie

11 Nov 1918 Freistaat Reuß älterer Linie (Free State of Reuss Senior Line)

17 Apr 1919 United with Reuss junior line as Volksstaat Reuß

(People's State of Reuss)

01 May 1920 Part of Thuringia

Princes

17 Mar 1768 - 28 Jun 1800 Reuß, Heinrich XI ........................ 1722-1800

28 Jun 1800 - 29 Jan 1817 Reuß, Heinrich XIII ...................... 1747-1817

29 Jun 1817 - 31 Oct 1836 Reuß, Heinrich XIX ....................... 1790-1836

31 Oct 1836 - 08 Nov 1859 Reuß, Heinrich XX ........................ 1794-1859

08 Nov 1859 - 19 Apr 1902 Reuß, Heinrich XXII ...................... 1846-1902

19 Apr 1902 - 11 Nov 1918 Reuß, Heinrich XXIV ...................... 1878-1927

15 Oct - 11 Nov 1918 Heinrich XXVII Fürst Reuß jüngere Linie .. 1858-1928

(Regent)

Government and Konsistorial Presidents

1782 - 1841 Franz Christian Ferdinand von Grün ....... 1758-1841

1841 - 1848 Ludwig Freiherr von und zu Mannsbach ..... 1794-1872

01 Jul 1848 - 06 May 1861 Franz Eduard Otto ........................ 1780-1865

07 May 1861 - 26 Jan 1870 Hugo Moritz Herman ....................... 1809-1870

01 Jun 1870 - 30 Sep 1874 Otto Theodor Meusel ...................... 1832-1906

01 Oct 1874 - 1888 Albert Friedrich Wilhelm Faber ........... 1817-....

1888 - 13 Apr 1892 Alfred August Mortag ..................... 1825-1892

1893 - 17 Sep 1900 Theodor von Dietel ....................... 1830-1900

1901 - 12 Nov 1918 Ernst August von Meding .................. 1855-1928

Leading Minister of State

12 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Wilhelm Oberländer ....................... 1869-1946

(co-Minister of Volksstaat Reuß from 17 Apr 1919)

______________________________________________________________________________

 

Reuss juengere Linie (Reuss junior line)

 

26 Apr 1802 Reuß-Schleiz and Reuß-Gera united as Reuß-Schleiz und Gera

01 Oct 1848 Fürstentum Reuß Jüngerer Linie

11 Nov 1918 Freistaat Reuß Jüngerer Linie (Free State of Reuss Junior Line)

17 Apr 1919 United with Reuss junior line as Volksstaat Reuß

(People's State of Reuss)

01 May 1920 Part of Thuringia

Princes

26 Apr 1802 - 17 Apr 1818 Reuß, Heinrich XLII ...................... 1752-1818

17 Apr 1818 - 19 Jun 1854 Reuß, Heinrich LXII ...................... 1785-1854

19 Jun 1854 - 11 Jul 1867 Reuß, Heinrich LXVII ..................... 1789-1867

11 Jul 1867 - 29 Mar 1913 Reuß, Heinrich XIV ....................... 1832-1913

29 Mar 1913 - 11 Nov 1918 Reuß, Heinrich XXVII ..................... s.a

Ministers of State

1825 - 1839 Gustav Adolph von Strauch ................ 1790-1839

1840 - 1855 Hermann Robert von Bretschneider ......... 1796-18..

1856 - 1862 Eduard von Geldern ....................... 1806-1866

1862 - 1877 Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou ........... 1809-1877

1877 - 1892 Emil von Beulwitz ........................ 1821-1893

1892 - 1896 Christian August Anton Vollert ........... 1826-1897

1896 - 1902 Walter Engelhardt

01 Oct 1902 - 07 Nov 1918 Karl Franz Ernst von Hinüber ............. 1854-1929

07 Nov - 10 Nov 1918 Paul Ruckdeschel ......................... 1864-1942

Leading Minister of State

10 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Karl Eduard Emil Franz Moritz

Freiherr von Brandenstein ............... 1875-1946

(co-Minister of Volksstaat Reuß from 17 Apr 1919)

______________________________________________________________________________

Sachs-Altenburg

13 Nov 1602 Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg

26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825 Personal union with Saxe-Gotha

09 Nov 1918 Freistaat Sachs-Altemburg

01 May 1920 Incorporated into Thuringia

Dukes

11 Feb 1825 - 29 Sep 1834 Wettin, Friedrich ........................ 1763-1834

29 Sep 1834 - 30 Nov 1848 Wettin, Josef ............................ 1789-1868

30 Nov 1848 - 03 Aug 1853 Wettin, Georg ............................ 1796-1853

03 Aug 1853 - 07 Feb 1908 Wettin, Ernst I .......................... 1826-1908

07 Feb 1908 - 13 Nov 1918 Wettin, Ernst II ......................... 1871-1955

Chairmen of the State Ministry

13 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1919 Wilhelm Tells ............................ 1871-1929

27 Mar 1919 - 30 Apr 1920 August Froelich .......................... 1877-1966 SPD

______________________________________________________________________________

Sachs-Coburg und Gotha

05 Mar 1680 Duchy of Saxe-Gotha

29 Jul 1735 Duchy of Saxe-Coburg

12 Nov 1826 Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

13 Nov 1918 Free State of Saxe-Coburg-Gothe

01 May 1920 Saxe-Gotha to Thüringen, Coburg to Bavaria

 

Dukes

12 Nov 1826 - 29 Jan 1844 Wettin, Ernst I .......................... 1784-1844

29 Jan 1844 - 22 Aug 1893 Wettin, Ernst II ......................... 1818-1893

22 Aug 1893 - 30 Jun 1900 Wettin, Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh ........ 1844-1900

30 Jun 1900 - 14 Nov 1918 Wettin, Carl Eduard ...................... 1884-1954

Chairmen of the State Council

09 Nov 1918 - 11 Jul 1919 Karl Hermann Quarck ...................... 1873-1932

11 Jul 1919 - 30 Jun 1920 Franz Klinger ............................ 1875-1933 SPD

Minister of State for Sachs Gotha

14 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Otto Geithner ............................ 1876-1948

______________________________________________________________________________

Sachs-Meiningen

05 Mar 1680 Herzogtum Sachs-Meiningen (Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen)

12 Nov 1918 People's State of Saxe-Meiningen

01 May 1920 To Thüringen

Dukes

05 Mar 1680 - 27 Apr 1706 Wettin, Bernhard I

27 Apr 1706 - 24 Nov 1724 Wettin, Ernst Ludwig I

(co-ruler)

27 Apr 1706 - 10 Mar 1746 Wettin, Friedrich Wilhelm

(co-ruler)

27 Apr 1706 - 27 Jan 1763 Wettin, Anton Ulrich

(co-ruler)

24 Nov 1744 - 28 Mar 1729 Wettin, Ernst Ludwog II

(co-ruler)

24 Nov 1724 - 23 Mar 1732 Wettin,Friedrich II Herzog

von Sachsen-Gotha (regent)

23 Mar 1732 - 18 Aug 1733 Wettin, Friedrich III Herzog

von Sachsen-Gotha (regent)

24 Nov 1724 - 28 Mar 1743 Wettin, Carl Friedrich

(co-ruler)

28 Mar 1743 - 10 Mar 1746 Wettin, Friedrich Wilhelm

(co-ruler)

27 Jan 1763 - 19 Nov 1775 Charlotte Amalie

von Hessen (regent)

27 Jan 1763 - 21 Jul 1782 Wettin, August Friedrich

27 Jan 1782 - 24 Dec 1803 Wettin, Georg I .......................... 1761-1803

24 Dec 1803 - 17 Dec 1821 Luise Eleonore

von Hohenlohe-Langenburg ................ 1763-1837

-Regent

24 Dec 1803 - 20 Sep 1866 Wettin, Bernhard II ...................... 1800-1882

20 Sep 1866 - 25 Jun 1914 Wettin, Georg II ......................... 1826-1914

25 Jun 1914 - 10 Nov 1918 Wettin, Bernhard III ..................... 1851-1918

Leading Minister

12 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Ludwig Freiherr von Türcke ............... 1857-1933

______________________________________________________________________________

Sachs-Weimar-Eisenach

Dukes

20 Sep 1809 - 14 Jun 1828 Wettin, Carl August ...................... 1757-1828

14 Jun 1828 - 08 Jul 1853 Wettin, Carl Friedrich ................... 1783-1853

08 Jul 1853 - 05 Jan 1901 Wettin, Carl Alexander ................... 1818-1901

05 Jan 1901 - 09 Nov 1918 Wettin, Wilhelm Ernst .................... 1876-1923

Commissioner of State

08 Nov 1918 - 20 May 1919 August Baudert ........................... 1860-1942 SPD

Presiding Minister of State

20 May 1919 - 01 May 1920 Arnold Rudolf Paulssen ................... 1864-1942

______________________________________________________________________________

Schwarzburg

Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

 

15 Apr 1711 Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

28 Mar 1909 Personal union with Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

23 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Free State

01 May 1920 Part of Thuringen

 

Princes

15 Dec 1710 - 24 Jun 1718 Ludwig Friedrich I

24 Jun 1718 - 01 Sep 1744 Friedrich Anton

01 Sep 1744 - 10 Jul 1767 Johann Friedrich

10 Jul 1767 - 29 Aug 1790 Ludwig Günther IV

29 Aug 1790 - 13 Apr 1793 Friedrich Anton

13 Apr 1793 - 28 Apr 1807 Ludwig Friedrich II

28 Apr 1807 - 28 Jun 1867 Friedrich Günther

28 Jun 1867 - 26 Nov 1869 Albrecht ................................. 1798-1869

26 Nov 1869 - 19 Jan 1890 Georg Albrecht ........................... 1838-1890

19 Jan 1890 - 22 Nov 1918 Günther Viktor ........................... 1852-1925

 

Leading Minister of State

23 Nov 1918 - 01 May 1920 Emil Hartmann ............................ 1868-1942

______________________________________________________________________________

 

Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

 

1697-1918 Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen

1909 Princely line extinct

1909-1918 Personal union with Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt

1918-1920 Free State

1920 Part of Thuringen

 

Princes

13 Sep 1697 - 20 Dec 1716 Anton Günther II

13 Sep 1697 - 19 May 1721 Christian Wilhelm

10 May 1721 - 28 Nov 1740 Günther XXVI

28 Nov 1740 - 06 Nov 1758 Heinrich XXXVIII

06 Nov 1758 - 14 Oct 1794 Christian Günther III

14 Oct 1794 - 19 Aug 1835 Günther Friedrich Karl I

19 Aug 1835 - 17 Jul 1880 Günther Friedrich Karl II

17 Jul 1880 - 28 Mar 1909 Karl Günther ............................. 1830-1909

 

Leading Ministers of State

Nov 1918 - Mar 1919 Harald Bielfeld .......................... 1863-1933

Mar 1919 - 01 May 1920 Wilhelm Bärwinkel ........................ 1880-1969

______________________________________________________________________________

Thüringen

14 Jul 1919 Reuss and the Saxon Duchies united as Thüringen

01 May 1920 Freistaat Thüringen

08 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924 Under martial law

07 Oct 1949 Part of East Germany

23 Jul 1952 State dissolved

03 Oct 1990 Reconstituted as a state

Military Administrator

08 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924 Paul Hasse ............................... 1864-1945

Reichsstatthalter

06 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel ........ 1894-1946 NSDAP

Chairmen of the Council of State

14 Jul 1919 - 30 Apr 1920 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen .............. 1864-1942

Minister-Presidents

01 May - 11 Nov 1920 August Frölich (1st Time) ................ 1867-1964 SPD

11 Nov 1920 - 06 Oct 1921 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen (1st Time)

07 Oct 1921 - 21 Feb 1924 August Frölich (2nd Time)

21 Feb 1924 - 06 Nov 1928 Richard Leutheusser ...................... 1867-1945

06 Nov 1928 - 22 Jan 1930 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen (2nd Time)

22 Jan 1930 - 26 Aug 1932 Erwin Baum ............................... 1868-1950

26 Aug 1932 - 08 May 1933 Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel

08 May 1933 - 12 May 1945 Wilhelm E.K. Marschler ................... 1893-1952 NSDAP

______________________________________________________________________________

Waldeck-Pyrmont

24 Sep 1812 Waldeck and Pyrmont reunited as the Fürstentum

Waldeck und Pyrmont

13 Nov 1918 Freistaat Waldeck-Pyrmont (under Prussia)

30 Nov 1921 Pyrmont incorporated into Prussia

01 Apr 1929 Waldeck incorporated into Prussia

 

Princes

24 Sep 1812 - 09 Sep 1813 Georg .................................... 1747-1813

09 Sep 1813 - 15 May 1845 Georg II Friedrich Heinrich .............. 1789-1845

15 May 1845 - 12 May 1893 Georg Viktor ............................. 1831-1893

12 May 1893 - 13 Nov 1918 Friedrich II ............................. 1865-1946

Prime Ministers

1812 - 1832 Christian Wilhelm Kreusler ............... 1774-1834

1814 - 1823 Rudolf Carl Christian von Preen .......... 1756-1841

1824 - 1838 Burchard Christian von Spilcker .......... 1770-1834

1832 - 1848 Theodor Friedrich Neumann

1838 - 1843 Georg Christian August Varnhagen

1843 - 1848 Ludwig Hagemann

Mar 1848 - 24 Jul 1848 Karl Wilhelm von Stockhausen

Jul 1848 - Jun 1849 Karl Wilhelm Gleisner .................... 1803-1873

Jun 1849 - 1851 Ludwig Wolrad Friedrich Wilhelm

Schumacher

1851 - 31 Dec 1867 Karl August Ludwig Winterberg

Prussian State directors

01 Jan 1868 - 1872 Julius Adalbert von Flottwell ............ 1829-1909

1872 - 1881 Karl Albert Friedrich Hugo von ........... 1833-1912

Sommerfeld

1881 - 1884 Jesko Franz Edwald von Puttkamer ......... 1841-1918

1884 - 1886 Ernst von Saldern ........................ 18..-1886

1886 - 1907 Ernst Friedrich Johannes von Saldern ..... 1839-1907

1907 - 1908 Leo Marquard Freiherr von Lützow ......... 1856-1908

1908 - 1914 Ernst Reinhold Gerhard von Glasenapp ..... 1861-1928

1914 - 13 Nov 1918 Karl Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm

von Redern .............................. 1867-1940

State Directors

13 Nov 1918 - 01 Sep 1920 Karl Hermann Friedrich Wilhelm

von Redern .............................. s.a

01 Sep 1920 - 07 Feb 1929 Wilhelm Schmieding ....................... 1878-1929

25 Feb - 31 Mar 1929 Herbert Herberg

______________________________________________________________________________

Westfalen (Westphalia)

1180 - 1803 Duchy of Westphalia

1806 French occupation

28 Aug 1807 Hessen and Prussian lands form Westphalia

united as Konigreich Westfalen

30 Sep - 06 Dec 1813 Russian occupation

29 Oct 1813 Kingdom dissolved

 

Governors-general

Oct 1806 - 18 Nov 1806 Herman Willem Daendels ................... 1762-1818

Nov 1806 - Feb 1807 Louis-Henri Loison ....................... 1771-1816

Feb 1807 - Aug 1807 Simon Canuel ............................. 1767-1841

King

28 Aug 1807 - 29 Oct 1813 Bounaparte, Hieronymus I Napoleon ........ 1784-1860

 

Intendent-general

1806 - 07 Dec 1807 Joseph-Mathias Fririon ................... 1752-1821

President of the Council of Ministers

07 Dec 1807 - 29 Oct 1813 Joseph Jérôme-Siméon ..................... 1749-1842

______________________________________________________________________________

Württemberg

01 Jan 1806 Kingdom of Württemberg

01 Dec 1918 Volksstaat Württemberg (People's State of Württemberg)

1933 State abolished (de facto)

13 Jul 1945 State divided, southern part merged with Hohenzollern-

Sigmaringen as Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern

13 Jul 1945 Württemberg (North Württemberg)

29 Oct 1945 Nordwürttemberg-Nordbaden

20 Dec 1945 Württemberg-Baden

22 Jul 1947 Southern part renamed Württemberg-Hohenzollern

25 Apr 1952 Merged into Baden-Württemberg

 

Capital: Stuttgart.

Languages: German.

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Württemberger Hymne" ("Württemberg Hymne")

National Motto: Furchtlos und treu (Fearless and loyal)

National Emblem: Black antlers.

Currency: Württemberg gulden (to 1873)

Monarchs

01 Jan 1806 - 30 Oct 1816 von Württemburg, Friedrich III ........... 1754-1816

30 Oct 1816 - 25 Jun 1864 von Württemburg, Wilhelm I ............... 1781-1864

25 Jun 1864 - 06 Oct 1891 von Württemburg, Karl .................... 1823-1891

06 Oct 1891 - 30 Nov 1918 von Württemburg, Wilhelm II .............. 1848-1921

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 20 Apr 1945 Wilhelm Murr ............................. 1888-1945 NSDAP

Minister-Presidents

18 Nov 1817 - 29 Jul 1829 Hans Otto von der Lühe ................... 1761-1836

30 Jul 1821 - 15 Nov 1831 Christian Freidrich von Otto ............. 1758-1836

15 Nov 1831 - 09 Mar 1848 Paul Friedrich Theodor Eugen,

Freiherr von Mauclerc ................... 1783-1859

09 Mar 1848 - 28 Oct 1849 Friedrich von Römer ...................... 1794-1864

28 Oct 1849 - 02 Jul 1850 Johannes von Schlayer .................... 1792-1860

02 Jul 1850 - 21 Sep 1864 Josef Freiherr von Linden ................ 1804-1895

21 Sep 1864 - 31 Aug 1870 Karl Friedrich Gottlieb

Freiherr von Varnbüler

von und zu Hemmingen ................... 1809-1889

01 Sep 1870 - 09 Jun 1871 Adolf Graf von Taube ..................... 1810-1899

09 Jun 1871 - 31 Jul 1876 Johann August Freiherr

von Wächter ............................. 1807-1879

01 Aug 1876 - 10 Nov 1900 Hermann Freiherr von Mittnacht ........... 1825-1909

10 Jun 1900 - 15 Apr 1901 Maximilian Freiherr Schott

von Schottenstein ....................... 1836-1917

15 Apr 1901 - 04 Dec 1906 Wilhelm August von Breitling ............. 1835-1914

04 Dec 1906 - 06 Nov 1918 Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker ............. 1853-1926

06 Nov - 09 Nov 1918 Theodor Liesching ........................ 1865-1922

09 Nov 1918 - 23 Jun 1920 Wilhelm Blos ............................. 1849-1927

23 Jun 1920 - 08 Apr 1924 Johannes von Hieber ...................... 1862-1951

08 Apr - 03 Jun 1924 Eduard Rau ............................... 1868-1953

(acting)

03 Jun 1924 - 08 Jun 1928 Wilhelm Bazille .......................... 1874-1934

08 Jun 1928 - 15 Mar 1933 Eugen Bolz ............................... 1881-1945

15 Mar - 12 May 1933 Wilhelm Murr

12 May 1933 - 20 Apr 1945 Julius Christian Mergenthaler ............ 1884-1980 NSDAP

Minister-President

19 Sep 1945 - 25 Apr 1952 Reinhold Maier ........................... 1889-1971 FDP

State-presidents

16 Oct 1945 - 22 Jul 1947 Carlo Schmid ............................. 1896-1979 SPD

(1st Time)

22 Jul 1947 - 03 Aug 1948 Lorenz Bock .............................. 1883-1948 CDU

04 Aug - 13 Aug 1948 Carlo Schmid

(2nd Time, acting)

13 Aug 1948 - 25 Apr 1952 Gebhard Müller ........................... 1900-1990 CDU

______________________________________________________________________________