Latvia

c. 900 AD Baltic states in Courland, Semigallia and Latgallia

1201 Bishopic of Livonia

02 Feb 1207 Bishop of Riga becomes Prince of Livonia, Livonia becomes

part of teh Holy Roman Empire (formally from 01 Dec 1225)

12 May 1237 Livonian Order (part of the Northern Crusades) under the

Teutonic Order (the German Order in Livonia)

1420 Livländischer Bund (Livonian Confederation), Riga, Courland,

Reval, Dorpat, and Ösel-Wiek

24 Dec 1526 Master of the Livonian Order is styled Prince of Livonia,

the title is also used by the Bishop of Riga and King of Poland

28 Nov 1561 The Livonian Order becomes Protestant

26 Feb 1621 Livonia annexed by Sweden

15 Jul 1710 Swedish Livonia is annexed by Russia

30 Sep 1773 Polish Livonia is annexed by Russia

05 Jul 1917 Autonomy granted for Livonia and Courland

20 Nov 1917 Bolshevik forces take the Baltic region

29 Dec 1917 Autonomous Latvian Soviet within Russia

03 Sep 1917 - 26 Nov 1919 German occupation, starting in Riga

18 Nov 1918 Latvia independent (recognised by Russia in 1920)

25 Nov 1918 - 26 Nov 1919 German and allied occupation

17 Dec 1918 - 13 Jan 1920 Latvian Soviet Republic declared in opposition

07 Nov 1922 - 21 Jul 1940 Republic of Latvia

17 Jun 1940 Soviet Occupation

21 Jul 1940 Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

05 Aug 1940 Incorporated into the U.S.S.R (not internationally recognised)

23 Jun 1941 - 1944 Part of German Ostland

17 Jul 1944 - 08 May 1945 Reincorporated into the U.S.S.R

19 Mar 1945 Autonomous state of Latvia declared under Germany

07 May 1945 Independence declared

08 May 1945 Last German troops surrender

28 Jul 1989 Declaration of State sovereignty

04 May 1990 - Republic of Latvia

04 May 1990 - 21 Aug 1991 Transitional period

21 Aug 1991 Independence declared (recognised by U.S.S.R 06 Sep 1991)

01 May 2004 Accession to the EU

 

 

Capital: Riga.

Language: Latvian, Russian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, Polish, Lithuanian.

Religion: No religion 63.7%, Lutheran, Orthodox.

National Anthem: "Dievs, Sveti Latviju!" ("God Bless Latvia!").

National Motto: Tevzemei un Brivibai (Fatherland and Freedom).

National Day: Independence day, 18 November (1918).

Currency: Euro (Lat 1922-40, 1993-2013).

 

Chairman of the Provisional Latvian Council

29 Nov 1917 - 17 Nov 1918 Voldemārs Zāmuēls ................................... 1872-1948

Presidents of the Latvian People's Council

18 Nov 1918 - 03 Jan 1919 Janis Cakste (1st Time) .............................. 1859-1927

18 Nov 1918 - 03 Jan 1919 Marģers Skujenieks (1st Time) ........................ 1886-1941

+ Gustavs Zemgals (1st Time) ........................... 1871-1939

(acting for absent Cakste)

22 May 1919 - 30 Apr 1920 Janis Cakste (2nd Time)

22 May - 13 Jul 1919 Marģers Skujenieks (2nd Time)

+ Gustavs Zemgals (2nd Time)

(acting for absent Cakste)

State Presidents

01 May 1920 - 14 Mar 1927 Janis Cakste ......................................... s.a

14 Mar - 08 Apr 1927 Pauls Kalnins ........................................ 1872-1945

(acting)

08 Apr 1927 - 08 Apr 1930 Gustavs Zegnals ...................................... 1871-1939

11 Apr 1930 - 11 Apr 1936 Alberts Kviesis ...................................... 1881-1944

11 Apr 1936 - 21 Jun 1940 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis ....................... 1877-1942 LSZ

21 Jun - 25 Aug 1940 Augusts Kirhenšteins ................................. 1872-1963

(Not recognised by Latvian diplomats abroad)

Head of State

28 Jun - 07 Jul 1941 Ernests Kreismanis ................................... 1890-1965 Mil

Chairmen of the Latvian National Council

20 Feb - 07 May 1945 Oskars Jekabs Dankers ................................ 1889-1965 Mil

(in rebellion)

07 May - 08 May 1945 Janis Andersons ...................................... 1902-1969 Mil

(in rebellion)

Presidents

08 May 1990 - 08 Jul 1993 Anatolijs Valerjan Gorbuns ........................... 1942-

08 Jul 1993 - 08 Jul 1999 Guntis Ulmanis ....................................... 1939- LSZ

08 Jul 1999 - 08 Jul 2007 Dr Vaira Vike-Frieberga .............................. 1937-

08 Jul 2007 - 08 Jul 2011 Dr Valdis Zatlers .................................... 1956-

08 Jul 2011 - 08 Jul 2015 Andris Berzinš ....................................... 1944- LSZ

08 Jul 2015 - Raimonds Vejonis ..................................... 1966- LZP

Prime Ministers

17 Nov 1918 - 16 Apr 1919 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis (1st Time)

26 Apr - 11 May 1919 Oskars Borkovskis .................................... 1872-1945 LSZ

11 May - 29 Jun 1919 Andrievs Niedra ...................................... 1871-1942 LSZ

30 Jun 1919 - 17 Jun 1921 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis (2nd Time)

17 Jun 1921 - 25 Jan 1923 Zigfridis Anna Meierovics ............................ 1887-1925 LSZ

(1st Time)

25 Jan - 26 Jun 1923 Janis Pauluks ........................................ 1865-1937 LSZ

26 Jun 1923 - 25 Jan 1924 Zigfridis Anna Meierovics (2nd Time)

25 Jan - 16 Dec 1924 Voldemars Zamuels .................................... 1872-1948

16 Dec 1924 - 23 Dec 1925 Hugo Celminš ......................................... 1877-1941 LSZ

(1st Time)

23 Dec 1925 - 04 May 1926 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis (3rd Time)

04 May - 17 Dec 1926 Artur Alberings ...................................... 1876-1934 LSZ

17 Dec 1926 - 21 Jan 1928 Marners Skujenieks ................................... 1886-1941 LSZ

(1st Time)

21 Jan - 01 Dec 1928 Peteris Juraševskis .................................. 1887-1945

01 Dec 1928 - 24 Mar 1931 Hugo Celminš (2nd Time)

24 Mar - 05 Dec 1931 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis (4th Time)

05 Mar 1931 - 23 Mar 1933 Marners Skujenieks (2nd Time)

23 Mar 1933 - 17 Mar 1934 Adolfs Blodnieks ..................................... 1889-1962

17 Mar 1934 - 19 Jun 1940 Karlis Vilhelm Augusts Ulmanis (5th Time)

01 Jul - 07 Jul 1941 Bernhards Einbergs ................................... 1893-1945

(did not take office)

08 Jul 1941 Alfrēds Arturs Aleksandrs Valdmanis .................. 1908-1978

(did not take office)

21 Aug 1941 - 20 Feb 1945 Oskars Jekabs Dankers ................................ s.a

(Leader if the Latvian Self-Administration,

in exile from 27 Sep 1944)

20 Feb - 03 May 1945 Rudolfs Bangerskis ................................... 1878-1958

(President of the Latvian National Committee)

03 May - 08 May 1945 Roberts Osis ......................................... 1900-1973

07 May 1990 - 03 Aug 1993 Ivars Godmanis ....................................... 1951-

(1st Time)

03 Aug 1993 - 19 Sep 1994 Valdis Birkavs ....................................... 1942- LC

19 Sep 1994 - 21 Dec 1995 Maris Gailis ......................................... 1951- LC

21 Dec 1995 - 07 Aug 1997 Andris Škele ......................................... 1958-

(1st Time)

07 Aug 1997 - 26 Nov 1998 Guntars Krasts ....................................... 1957- NS

26 Nov 1998 - 16 Jul 1999 Vilis Krištopans ..................................... 1954- LC

16 Jul 1999 - 05 May 2000 Andris Škele (2nd Time) PLL

05 May 2000 - 07 Nov 2002 Andris Berzinš ....................................... 1951- LC

07 Nov 2002 - 09 Mar 2004 Einars Repše ......................................... 1961- JL

08 Mar - 02 Dec 2004 Indulis Emsis ........................................ 1952- ZZS

02 Dec 2004 - 20 Dec 2007 Aigars Kalvitis ...................................... 1966- PLL

20 Dec 2007 - 12 Mar 2009 Ivars Godmanis (2nd Time)

12 Mar 2009 - 22 Jan 2014 Valdis Dombrovkis .................................... 1971- JL

22 Jan 2014 - 11 Feb 2016 Laimodota Straujuma .................................. 1951- VP

11 Feb 2016 - Maris Kučinskis ...................................... 1961- LP

JL=Jaunais liaks (New Era Party, Conservative, dissolved 2011)

LC=Latvijas Celš (Latvian Way, Conservative)

LP=Liepajas Partija (Liepaja Party, right-wing, agrarian, eurosceptic)

LPZ=Latvijas Zala Partija (Latvian Green Party, ecological)

NS=Nacionalinis susivienijimas (Right-wing, Nationalist).

PLL=Par Labu Latviju! (For a Good Latvia, Conservative-Liberalism).

SC=Saskanas Centrs (Harmony Centre, Social Democratic, Minority rights).

V=Vienotiba (Unity, Conservative, pro-western).

VP=Vienotiba Partija (Unity Party, former JL)

ZZS=Zalo un Zemniecku Savienba (Union of Greens and Farmers, former LZS).

_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Courland and Semigallia

864 - 1230 Principality of Kouronia

1200 - 1281 Principality of Semigallia

12 May 1237 To the Teutonic Order

1414 Teutonic Order fully autonomous

05 Mar 1562 - 26 Apr 1795 Duchy of Courland a fief of Lithuania

Aug 1701 - Sep 1709 Swedish occupation

28 Mar 1795 Courland approves annexation to Russian Empire

01 Feb 1797 Limited autonomy

26 Apr 1795 Courland and Semigallia annexed by Russian Empire

08 Oct 1800 - Nov 1917 Administered as part of the Baltic Provinces

20 Jul - 20 Dec 1812 French occupation

Oct 1915 - 1919 German occupation

05 Jul 1917 Autonomy granted by the Russian provisional government

03 Mar 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk determines Courland no longer

under Russian sovereignty

08 Mar 1918 Duchy of Courland restored by the Baltic German elite

18 Nov 1918 Part of Latvia thereafter

Princes of Kouronia

864-894 Lokeris, Prince of Kouronia

1181-1203? Vasilko

1190-1200 Vesike

1181-1206 Vyacheslav of Lettigalia

1201-1214 Talivaldis of Letts

1203-1236 Vsevolod

1220-1230 Lamikis

Princes of Semigallia

1200-1232 Versthard

1232-1256 Sabe

1257-1281 Nameisis

Land-Masters of the Swordbrothers Order

1207 - 1209 Vinno von Rohrbach

1209 - 22 Sep 1236 Volkwin von Naumburg zu Winterstätten

22 Sep 1236 - 12 May 1237 Rutger

Land-Masters of Teutonic Order

12 May 1237 - 05 Mar 1562 See here.

Dukes of Courland

17 Sep 1559 - 17 May 1587 Kettler, Gothards .................................... 1517-1587

17 May 1587 - 16 Aug 1642 Kettler, Fridrihis ................................... 1569-1612

21 May 1596 - 04 May 1616 Kettler, Vilhelm ..................................... 1574-1640

16 Aug 1642 - 31 Dec 1681 Kettler, Jekabs ...................................... 1610-1682

01 Jan 1681 - 22 Jan 1698 Kettler, Fridrihs Kazimirs ........................... 1650-1698

22 Jan 1698 - 21 Jan 1711 Kettler, Fridrihs Vilhelms ........................... 1692-1711

21 Jan 1711 - 04 May 1737 Kettler, Ferdinands .................................. 1655-1737

13 Jul 1737 - 20 Nov 1740 von Biron, Ernsts Johans ............................. 1690-1772

(1st Time)

20 Nov 1740 - 16 Nov 1758 Christoph Friedrich von der Osten .................... 1697-1759

(Regent)

27 Jun - 06 Dec 1741 Welf, Ludwig Ernsts .................................. 1718-1788

16 Nov 1758 - 21 Feb 1763 Wettin, Karlis ....................................... 1733-1796

21 Feb 1763 - 25 Nov 1769 von Biron, Ernsts Johans (2nd Time)

25 Nov 1769 - 28 Mar 1795 von Biron, Peteris ................................... 1724-1800

08 Mar - 18 Nov 1918 Hohenzollern, Wilhelm II ............................. 1859-1941

Governor-general of Courland and Pilten

26 Apr 1795 - 28 Jan 1796 Peter Ludwig Freiherr von der Pahlen ................. 1745-1826

Governors

28 Jan 1796 - 09 Nov 1798 Gustav Matthias Jakob von der

Wenge, Gen. Lambsdorff .............................. 1745-1823

09 Nov 1798 - 20 Oct 1800 Carl Wilhelm Heinrich von der

Osten, Gen. Driesen ................................. 1746-1827

20 Oct 1800 - 18 Nov 1808 Nikolay Ivanovich Arsenyev ........................... 1760-1830

18 Nov 1808 - 21 Nov 1808 Jakob Maximilian von Brieskorn

(1st time, acting)

21 Nov 1808 - 18 Aug 1811 Johann Wilhelm Baron von Hogguer ..................... 1755-1838

18 Aug - 12 Sep 1811 Jakob Maximilian von Brieskorn

(2nd time, acting)

23 Sep 1811 - Jan 1816 Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Sievers ................... 1748-1823

(in Riga exile 20 Jul - Dec 1812)

20 Jul - 01 Aug 1812 Jacques Étienne Joseph Alexandre

MacDonald, duc de Tarente ........................... 1765-1840

(French military commander)

01 Aug - 08 Oct 1812 Barthélémy François Rolland de Chambaudoin ........... 1766-1830

(Intendant for Courland, Piltern and Semigallia)

08 Oct - 20 Dec 1812 Jacques David Martin, baron de Campredon ............. 1761-1837

(French governor-general)

Jan 1816 - 18 Feb 1824 Emannuel von Stanecke ................................ 1750-1838

18 Feb 1824 - 07 Dec 1827 Paul Baron von Hahn .................................. 1793-1862

07 Dec 1827 - 22 May 1853 Christoph Engelbrecht von Brevern .................... 1782-1863

22 May - 14 Jun 1853 Aleksandr Petrovich Beklemishev

(acting)

14 Jun 1853 - 10 May 1858 Pyotr Aleksandrovich Valuyev ......................... 1814-1890

10 May - 21 May 1858 Julius Gustav von Cube ............................... 1815-1888

21 May 1858 - 02 Sep 1868 Johann von Brevern ................................... 1812-1885

02 Sep 1868 - 23 Dec 1885 Paul Fromhold Ignatius von

Lilienfeld .......................................... 1829-1903

23 Dec - 31 Dec 1885 Aleksandr Alekseyevich Manyos

(acting)

31 Dec 1885 - 12 Apr 1888 Konstantin Ivanovich Pashchenko ...................... 1830-1900

12 Apr 1888 - 31 Dec 1891 Dmitriy Sergeyevich Sipyagin ......................... 1850-1902

01 Jan 1892 - 23 Oct 1905 Dmitriy Dmitriyevich Sverbeyev ....................... 1842-1919

23 Oct 1905 - 23 Jul 1910 Leonid Mikhailovich Knyazev .......................... 1851-1913

23 Jul - Sep 1910 Prince Nikolay Dmitriyevich Kropotkin ................ 1872-1937

(acting)

Sep 1910 - 25 May 1915 Sergey Dmitriyevich Nabokov .......................... 1866-1940

May 1915 - May 1916 Tatishchev

(in Tartu exile)

30 May - 30 Dec 1916 Count Pyotr Vasilyevich Hendrikov .................... 1883-1942

(in Tartu exile)

30 Dec 1916 - 17 Mar 1917 Strakhov (in Tartu exile)

 

Chairmen of the Ducal Government (Chancellors)

1681 - 1701 Christoph Heinrich von Puttkamer

1701 - 1708 Friedrich von Brackel ................................ 1634-1708

1708 - 1727 Heinrich Christian von den Brincken .................. 1648-1729

1727 - 1729 Adam Kazimierz Kościuszko

1729 - 18 Jan 1731 Casimir Christoph von Brackel ........................ 1686-1742

18 Jan 1731 - 15 Apr 1736 Heinrich Georg von Mirbach ........................... 1674-1736

15 Apr 1736 - 1759 Christoph Friedrich von der Osten,

gen. Sacken-Appricken

1759 - 1763 Otto Christoph von der Howen (1st Time) .............. 1699-1775

1763 - 1767 Heinrich Christian von Offenberg

1767 - 08 Dec 1775 Otto Christoph von der Howen (2nd Time)

08 Dec 1775 - 1786 Johann Ernst von Klopmann ............................ 1727-1786

- 21 Dec 1786 Ernst Johann von Taube (1st Time) .................... 1740-1794

21 Dec 1786 - 1787 Christian Ernst von Oelsen ........................... 1729-1787

1787 - 1794 Ernst Johann von Taube (2nd Time)

1794 - 28 Jan 1796 Carl Ferdinand von Orgies, gen. Rutenberg

Chairman of the Land Government

01 Aug - 20 Dec 1812 Karl Johann Friedrich Graf von Medem ................ 1762-1827

Chairmen of the Land Council of Courland

10 May - Nov 1917 Karlis Pauluks ....................................... 1870-1945

08 Mar - 08 Nov 1918 Alexander Immanuel, Baron von Rahden-Maihof .......... 1859-1920

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Dondangen (Dundaga)

1585 - 1795 Lordship of Dondangen

1639 Union with Pilten

26 Apr 1795 Annexed by Russia as part of Pilten

Lords

17 Jun 1585 - 1588 Martin Berzowicz

1588 - 1610 Levin von Bülow

1610 - 1652 Friedrich von Bülow

1652 - 1656 Anna Sibylla von Maydell

(1st time)

1656 - 30 Jul 1670 Otto Ernst von Maydell

30 Jul 1670 - 1687 Anna Sibylla von Maydell

(2nd time)

1687 - 21 Jun 1711 Dietrich von Maydell

21 Jun 1711 - 1718 Ewald von der Osten-Sacken

1718 - 06 Aug 1731 Johann Ulrich von der Osten-Sacken

06 Aug 1731 - 31 Dec 1794 Karl Graf von der Osten-Sacken

31 Dec 1794 - 26 Apr 1795 Christiane Charlotte Sophie Freiin

von Dieskau ......................................... 1733-1811

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Pilten (Piltene)

1234-1560 Bishopic of Courland

1520 Principality of the Holy Roman Empire

20 May 1560 Sold to Denmark

20 Apr 1585 Sold to Poland-Lithuania

03 May 1660 - 1717 In Personal union with Courland

1717 - 26 Apr 1795 Restored to Poland Lithuania

26 Apr 1795 Annexed by Russia

02 Mar 1818 Incorporated into Courland

11 Nov 1918 To Latvia thereafter

Bishops of Courland

1232 - 1234 Balduin Alnast

1234 - 1236/37 Engelbrecht

1237 - 1250 ....

03 Mar 1251 - 05 Mar 1263 Heinrich I von Lützelburg

05 Mar 1263 - 1298 Edmund von Werth

1300 - 1311 Burchard

05 Mar 1322 - 1326 Paul I

11 Oct 1328 - 1331 Johannes I

1332 - 05 Jun 1353 Johannes II

14 Mar 1354 - 1359 Ludolf

25 Jan 1360 - 1371 Jakob

08 Jun 1371 - 1398 Otto

12 Jun 1399 - 1404 Rutger von Brüggenei

12 Jan 1405 - 17 Nov 1424 Gottschalk Schutte

1424 - 1425 Dietrich Tanke

15 Jan 1425 - 28 Nov 1456 Johannes III Tiergart

20 Jun 1457 - 09 Jul 1473 Paul II Einwald

09 Jul 1473 - 31 Jan 1500 Martin Lewitz

04 May 1500 - 04 Nov 1500 Michael Sculteti

12 Feb 1501 - Dec 1523 Heinrich II Basedow

02 Mar 1524 - Dec 1539 Hermann II Ronneberg

16 Jul 1540 - Apr 1560 Johannes IV von Münchhausen

May 1560 - 28 Feb 1583 Magnus Herzog von Holstein

Princes

03 May 1660 - 1717 The Dukes of Courland

1717 - 26 Apr 1795 The Kings of Poland

Oberhauptleute

1562 - 1574 Heinrich Wolf von Lüdinghausen

1574 - 1585 ....

1585 - 1603 Johann von Behr-Edwahlen

1603 - 1611 Christoph von Rappe-Telsen

1611 - 1616 The Duke of Courland

1621 - 1633 Hermann von Maydell

1633 - 1667 Otto von Maydell

16.. - 16.. Otto Ernst von Maydell

1698 - 1705 Georg Johann von Keyserlingk

1705 - 1715 Ulrich von Behr

1715 - 1717 Ernst Ewald von Heyking

1717 - 26 Apr 1795 Vacant

Präsidenten des Landratskollegiums

1667 - 16.. Otto von Maydell

1697 - 1710 Friedrich von der Osten

1710 - 1714 Wilhelm Alexander von Heyking

1714 - 1735 Ulrich von Behr

1735 - 15 Jun 1750 Ernst von Koskull

1750 - 23 Feb 1764 Magnus Ernst von Fircks

1764 - 1779 Johann Ernst von Heyking

1779 - 1782 Friedrich Hermann von Behr .......................... 1729-1807

1782 - 26 Apr 1795 Otto Ulrich von der Osten ........................... 1741-1818

_________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Letgallia (Letgale)

 

c.1100 Letgalian Principality

26 Sep 1629 Under Polish-Lithuanian soveraignty

1677 Province of Poland-Lithuania under joint administration

30 Sep 1772 - 1917 Annexed by Russia

20 Jul - 28 Sep 1812 French occupation

12 Nov 1917 - 18 Feb 1918 Under Soviet control

18 Feb - 09 Dec 1918 Occupied by Germany, to be returned to Soviet Russia

by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

09 Dec 1918 - 01 Feb 1912 Re-taken by Soviet forces, part of the Latvian S.S.R

01 Feb 1920 Annexed by Latvia during the Polish-Soviet War

11 Aug 1920 Recognised as part of Latvia by Soviet Russia

 

 

 

Princes in Letgale

118. - 1203 Visvaldis

(in Jersika)

118. - 1207 Tālivaldis

(in Talva)

1203 - 1214 Rameķis

(in Talva)

11.. - 1207 Vetseke

(in Koknese)

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Livonia

11.. - 1244 Principalities of Letagle and Letts

1201 Bishopic of Livonia

1207 Archbishop of Riga takes title of Prince of Livonia

12 May 1237 Swordbrothers of Livonia incorporated into Teutonic Order

1420 Livonian Confederation established

1561 - 1660 Swedish and Russian controll

05 Mar 1562 - 14 Jan 1582 Riga a Free Imperial City

05 Mar 1562 - 26 Sep 1629 In Personal Union with Lithuania

1570 - 1578 Czar Ivan IV of Russia installs Magnus of Holstein as king of Livonia

30 Mat 1630 Under Swedish controll, except the city of Riga

15 Jul 1710 Riga falls to Russian forces

08 Aug 1713 Livonia governorate formes

10 Sep 1721 Swedish Livonia ceded to Russia

30 Sep 1773 Polish Livonia annexed to Russia with the First Partition of Poland

14 Jul 1783 Autonomy abollished

28 Nov 1796 Limited local autonomy restored

05 Jul 1917 Local autonomy granted by Russia

03 Sep 1917 - 18 Nov 1918 German occupation (in Riga from 1917, whole area by 22 Feb 1918)

09 Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918 Bolshevik forces occupy the region

21 Nov 1917 - 22 Feb 1918 United Latvian Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Soviet at Volka

03 Mar 1918 Russia renounces sovereinty at Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

12 Apr 1918 Duchy of Livonia a client of the German Empire

18 Nov 1918 Part of Latvia thereafter

 

Princes of Letts and Livs

11.. - 1200 Ako

(in Salo)

1191 - 1204 Kaupo

(King in Turaida)

120. - 1206 Anno (in Turaida)

1211 - 1212 Vesik (in Turaida)

Bishops of Riga, Princes of Livonia (in Üxküll)

1186 - 11 Oct 1196 St. Meinhard

1196 - 24 Aug 1198 Berthold Schulte

1199 - 1201 Albrecht von Buxhövden

1201 - 17 Jan 1229 Albrecht I von Buxhövden

08 Apr 1231 - Dec 1253 Nikolaus von Nauen

1254 - 20 Jan 1255 Albrecht II Suerbeer

Archbishops of Riga and Princes of Livland

20 Jan 1255 - 1273 Albrecht II Suerbeer

17 May 1274 - 1285 Johannes I von Lünen

10 Jan 1286 - 1294 Johannes II von Vechten

18 Apr 1295 - 1300 Johannes III, Graf von Schwerin

19 Dec 1300 - 11 Apr 1302 Isarno Morlane

11 Apr 1302 - 1304 Jens Grand

21 Mar 1304 - 1340 Friedrich Banner von Pernstein

18 Oct 1341 - 09 Sep 1347 Engelbrecht von Dolen

17 Mar 1348 - 28 Dec 1369 Fromhold von Vyshusen

11 Feb 1370 - 30 Jun 1374 Siegfried von Blomberg

23 Oct 1374 - 24 Sep 1393 Johannes IV von Ziten

08 Apr 1395 - 30 May 1418 Johannes V von Wallenrode

11 Jul 1418 - 14 May 1424 Johannes VI Ambundi

13 Oct 1424 - 05 Apr 1448 Henning Scharpenberg

09 Oct 1448 - 12 Jul 1479 Silvester Stodewäscher

22 Mar 1480 - 20 Dec 1483 Stephan Grube

04 Jun 1484 - 05 Feb 1509 Michael Hildebrand

23 May 1509 - 29 Jun 1524 Casper Linde

29 Jun 1524 - 09 Sep 1527 Johannes VII Blankenfeld

18 Jan 1531 - 11 Aug 1539 Thomas Schöning

07 Sep 1539 - 04 Feb 1563 Wilhelm von Hohenzollern Markgraf

von Brandenburg

King of Livonia

10 Jun 1570 - Jan 1578 Oldemburg, Magnus, Duke of Holstein

Princes of Livonia

30 May 1630 - 1660 The Kings of Sweden

Princes

15 Jul 1710 - 15 Mar 1917 The Emperors of Russia

Duke of Livonia

12 Apr - 08 Nov 1918 Adolf Pilar von Pilchau .............................. 1851-1925

(regent)

08 Nov - 28 Nov 1918 Mecklenburg, Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich ....... 1873-1969

 

Russian Governors

15 Jul 1710 - Mar 1711 Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin-Obolenskiy

(1st Time, interim)

Mar 1711 - May 1719 Prince Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov

May 1719 - 14 Jul 1726 Prince Anikita Ivanovich Repnin-Obolenskiy

(2nd Time)

Jul 1726 - Jan 1727 Herman Jensen de Bohn

(acting)

Jan 1727 - May 1729 Count Grigoriy Petrovich Chernoyshov

27 May 1729 - 30 Apr 1751 Count Peter von Lacy

30 Apr 1751 - Jun 1753 Vladimir Chernoyshov

(acting)

Jun 1753 - 01 Apr 1758 Fyodor Matveyevich Voyeikov

(acting)

01 Apr 1758 - 11 Jun 1761 Prince Vladimir Petrovich Dolgoruky

11 Jun 1761 - 12 Mar 1762 Yakov Arshenevsky

(acting)

12 Mar 1762 - 29 Sep 1792 Count George Browne

(Governor-general for Livonia and Estonia)

Jul 1783 - 1783 Nikolay Naumov

19 Dec 1783 - 05 Dec 1790 Aleksandr Andreyevich Bekleshov

05 Dec 1790 - 17 Mar 1792 Johann von Reck

17 Mar 1792 - 28 May 1795 Peter Ludwig Freiherr von der Pahlen

28 May 1795 - 24 Jan 1797 Gerhard Konrad Kasimir,

Freiherr von Meyendorff

24 Jan - Feb 1797 Balthasar Freiherr von Campenhausen

26 Feb - 06 Sep 1797 Ernst Burchard Graf von Mengden,

Freiherr von Altenwoga

12 Sep 1797 - 29 Aug 1808 Christoph Adam von Richter

29 Aug 1808 - 13 May 1811 Ivan Nikolayevich Repyev

13 May 1811 - 05 Nov 1827 Josef von Dühamel

27 Nov 1827 - 29 Apr 1829 Paul Baron von Hahn

29 Apr - 23 May 1829 Ludwig Johann Ferdinand von Cube

(1st Time, acting)

23 May 1829 - 25 Feb 1847 Georg Friedrich Baron von Fölkersahm

25 Feb - 08 Jun 1847 Ludwig Johann Ferdinand von Cube

(2nd Time, acting)

08 Jun 1847 - 30 May 1862 Heinrich Magnus Wilhelm von Essen

30 May 1862 - 31 Jan 1868 August Georg Friedrich von Öttingen

31 Jan 1868 - 24 Nov 1871 Friedrich Woldemar von Lysander

24 Nov 1871 - 10 Feb 1872 Julius Gustav von Cube

(acting)

10 Feb 1872 - 14 Dec 1874 Michael Baron von Wrangell

14 Dec 1874 - 01 Dec 1882 Alexander Karl Abraham Baron

von Üxküll-Güldenbandt

01 Dec 1882 - 18 Jan 1883 Hermann Friedrich Johannes von Tobiesen

(1st Time, acting)

18 Jan 1883 - 13 May 1885 Ivan Yegorovich Shevich

13 May 1885 - 21 Jun 1885 Hermann Friedrich Johannes von Tobiesen

(2nd Time, acting)

21 Jun 1885 - 14 Dec 1895 Mikhail Alekseyevich Zinovyev

14 Dec 1895 - 07 Mar 1896 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin

(1st Time, acting)

07 Mar 1896 - 21 Sep 1900 Vladimir Dmitriyevich Surovtsev ...................... 1856-1900

21 Sep 1900 - 10 Jan 1901 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Bulygin

(2nd Time, acting)

10 Jan 1901 - 27 Jun 1905 Mikhail Alekseyevich Pashkov ......................... 1853-1908

28 Jun - 28 Jul 1905 Pyotr Petrovich Neklyudov(acting)

28 Jul 1905 - 17 Aug 1905 Yakov Dmitriyevich Bologovskoy ....................... 1863-1913

(acting)

17 Aug 1905 - 23 Nov 1914 Nikolay Aleksandrovich Zvegintsov .................... 1848-1920

23 Nov 1914 - Jan 1916 Arkady Ippolitovich Kelepovsky ....................... 1870-1925

Jan - 01 Feb 1916 Sergey Sergeyevich Podolinsky ........................ 1879-1944

(acting)

01 Feb 1916 - 08 Feb 1917 Nikolay Nikolayevich Lavrinovsky ..................... 1875-1930

20 Feb - 18 Mar 1917 Sergey Alekseyevich Shidlovsky ....................... 1864-1922

Russian Government Commissioners

18 Mar - 03 Apr 1917 Andrey Krastkalns .................................... 1868-1939

03 Apr - 20 Nov 1917 Andrey Priedkalns .................................... 1873-1923

 

Landmarschälle (Land Marshalls)

1710 Georg Reinhold von Tiesenhausen

Freiherr zu Erlaa .................................. 1650-1734

1710 Johann Albrecht von Mengden

Freiherr von Altenwoga ............................. 1663-1720

1710 - 1712 Magnus Gustav von Mengden Freiherr von Altenwoga .... 1663-1726

1712 - 1715 Magnus Johann von dem Broele, gen. Plater

1715 - 1717 Berend Dietrich von Bock ............................ 1670-1737

1717 - 1720 Otto Chistoph von Richter ........................... 1678-1729

1720 - 1723 Woldemar Johann Freiherr von

Ungern-Sternberg ................................... 1684-1741

1723 - 1727 Gotthard Wilhelm Freiherr von

Budberg, gen. Bönninghausen ........................ 1685-1749

1727 - 1730 Gotthard Wilhelm von Berg ........................... 1682-1756

1730 - 1737 Caspar Friedrich von Buddenbrock .................... 16..-1737

1737 - 1742 Johann Gustav Freiherr von Budberg,

gen. Bönninghausen ................................. 1693-1754

1742 - 1747 Heinrich Gustav von Patkul .......................... 1698-1778

1747 - 1759 Gustav Henrich von Igelström ........................ 1695-1771

1759 - 1765 Leonhard Johann Freiherr von Budberg,

gen. Bönninghausen ................................. 1727-1796

1765 - 1769 Adolf Heinrich von Anrep ............................ 1717-1765

1769 - 1775 Carl Gustav von Mengden Freiherr von Altenwoga ...... 1723-1775

1775 - 1777 Caspar Heinrich von Rosenkampf ...................... 1734-1790

1777 - 1783 Franz Wilhelm von Rennenkampf ....................... 1743-1784

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Riga

1282 City of Riga becomes a member of the Hanseatic League

05 Mar 1562 Riga a Free City of the Empire

14 Jan 1582 Incorporated into Poland-Lithuania as part of Livonia

26 Sep 1621 Captured by Sweden

15 Jul 1710 Annexed by Russia, recognised by Sweden 10 Sep 1921

19 Jan 1787 Autonomy revoked by Russia

03 Sep 1917 - Dec 1918 German occupation

03 Mar 1918 Russia recognises the the German right to determine

the future of the Baltic states by the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

11 Nov 1918 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk is declared void

03 Jan - 22 May 1919 Soviet occupation

22 May 1919 Latvian occupation

27 Jun - 03 Jul 1919 German occupations

03 Jul - 07 Jul 1919 Allied (British-American) administration

07 Jul 1919 Restored to Latvia

 

 

Wortführender Bürgermeister

1693 - 14 Jan 1709

1709 - 19 Apr 1717 Johann von Oettingen

1717 - 1719 Johann von Benkendorff

1719 - 1725 Christian Zimmermann

1734 - 21 Nov 1740 Melchior von Wiedau

21 Nov 1740 - 08 Dec 1753 Georg Berens

1762 - 10 Sep 1764 Gotthard von Vegesack

1764 - 1767 Andreas Stoever

1767 - 1772 Melchior von Vegesack

1772 - 19 Jan 1787 Johann Heinrich Schick

Mayors

1890 - 1901 Ludwig Wilhelm Kerkovius ............................. 1831-1904

1901 - 17 Nov 1912 George Armitstead .................................... 1847-1912

1913 - 23 Apr 1917 Wilhelm Robert von Bulmerincq ........................ 1862-1953

1917 Gustavs Zemgals (1st Time) ........................... 1871-1939

1917 - 03 Dec 1918 Paul Hopf ............................................ 1875-1939

1918 Gustavs Zemgals (2nd Time)

1918 - 1919 Voldemars Pusulls .................................... 1884-1939

1919 Gustavs Zemgals (3rd Time)

1919 Rudolfs Endrups ...................................... 1887-1938

1919 Simanis Bergis ....................................... 1887-1943

04 Jul 1919 - 03 Feb 1920 Gustavs Zemgals (4th Time)

03 Feb 1920 - 03 Mar 1921 Andrejs Fridenbergs .................................. 1875-1941

03 Mar 1921 - 16 Mar 1928 Alfreds Andersons .................................... 1879-1937

16 Mar 1928 - 05 May 1931 Adams Krievins ....................................... 1889-1951

05 May 1931 - 01 Sep 1935 Hugo Celmins ......................................... 1877-1941

01 Sep 1935 - 04 Apr 1936 Roberts Garselis ..................................... 1892-1936

07 Jul 1936 - 05 Jul 1940 Roberts Liepins ...................................... 1890-1978

05 Jul - 12 Sep 1940 Janis Pupurs ......................................... 1901-1977

12 Sep - 29 Nov 1940 Jekabs Adolfs Ermons ................................. 1900-1978

29 Nov 1940 - 01 Jul 1941 Arnolds Deglavs (1st Time) ........................... 1904-1969

Bergermeister

01 Sep 1941 - 13 Oct 1944 Hugo Wittrock ........................................ 1873-1958 NSDAP

Mayors

13 Oct 1944 - 1951 Arnolds Deglavs (2nd Time)

1951 - 1952 Edgars Apinis ........................................ 1902-1957

1952 - 1957 Vilhelms Lecis ....................................... 1898-1977 LKP

1958 - 1962 Eriks Baumanis ....................................... 1923-1980 LKP

1962 - 1967 Janis Pakalns ........................................ 1912-2002 LKP

1967 - 1969 Egons Slede .......................................... 1929-2001 LKP

1969 - 1976 Gunars Ziemelis ...................................... 1931-1978 LKP

1976 - 1984 Mechislav Iazelovich Dubra ........................... 1934-2003 LKP

1984 - 1990 Alfreds Rubiks ....................................... 1935- LKP

1990 - 1992 Andrejs Inkuls ....................................... 1941- LKP

1992 - 1994 Andris Teikmanis ..................................... 1959-

1994 - 09 Mar 1997 Maris Pugailis ....................................... 1947-

09 Mar 1997 - 05 May 2000 Andris Berzins ....................................... s.a

10 May 2000 - 27 Mar 2001 Andris Argalis ....................................... 1944-

27 Mar 2001 - 29 Mar 2005 Gundars Bojars ....................................... 1967-

29 Mar 2005 - 19 Feb 2007 Aivars Aksenoks ...................................... 1961-

19 Feb 2007 - 30 Jun 2009 Janis Birks .......................................... 1956-

01 Jul 2009 - Nil Valeryevich Usakovs .............................. 1976- SDPS

 

 

SDPS=Sociāldemokrātiskā Partija "Saskaņa, Social Democratic Party "Harmony".

Former Parties

LKP=Latvijas Komunistiska partija, Latvian Communist Party, Communism, dissolved 1991).

NSDAP=Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, Nazism banned 1945).

___________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Ostsee Governorates and Ostland

 

Old Livonia (comprising of modern Estonia and Latvia)

1710 Swedish Livonia and Estonia annexed by Russia

14 Jul 1783 Ostsee (Baltics) governor-generalship

08 Oct 1800 Courland, Livonia and Estonian governorates

under one governor-generalship

07 Feb 1876 Baltic Provinces governor-generalship abolished

23 Aug 1905 - 28 Apr 1909 Governor-generalship restored

02 Aug 1914 - 20 Nov 1917 Temporary administration

1914 - 1919 Ober Ost (German military district in Courland, Lithuania and Grodno)

03 Sep 1917 - 1919 German occupation

12 Apr 1918 Baltic Germans proclaim an inderpendant Baltic State

01 Aug 1918 Baltic State under German military administration

22 Sep 1918 Independence recognised by Germany

06 Nov 1918 United Baltic Duchy

11 Nov 1918 Independence of the Baltic State is declared void

28 Nov 1918 - Dec 1919 Allied occupation

24 Jun 1941 - 01 Aug 1944 German occupation of Lithuania

01 Jul 1941 - 13 Oct 1944 German occupation of Latvia

17 Jul 1941 - 02 Feb 1945 Occupied Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the former Polish Kresy

organised as Ostland

13 Oct 1944 Riga liberated by Soviet forces

02 Feb 1945 Ostland dissolved by decree

 

Governors-general of Livonia and Estonia

14 Jul 1783 - 29 Sep 1792 Count George Brown ................................... 1698-1792

11 Oct 1792 - Oct 1798 Prince Nikolay Vasilyevich Repnin .................... 1734-1801

09 Nov 1798 - 08 Oct 1800 Ludwig von Nagell

Governors-general for the Baltic Provinces

08 Oct 1800 - 29 Jun 1801 Peter Ludwig Graf von der Pahlen ..................... 1745-1826

21 Jul 1801 - 23 Sep 1803 Prince Sergey Fyodorovich Golitsyn ................... 1748-1810

23 Sep 1803 - 06 Feb 1807 Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Buxhövden ................. 1750-1811

(1st Time)

27 Mar - 25 Dec 1807 Aleksandr Petrovich Tormasov ......................... 1752-1819

(acting)

25 Dec 1807 - 29 Dec 1810 Friedrich Wilhelm Graf von Buxhövden (2nd Time)

29 Dec 1810 - 17 Jun 1812 Prince Dmitry Ivanovich Lubanov-Rostovsky ............ 1758-1838

09 Nov 1812 - 11 Jan 1830 Filipo marchese Paulicci ............................. 1779-1849

12 Jan 1830 - 29 Mar 1845 Karl Magnus Freiherr von der Pahlen .................. 1779-1863

09 Apr 1845 - 13 Jan 1848 Count Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Golovin ................. 1782-1858

13 Jan 1848 - 13 Nov 1861 Count Aleksandr Arkadyevich Suvorov Rimniksky,

Prince Italiysky .................................... 1804-1882

14 Dec 1861 - 27 Dec 1864 Wilhelm Heinrich Freiherr von Lieven ................. 1799-1880

27 Dec 1864 - 30 Apr 1866 Count Pyotr Andreyevich Shuvalov ..................... 1827-1886

30 Apr - 21 Oct 1866 Count Eduard Trofimovich Baranov ..................... 1811-1884

21 Oct 1866 - 29 Jan 1876 Prince Pyotr Romanovich Bagriaton .................... 1818-1876

Temporary Governors-general

23 Aug - 25 Dec 1905 Woldemar von Böckmann ................................ 1848-1923

25 Dec 1905 - 30 Oct 1906 Count Vasily Ustinovich Sollogub ..................... 1848-1917

30 Oct 1906 - 28 Apr 1909 Baron Aleksandr Nikolayevich Meller-Zakomelsky ....... 1844-1928

Special Plenipotentiaries for Civil Administration of Livonia, Estonia and Courland

02 Aug 1914 - Nov 1917 Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Gerasimov ..................... 1861-1931

07 Dec 1914 - 15 Aug 1915 Pavel Grigoryevich Komarov-Kurlov .................... 1860-1923

21 Oct 1915 - 28 Jul 1917 Radko Ruskov Dimitrov ................................ 1859-1918

(acting)

28 Jul - 20 Nov 1917 Vladimir Savelyevich Voytinskiy ...................... 1887-1960

(Commissar for the Civil Administration)

Head of the Military Administration of the Baltic Lands (Baltikum)

01 Aug - 04 Dec 1918 Alfred Freiherr von Gossler .......................... 1887-1946

Reichskommissare for the Baltic Sea Region (Ostseeraum)

01 Aug - 08 Nov 1918 Friedrich Karl Alexander Cäsar

Freiherr von Falkenhausen ........................... 1869-1946

08 Nov - 14 Nov 1918 August Winnig ........................................ 1878-1956

Duke

06 Nov - 18 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Adolf Friedrich Albrecht Heinrich,

Herzog von Mecklenburg-Schwerin ..................... 1873-1969

(proclaimed but did not take the throne)

Reichskommissare fur das Ostland

17 Jul 1941 - 26 Sep 1944 Heinrich Lohse ....................................... 1896-1964

(absent from 26 Aug 1944)

12 Aug - 02 Sep 1944 Martin Jürgen Matthiessen ............................ 1901-1990

(1st Time, acting)

02 Sep 1944 - 21 Jan 1945 Erich Koch ........................................... 1896-1986

(acting, in East Prussia)

02 Sep 1944 - 21 Jan 1945 Martin Jürgen Matthiessen

(2nd Time, acting for Koch)

 

Presidents of the Baltic Committee

05 Jun 1846 - 1859 Peter Graf von der Pahlen ............................ s.a

1859 - 23 Apr 1876 Moritz von Grünewaldt ................................ 1797-1877

Chairman of the Joint Council of Livonia, Estonia, Riga, and Ösel

12 Apr - 08 Nov 1918 Adolph Konstantin Jakob Freiherr Pilar von Pilchau ... 1851-1925

Chairman of the Baltic Council of Regency

06 Nov - 17 Nov 1918 Adolph Konstantin Jakob Freiherr Pilar von Pilchau ... s.a

Chairman of the Baltic Land Executive Committee

09 Nov - 28 Nov 1918 Eduard Julius Alexander Freiherr von Dellingshausen . 1863-1939

Head Chief of Division I Central Office

01 Sep 1942 - 13 Oct 1944 Wilhelm Burmeiste

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