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Nippon

  Imperial Seal 1333

    Kamakura

      Ashikaga

    Tokugawa

  Government Seal

11 Feb 660 BC             Legendary founding of the Japanese Empire

22 Jan 646 AD             Japanese Empire

12 Jul 1192 - 31 Jan 1868 Shogunate era

12 Jul 1192 - 18 May 1333 Kamakura Shogunate

11 Aug 1338 - 02 Sep 1573 Ashikaga Shogunate

18 Oct 1568 - 21 Oct 1600 Azuchi-Momoyama era

21 Oct 1600 - 31 Jan 1868 Tokugawa Shogunate

27 Mar 1879               Ryukyu Islands annexed

29 Nov 1890               Dai Nippon Teikoku (Great Japanese Empire)

02 Jun 1895 - 25 Oct 1945 Annexation of Taiwan

29 Aug 1910 - 12 Sep 1945 Annexation of Korea

25 Aug 1945               Karafutu (Sakhalin) and Chishima (Kuril) Islands annexed by USSR

02 Sep 1945 - 28 Apr 1952 Allied occupation

03 May 1947               Nippon-Koku (State of Japan)

 

Government: Constitutional Monarchy.

Capital: Tokyo.

Language: Japanese, Korean, Chinese.

Religion: Shinto, Buddhisum.

National Anthem: "Kimi in Kimigayo" ("May thousands of years of happy reign be yours").

National Emblem: Chrysanthemum.

National Day: 23rd December, Birthday of Emperor Akihito (1933), April 28th: Independence day (1952).

National Motto: Hakko ichiu (All the world under one roof).

Currency: Japanese Yen.

 

Japanese period names

12,000 BC - 300 BC        Jomon

300 BC - 300 AD           Yaiyo

250 - 538                 Kufan

538 - 710                 Asuka

710 - 794                 Nara

794 - 1185                Heian

1185 - 1333               Kamakura

1333 - 1573               Muromachi

02 Sep 1573 - 21 Oct 1600 Azuchi-Monoyana (Shokuho)

24 Mar 1603 - 03 May 1868 Edo

03 May 1868 - 30 Jul 1912 Meiji

30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926 Taisho

25 Dec 1926 - 07 Jan 1989 Showa

07 Jan 1989 -             Heisi

 

Imperial Styles

imina: Personal Name

nengo: Era Name

teigo: Postumous Name (not in use after 1868)

 

Tenshi-sama (Legendary "Sons of Heaven")

11 Feb 660 - 09 May 585 Kamuyamato Iwarebiko

                        teigo: Jimmu

10 May 581 - 08 Jan 549 Kamu Nunagawamimi no Mikoto

                        teigo: Suizei

15 Jul 549 - 06 Dec 511 Shikitsuhiko Tamademi no Mikoto

                        teigo: Annei

04 Feb 511 - 08 Sep 476 Oho Yamatohiko Sukitomo no Mikoto

                        teigo: Itoku

09 Jan 475 - 05 Aug 393 Mimatsukiko Kaeshine no Mikoto

                        teigo: Kosho

07 Jan 292 - 09 Jan 291 Oho Yamato Tarasihiko Kunioshi Hito no Mikoto

                        teigo: Koan

08 Feb 290 - 12 Jan 215 Oho Yamato Nekohiko Futoni no Mikoto

                        teigo: Korei

14 Jan 215 - 02 Sep 158 Oho Yamato Nekohiko Kuni Kuru no Mikoto

                        teigo: Kogen

12 Nov 158 - 09 Apr 98  Waka Yamato Nekihiko Oho Bibino no Mikoto

                        teigo: Kaika

13 Jan 97 - 05 Dec 30   Mimaki Irihiko Inie no Mikoto

                        teigo: Sujin

Tenno (Emperors-Yamato Dynasty)

02 Jan 219 - 11 Jul 249 Suinin

14 Jul 249 - 280 Suini

11 Jan 280 - 07 Nov 316 Keiko

05 Jan 317 - 11 Jan 343 Seimu

11 Jan 343 - 06 Feb 346 Chuai

01 Jan 346 - 15 Feb 395 Ojin

16 Feb 395 - 03 Jan 427 Nintoku

01 Feb 427 - 15 Mar 433 Richu

23 Jan 433 - 02 Jan 438 Hanzei

02 Jan 438 -    Dec 453 Ingyo

14 Dec 453 - 07 Aug 456 Anko

09 Aug 456 - 13 Nov 480 Yuryaku

15 Jan 480 - 16 Jan 485 Seinei

25 Apr 485 - 01 Jan 488 Kenzo

05 Jan 488 - 08 Aug 498 Ninken

   Dec 498 - 08 Dec 506 Buretsu

04 Feb 507 - 07 Feb 531 Keitai

07 Feb 531 - 17 Dec 535 Ankan

17 Dec 535 - 10 Feb 539 Senka

10 Feb 539 - 15 Apr 571 Kimmei

15 Apr 572 - 15 Aug 585 Bidatsu

15 Aug 585 - 09 Apr 587 Yomei

09 Apr 587 - 03 Nov 592 Sushun

03 Nov 592 - 07 Mar 628 Empress Suiko

04 Jan 629 - 09 Oct 641 Jomei

15 Jan 642 - 14 Jun 645 Empress Kogyoku

14 Jun 645 - 10 Oct 654 Kotoku

03 Jan 655 - 24 Jul 661 Saimei

24 Jul 661 - 03 Dec 671 Tenji

05 Dec 671 - 23 Jul 672 Kobun

27 Feb 673 - 09 Sep 686 Temmu

09 Sep 686 - 01 Aug 697 Empress Jito

01 Aug 697 - 15 Jun 707 Mommu

15 Jun 707 - 02 Sep 715 Empress Gemmei

02 Sep 715 - 04 Feb 724 Gensho

04 Feb 724 - 02 Jul 749 Shomu

19 Aug 749 - 09 Oct 764 Empress Koken

09 Oct 764 - 04 Aug 770 Shotoku

01 Oct 770 - 03 Apr 781 Konin

03 Apr 781 - 17 Mar 806 Kammu

17 Mar 806 - 01 Apr 809 Heizi

01 Apr 809 - 16 Apr 823 Saga

16 Apr 823 - 28 Feb 833 Junna

28 Feb 833 - 19 Mar 850 Nimmyo

19 Mar 850 - 27 Apr 858 Montuko

07 Nov 858 - 29 Nov 876 Seiwa

29 Nov 876 - 04 Feb 884 Yozei

04 Feb 884 - 26 Aug 887 Koko

26 Aug 887 - 03 Jul 897 Uda

03 Jul 897 - 22 Sep 930 Daigo

22 Sep 930 - 20 Apr 946 Suzaku

20 Apr 946 - 25 May 967 Murakami

25 May 967 - 13 Aug 969 Reizei

13 Aug 969 - 27 Aug 984 Enyu

27 Aug 984 - 23 Jun 986 Kazan

23 Jun 986 - 13 Jun 1011 Ichijo

13 Jun 1011 - 29 Jan 1016 Sanjo

29 Jan 1016 - 17 Apr 1036 Go Ichoijo

17 Apr 1036 - 16 Jan 1045 Go Sukaku

16 Jan 1045 - 19 Apr 1068 Go Reizei

19 Apr 1068 - 08 Dec 1072 Go Sanjo

08 Dec 1072 - 26 Nov 1086 Shirakawa

26 Nov 1086 - 19 Jul 1107 Horikawa

19 Jul 1107 - 28 Jan 1123 Toba

28 Jan 1123 - 07 Dec 1141 Sutoku

07 Dec 1141 - 23 Jul 1155 Konoye

24 Jul 1155 - 11 Aug 1158 Go Shirakawa

11 Aug 1158 - 25 Jun 1165 Nijo

25 Jun 1165 - 19 Feb 1168 Rokujo

19 Feb 1168 - 21 Feb 1180 Takakura

21 Feb 1180 - 24 Mar 1185 Antoku

20 Aug 1183 - 11 Jan 1198 Go Toba

11 Jan 1198 - 25 Nov 1210 Tsuchimikado

25 Nov 1211 - 20 Apr 1221 Juntokyo

20 Jul      - 09 Jul 1221 Chukyo

09 Jul 1221 - 04 Oct 1232 Go Horikawa

04 Oct 1232 - 09 Jan 1242 Shijo

20 Jan 1242 - 29 Jan 1246 Go Saga

29 Jan 1246 - 26 Nov 1259 Go Fukakusa

26 Nov 1259 - 26 Jan 1274 Kameyama

26 Jan 1274 - 21 Oct 1287 Go Uda

21 Oct 1287 - 22 Jul 1298 Fushimi

22 Jul 1298 - 22 Jan 1301 Go Fishimi

22 Jan 1301 - 25 Aug 1308 Go Nijo

25 Aug 1308 - 26 Feb 1318 Hannazono

26 Feb 1318 - 15 Aug 1339 Go Daigo

20 Sep 1331 - 25 May 1333 Kogon

                          (Northern pretender)

15 Aug 1339 - 11 Mar 1368 Go Murakami

11 Mar 1368 - 27 Oct 1383 Chokei

27 Oct 1383 - 05 Oct 1392 Go Kameyana

05 Oct 1392 - 29 Aug 1412 Go Komatsu

29 Aug 1412 - 20 Jul 1428 Shoko

28 Jul 1428 - 19 Jul 1464 Go Hannazono

19 Jul 1464 - 28 Sep 1500 Go Tsuchimikado

25 Oct 1500 - 19 May 1527 Katsuhito

                          teigo: Go-Kashiwabara

09 Jun 1527 - 27 Sep 1557 Tomohito

                          teigo: Go-Nara

27 Sep 1557 - 17 Dec 1586 Michihito

                          teigo: Ogimatchi

17 Dec 1586 - 09 May 1611 Kazuhito

                          teigo: Go-Yozei

09 May 1611 - 22 Dec 1629 Masahito

                          teigo: Go-Mizunoo

22 Dec 1629 - 14 Nov 1643 Empress Okiko

                          teigo: Meisho

14 Nov 1643 - 30 Oct 1654 Tsuguhito

                          teigo: Go-Komyo

30 Oct 1654 - 05 Mar 1663 Nagahito

                          teigo: Go-Sai

05 Mar 1662 - 02 May 1687 Reigen

                          teigo: Satohito

06 May 1687 - 27 Jul 1709 Asahito

                          teigo: Higashiyama

27 Jul 1709 - 13 Apr 1735 Yasuhito

                          teigo: Nakamikao

13 Apr 1735 - 09 Jul 1747 Teruhito

                          teigo: Sakuramachi

09 Jun 1747 - 31 Aug 1762 Toshito

                          teigo: Momozano

15 Sep 1762 -    Dec 1770 Empress Toshi-Ko

                          teigo: Go Sakuramachi

09 Jan 1771 - 16 Dec 1779 Hidenhito ................................. 1758-1779

                          teigo: Go-Momozono

01 Jan 1780 - 07 May 1817 Tomohito .................................. 1771-1840

                          teigo: Kakaku

07 May 1817 - 23 Feb 1846 Ayahito ................................... 1800-1846

                          teigo: Ninko

10 Mar 1846 - 13 Feb 1867 Osahito ................................... 1831-1867

                          teigo: Komei

13 Feb 1867 - 30 Jul 1912 Mutsuhito ................................. 1852-1912

                          nengo: Meiji

30 Jul 1912 - 25 Dec 1926 Yoshihito ................................. 1879-1926

                          nengo: Taisho

25 Dec 1926 - 07 Jan 1989 Hirohito .................................. 1901-1989

                          nengo: Showa

07 Jan 1989 -             Akihito ................................... 1933-

                          nengo: Heisi

 

 

Shoguns

793-794 Otomo no Otomaro

797-811 Sakanoue no Tamuramaro

811-813 Funy no Watarmaro

940       Fujiwara no Tadabumi

1184-1192 Minamoto no Yoshinaka

1192-1199 Minamoto Yoritomo

1202-1203 Minamoto no Yoritomo

1203-1219 Minamoto Sanetomo

1226-1244 Huziwara Yoritsune

1244-1251 Huziwara Yoritsugu

1336-1358 Ashikaga Takauji

1358-1368 Ashikaga Yoshiakira

1368-1394 Ashikaga Yoshimitsu

1394-1423 Ashikaga Yoshimochi

1423-1429 Ashikaga Yoshikazu

1429-1441 Ashikaga Yoshinori

1441-1443 Ashikaga Yoshikatsu

1443-1473 Ashikaga Yoshimasa

1473-1490 Ashikaga Yoshihisa

1490-1493 Ashikaga Yoshitane (1st Time)

1493-1508 Ashikaga Yoshizumi

1508-1521 Ashikaga Yoshitane (2nd Time)

1521-1545 Ashikaga Yoshiharu

1545-1565 Ashikaga Yoshiteru

1565-1568 Ashikaga Yoshihide

1603-1605 Tokugawa Ieyasu

1605-1623 Tokugawa Hidetada

1623-1651 Tokugawa Iemitsu

1651-1680 Tokugawa Ietsuna

15 Sep 1680 - 19 Feb 1709 Tokugawa Tsunayoshi

19 Sep 1709 - 12 Nov 1712 Tokugawa Ienobu

12 Nov 1712 - 19 Jun 1716 Tokugawa Ietsugu

19 Jun 1716 - 20 Oct 1745 Tokugawa Yoshumune

20 Oct 1745 - 25 Jun 1760 Tokugawa Ieshige

25 Jun 1760 - 29 Sep 1786 Tokugawa Ieharu

15 Apr 1787 - 06 May 1837 Tokugawa Ienari

01 Oct 1837 - 26 Aug 1853 Tokugawa Ieyoshi

23 Nov 1853 - 14 Sep 1858 Tokugawa Iesada

14 Sep 1858 - 29 Aug 1866 Tokugawa Iemochi

10 Jan 1867 - 04 Jan 1868 Tokugawa Yoshinobu ........................ 1837-1913

Prime Minister

01 Jan      - 11 Jun 1868 Prince Taruhito ........................... 1835-1895

Chief Minister

11 Jun 1868 - 22 Dec 1885 Duke Sanetomi Sanjo ....................... 1849-1911

Prime Ministers

22 Dec 1885 - 30 Apr 1888 Prince Ito Hirobumi ....................... 1841-1909

                          (1st Time)

01 May 1888 - 24 Dec 1889 Count Kiyotaka Kuroda

24 Dec 1889 - 06 May 1891 Duke Aritomo Yamagata (1st Time)

06 May 1891 - 08 Aug 1892 Duke Masayoshi Matsukata

08 Aug 1892 - 18 Sep 1896 Prince Hirobumi Ito (2nd Time)

18 Sep 1896 - 12 Jan 1898 Duke Masayoshi Matsukata

12 Jan      - 30 Jun 1898 Prince Hirobumi Ito (3rd Time)

30 Jun      - 08 Nov 1898 Marquess Shigenobu Okuma (1st Time)

08 Nov 1898 - 10 Oct 1900 Duke Aritomo Yamagata (2nd Time)

10 Oct 1900 - 02 Jun 1901 Prince Hirobumi Ito (4th Time)

02 Jun 1901 - 07 Jan 1906 Duke Taro Katsura (1st Time)

07 Jan 1906 - 14 Jul 1908 Duke Kimmochi Saionji (1st Time)

14 Jul 1908 - 30 Aug 1911 Duke Taro Katsura (2nd Time)

30 Aug 1911 - 19 Dec 1912 Duke Kimmochi Saionji (2nd Time)

19 Dec 1912 - 12 Feb 1913 Duke Taro Katsura (3rd Time)

12 Feb 1913 - 15 Apr 1914 Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (1st Time)

15 Apr 1914 - 09 Oct 1916 Marquess Shigenobu Okuma (2nd Time)

09 Oct 1916 - 29 Sep 1918 Count Masatake Terauchi

30 Sep 1918 - 04 Nov 1921 Takashi Hara

04 Nov 1921 - 12 Jun 1922 Korekiyo Takahashi (1st Time)

12 Jun 1922 - 24 Aug 1923 Tomosabura Kato

26 Aug      - 12 Sep 1923 Yasuya Uchida

12 Sep 1923 - 05 Jan 1924 Count Gonnohyoe Yamamoto (2nd Time)

05 Jan 1924 - 27 Jan 1926 Count Takaaki Kato

30 Jan 1926 - 19 Apr 1927 Reijiro Wakatsuki (1st Time)

19 Apr 1927 - 02 Jul 1929 Baron Giichi Tanaka

02 Jul 1929 - 14 Apr 1931 Osachi Hamaguchi

14 Apr      - 13 Dec 1931 Reijiro Wakatsuki (2nd Time)

13 Dec 1931 - 16 May 1932 Tsuyoshi Inuskai

16 May      - 26 May 1932 Korekiyo Takahashi (2nd Time)

26 May 1932 - 08 Jul 1934 Viscount Makoto Saito

08 Jul 1934 - 09 Mar 1936 Keisuke Okada

09 Mar 1936 - 02 Feb 1937 Koki Hirota

02 Feb      - 02 Jun 1937 Senjuro Hayashi

02 Jun 1937 - 04 Jan 1939 Duke Fumimaro Konoe (1st Time)

04 Jan      - 29 Aug 1939 Baron Kiichiro Hiranuma

29 Aug 1939 - 15 Jan 1940 Nobuyuki Abe

15 Jan      - 21 Jul 1940 Mitsumasa Yonai

21 Jul 1940 - 18 Oct 1941 Duke Fumimaro Konoe (2nd Time)

18 Oct 1941 - 22 Jul 1944 Hideki Tojo ............................... 1884-1948

22 Jul 1944 - 07 Apr 1945 Kuniaki Koiso ............................. 1880-1950

07 Apr      - 16 Aug 1945 Baron Kantaro Suzuki ...................... 1867-1948

16 Aug      - 08 Oct 1945 Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni ............... 1887-1990

08 Oct 1945 - 20 May 1946 Baron Kijuro Shidehara .................... 1872-1951

20 May 1946 - 21 May 1947 Shigeru Yoshida (1st Time) ................ 1878-1967 LDP

21 May 1947 - 23 Feb 1948 Tetsu Katayama ............................ 1887-1978 SDP

23 Feb      - 15 Oct 1948 Hitoshi Ashida ............................ 1887-1959 LDP

15 Oct 1948 - 10 Dec 1954 Shigeru Yoshida (2nd Time)

10 Dec 1954 - 23 Dec 1956 Ichiro Hatoyama ........................... 1883-1959 LDP

23 Dec 1956 - 24 Feb 1957 Tanzan Ishibashi .......................... 1885-1973 LDP

24 Feb 1957 - 18 Jul 1960 Nobusuke Kishi ............................ 1896-1987 LDP

18 Jul 1960 - 09 Nov 1964 Hayato Ikeda .............................. 1899-1965 LDP

09 Nov 1964 - 06 Jul 1972 Eisaku Sato ............................... 1901-1975 LDP

06 Jul 1972 - 09 Dec 1974 Kakuei Tanaka ............................. 1918-1993 LDP

09 Dec 1974 - 24 Dec 1976 Takeo Miki ................................ 1907-1988 LDP

24 Dec 1976 - 07 Dec 1978 Takeo Fukuda .............................. 1905-1995 LDP

07 Dec 1978 - 12 Jun 1980 Masayoshi Ohira ........................... 1910-1980 LDP

12 Jun      - 17 Jul 1980 Masayoshi Ito ............................. 1913-1994 LDP

17 Jul 1980 - 26 Nov 1982 Zenko Suzuki .............................. 1911-2004 LDP

26 Nov 1982 - 06 Nov 1987 Yasuhiro Nakasone ......................... 1918-     LDP

06 Nov 1987 - 02 Jun 1989 Noboru Takeshita .......................... 1924-2000 LDP

02 Jun      - 09 Aug 1989 Sosuke Uno ................................ 1922-1998 LDP

09 Aug 1989 - 06 Nov 1991 Toshiki Kaifu ............................. 1931-     LDP

06 Nov 1991 - 09 Aug 1993 Kiichi Miyazawa ........................... 1919-2007 LDP

09 Aug 1993 - 25 Apr 1994 Morihiro Hosokawa ......................... 1938-     SDP

25 Apr      - 29 Jun 1994 Tsutomu Hata .............................. 1935-     DJP

29 Jun 1994 - 11 Jan 1996 Tomiichi Murayama ......................... 1924-     SDP

11 Jan 1996 - 30 Jul 1998 Ryutaro Hashimoto ......................... 1937-2006 LDP

30 Jul 1998 - 05 Apr 2000 Keizo Obuchi .............................. 1937-2000 LDP

05 Apr 2000 - 26 Apr 2001 Yoshiro Mori .............................. 1934-     LDP

26 Apr 2001 - 26 Sep 2006 Junichiro Koizumi ......................... 1937-     LDP

26 Sep 2006 - 26 Sep 2007 Shino Abe (1st Time) ...................... 1954-     LDP

26 Sep 2007 - 24 Sep 2008 Yasuo Fukuda .............................. 1936-     LDP

24 Sep 2008 - 16 Sep 2009 Taro Aso .................................. 1940-     LDP

16 Sep 2009 - 04 Jun 2010 Yukio Hatoyama ............................ 1947-     DPJ

04 Jun 2010 - 02 Sep 2011 Naoto Kan ................................. 1946-     DPJ

02 Sep 2011 - 26 Dec 2012 Yoshihiko Noda ............................ 1957-     DPJ

26 Dec 2012 -             Shino Abe (2nd Time)

 

 

DPJ=Minshuto (Democratic Party of Japan, social-democratic)

LDP=Jiyu Minshu-to (Liberal Democratic Party, conservative)

SDP=Shakai Minshu-to (Social Democratic Party, social-democratic)

 

 

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Ryukyu Islands

c. 660 Under Chinese suzerainty

1326 - 1429               Divided into three Kingdoms, Nanzan, Hokuzan, Chuzan.

14 Oct 1872               Associated with Japan

11 Mar 1879               Annexed by Japan

03 Apr 1945 - 21 Nov 1967 Okinawa occupied by the US

15 Dec 1950 - 15 May 1972 Under U.S military occupation

 

Kings of Chuzan

1187 - 1237               Shunten

1238 - 1248               Shun Bajunki

1249 - 1259               Gihon

1260 - 1299               Eiso

1300 - 1308               Taisei

1309 - 1313               Eiji

1314 - 1336               Tamagusuku

1337 - 1354               Seii

1355 - 1395               Satto

1396 - 1405               Bunei

1405 - 1421               Sho Shisho

1422 - 1429               Sho Hashi

Kings of Ryukyu

       1429 - 01 Jun 1439 Sho Hashi

01 Jun 1439 - 1444        Sho Chu

       1444 - 29 Oct 1449 Sho Shitatsu

1450 - 1453               Sho Kinpuku

1454 - 1460               Sho Taikyu

1461 - 1469               Sho Toku

1470 - 1476               Sho En

1477                      Sho Sen'i

1477 - 1526               Sho Shin

1527 - 1555               Sho Sei

1556 - 1572               Sho Gen

1573 - 1586               Sho Ei

1587 - 1620               Sho Nei

1621 - 1640               Sho Ho

1641 - 1647               Sho Ken

       1648 - 20 Dec 1668 Sho Shitsu

01 Jan 1669 - 18 Aug 1709 Sho Tei/Shan Jing ........................ 1645-1709

1669 - 16..               Sho Jo Ken

                          (regent)

       1710 - 16 Aug 1712 Sho Eki/Shang Ben ........................ 1678-1712

16 Aug 1712 - 14 Mar 1752 Sho Kei/Shang Jing ....................... 1700-1751

       1751 - 14 Mar 1752 Sai On ................................... 1682-1761

                          (regent)

14 Mar 1752 - 19 Feb 1794 Sho Boku/Shang Mu ........................ 1739-1794

19 Feb 1794 - 08 Aug 1802 Sho On/Shang Wen ......................... 1784-1802

08 Aug 1802 - 07 Feb 1803 Sho Sei/Shang Cheng ...................... 1783-1804

       1804 - 05 Jul 1834 Sho Ko/Shang Hao ......................... 1787-1839

05 Jul 1834 - 19 Aug 1847 Sho Iku/Shang Yu ......................... 1813-1847

                          (Regent from 1828)

08 Jun 1848 - 11 Mar 1879 Sho Tai/Shang Tai ........................ 1843-1901

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