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Libya

c. 1200 - 400 BC          Meshwesh Empire

332 - 323                 To Macedon

323 - 30                  To Egypt

30 BC - 395 AD            To the Roman Empire

395 - 670                 To the Byzantine Empire

670                       Arab conquest

909 - 1159                Fatamid rule

1235 - 1521               To Egypt

14 Aug 1521 - 03 Oct 1911 Part of Ottoman Empire

03 Oct 1911 - 12 Nov 1922 Italian occupation

12 Nov 1922               Annexed by Italy

01 Jan 1934               United as Libya

13 May 1943               End of Italian rule (official 10 Feb 1947)

13 May 1943 - 21 Nov 1949 Anglo-French administration

21 Nov 1949 - 24 Dec 1951 Under UN Trusteeship

24 Dec 1951               United Kingdom of Libya

25 Apr 1963               Kingdom of Libya

01 Sep 1969               Libyan Arab Republic

01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics

02 Mar 1977               Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

15 Feb 2011 - 25 Jan 2012 Civil War

17 Feb 2011 - 08 Jan 2013 Libya (National Transitional Council) in eastern Libya to 22 Aug 2011

                          (gains UN recognision on 16 Sep 2011)

22 Aug 2011               Gaddafi regime ousted from Tripoli

23 Oct 2011               Gaddafi regime ended with the fall of Sirte

08 Jan 2013 -             State of Libya

 

Meshwesh Empire

Emperors (Pharaohs of the 22 Dynasty 945 - 715)

Danaos

Belus

Amraon

Bocchus

Ephaphus

Lycus

1230 - 1220 Merirey

1200 Buyuwawa

.... - .... Mawasun

.... - .... Neb-Neshi

.... - .... Pasouti

1000 - .... Sheshonq I

900 - ... Nimlot

945 - 924 Sheshonq II

924 - 889 Osorkon I

... - ... Sheshonq III

889 - 874 Takelot I

874 - 850 Osorkon II

850 - 825 Takelot II

825 - 773 Sheshonq IV

773 - 767 Pami

767 - 730 Sheshonq V

730 - 715 Osorkon III

600 - ... Tarqu

... - ... Adikran

... - ... .....

400 - ... Psammetichus I

463 - 454 Inaros

445 - 444 Psammetichus II

4.. - ... Psammetichus III

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Kingdom of Libya

King of Libya

24 Dec 1951 - 01 Sep 1969 Senussi, Sayyid Mohammed Idris I ............. 1890-1983

(Abdicated 04 Aug 1969, effective 02 Sep 1969)

26 Oct 1956 - 01 Sep 1969 Prince Hasan ar-Rida al-Mahdi as-Senussi ..... 1928-1992

(Regent, acting)

 

Prime Ministers

24 Dec 1951 - 19 Feb 1954 Mahmud al-Muntasir ........................... 1903-1970

19 Feb - 12 Apr 1954 Muhammad Sakizli ............................. 1892-....

12 Apr 1954 - 26 May 1957 Mustafa Ben Halim ............................ 1921-

26 May 1957 - 17 Oct 1960 Abdul Majid Kubar ............................ 1909-....

17 Oct 1960 - 19 Mar 1963 Muhammad Osman Said .......................... 1922-2007

19 Mar 1963 - 20 Jan 1964 Mohieddin Fikini ............................. 1925-

20 Jan 1964 - 20 Mar 1965 Mahmud al-Muntasir (2nd Time)

20 Mar 1965 - 02 Jul 1967 Hussain Maziq ................................ 1918-2006

02 Jul - 25 Oct 1967 Abdul Qadir al-Badri ......................... 1921-2003

25 Oct 1967 - 04 Sep 1968 Abdul Hamid al-Bakkoush ...................... 1933-2007

04 Sep 1968 - 31 Aug 1969 Wanis al-Qaddafi ............................. 1924-1986

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Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

01 Sep 1969 Libyan Arab Republic

01 Jan 1972 - 19 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics

02 Mar 1977 Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

23 Aug 2011 Tripoli falls to anti-Gaddafi rebels

20 Oct 2011 Fall of the regime after civil war

 

Government: "state of the masses"

Capital: Tripoli (Sirte 01 Sep - 20 Oct 2011).

Language: Arabic, Berber.

Religion: Islam, Christian.

National Anthem: "Allahu Akbar" ("God is Great").

National Motto: "Freedom, Socialism and Unity".

National Emblem: Hawk of Quraish.

National Day: Revolution day, 1st September (1969).

Currency: Libyan Dinar.

 

 

Leader of the Revolution

01 Sep 1969 - 20 Oct 2011 Col. Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi .. 1942-2011

(fled Tripoli 20 Aug 2011)

20 Oct - 19 Nov 2011 Saif al-Islam Gaddafi ........................ 1972-

(in rebellion, prisoner from 19 Nov 2011)

 

General Secretaries of the General People's Congress

01 Sep 1969 - 01 Mar 1979 Col. Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi .. s.a ASU

01 Mar 1979 - 07 Jan 1981 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi .......................... 1939-

07 Jan 1981 - 15 Feb 1984 Mohammed az-Zaruq Rajab ...................... 1940-

15 Feb 1984 - 07 Oct 1990 Mifta al-Usta Omar ........................... 1935-2010

07 Oct 1990 - 18 Nov 1992 Abdul Razzaq as-Sawsa

18 Nov 1992 - 03 Mar 2008 Zentani Mohammed az-Zentani .................. 1937-

03 Mar 2008 - 05 Mar 2009 Muftah Muhammad K'eba ........................ 1942-

05 Mar 2009 - 26 Jan 2010 Mubarak Abdallah al-Shamikh .................. 1950-

26 Jan 2010 - 08 Sep 2011 Muhammad Abu Al-Qasim al-Zwai ................ 1952-

(fled Tripoli 20 Aug 2011)

 

 

Prime Ministers

08 Sep 1969 - 16 Jan 1970 Mahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi .................. 1935-2009 ASU

16 Jan 1970 - 16 Jul 1972 Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi ....... (s.a) ASU

16 Jul 1972 - 02 Mar 1977 Abdul Salam Jalloud .......................... 1944- ASU

General Secretaries of the General People's Committee

02 Mar 1977 - 02 Mar 1979 Abdul Ati al-Obeidi .......................... s.a

02 Mar 1979 - 23 Feb 1984 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (1st Time)

23 Feb 1984 - 02 Mar 1986 Muhammad az-Zaruq Rajab ...................... s.a

02 Mar 1986 - 02 Mar 1987 Jadallah Azzuz at-Talhi (2nd Time)

02 Mar 1987 - 07 Oct 1990 Umar Mustafa al-Muntasir ..................... 1939-2001

07 Oct 1990 - 29 Jan 1994 Abuzed Omar Dorda ............................ 1944-

29 Jan 1994 - 29 Dec 1997 Abdul Majid al-Qa`ud ......................... 1943-

29 Dec 1997 - 01 Mar 2000 Muhammad Ahmad al-Mangoush

01 Mar 2000 - 13 Jun 2003 Mubarak Abdullah al-Shamikh .................. s.a

13 Jun 2003 - 05 Mar 2006 Shukri Muhammad Ghanem ....................... 1942-2012

05 Mar 2006 - 01 Sep 2011 Al-Baghdadi Ali-Mahmudi ...................... 1945-

(fled to Tunisia 20 Aug 2011)

 

 

ASU=Arab Socialist Union (Arab nationalism, Nasserism [dissolved 1977])

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State of Libya

Capital: Tripoli, (Benghazi 15 Feb - 20 Sep 2011 de facto).

Language: Arabic, Berber, Italian.

Religion: Islam, Christian.

National Anthem: "Libya, Libya, Libya".

National Motto:

National Emblem:

National Day: Day of Revolt, 17 February (2011).

Currency: Libyan Dinar.

 

Chairman of the Provisional Government (in Benghazi to 10 Sep 2011)

26 Feb 2011 - 08 Aug 2012 Mustafa Mohamad Abdul Jalil .................. 1952-     NTC

Chairmen of the General National Congress

08 Aug      - 10 Aug 2012 Mohammed Ali Salim ........................... 1935-

10 Aug 2012 - 28 May 2013 Mohammed Yousef el-Magariaf .................. 1940-

28 May      - 25 Jun 2013 Giuma Ahmad Attigha .......................... 1950-

                          (acting)

25 Jun 2013 - 04 Aug 2014 Nouri Abusahmain ............................. 1956-

President of the House of Representatives

05 Aug 2014 -             Akila Saleh Issa ............................. 1944-

(in opposition from 12 Mar 2016 [in Tobruk])

Chairman of the Presidential Council

30 Mar 2016 - Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj ...................... 1960-

(in Tripoli)

 

Chairmen of the National Transitional Council (provisional)

05 Mar      - 23 Oct 2011 Mahmoud Jibril el-Warfally ................... 1952-     NTC

                          (in rebellion in Benghazi to 10 Sep 2011)

23 Oct      - 24 Nov 2011 Ali Abdussalam Tarhouni ...................... 1951-     NTC

Prime Ministers

24 Nov 2011 - 14 Nov 2012 Abdurrahim Abdulhafiz El-Keib ................ 1950-     NTC

Chairmen of the Provisional Governemnt

14 Nov 2012 - 11 Mar 2014 Ali Zeidan ................................... 1950-

11 Mar 2014 -             Abdullah al-Thani ............................ 1954-

(based in Tobruk, in opposition from 12 Mar 2016)

04 May      - 09 Jun 2014 Ahmed Matiq .................................. 1971-

                          (election declared unconstitutional)

Chairmen of the Counicl of Ministers

25 Aug 2014 - 01 Apr 2015 Omar al-Hassi (1st Time) ..................... 1949-

                          (in opposition in Tripoli)

01 Apr 2015 - 18 Oct 2016 Khalifa al-Ghawali (1st Time) ................ 1964-

(in opposition)

12 Mar 2016 - Fayez Mustafa al-Sarraj ...................... s.a

(in exile in Tunis, Tunisia to 30 Mar 2016)

14 Oct 2016 - 16 Mar 2017 Khalifa al-Ghawali (2nd Time)

(of the Tripoli based National Salvation Government)

01 Dec 2016 - Omar al-Hassi (2nd Time)

(Chairman of the High Council of Revolution,

in opposition in Tripoli)

 

DP=Democratic Party (Secularissm)

JCP=Justice and Construction Party (Islamism, conservativism)

NFA=National Forces Alliance (liberalism)

NFP=National Front Party (liberalism, progressivism)

NTC=National Transitional Council (anti-Qaddafi militant alliance, est. 27 Feb 2011)

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Cyrenaica

632 - 249 BC Kingdom of Cyrenaica

249 BC Part of Roman Empire

1004 Arab rule

1521 Part of Ottoman Empire

1843 Sanussi order founded

15 Oct 1912 Italian protectorate

17 May 1919 Italian colony

01 Jan 1934 United as Libya

Dec 1940 - 11 Nov 1942 Gradual British occupation

01 Mar 1949 Independence proclaimed, Emirate of Cyrenaica

(recognised by UK 01 Jun 1949)

21 Nov 1949 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomous

24 Dec 1951 Incorporation into Libya

22 Feb - 23 Aug 2011 Libyan opposition council based in Benghazi

06 Mar 2012 - Cyrenaica Transitional Council declared (not recognised by Libya)

24 Oct 2013 - Renamed autonomous state of Barqa

Capital: Benghazi

Monarchs

632-600 Battus I

600-583 Arcesilaus I

583-554 Battus II

554-550 Arcesilaus II

550 Learchus

550-525 Battus III

530-515 Arcesilaus III

515-465 Battus IV

465-460 Arcesilaus IV

276-250 Magas

250-249 Demetrius

1004 - 1007 Abu Rakwa

1007 - 1029 Mukhtar ibn al-Kassim

1029 - 1048 Mukarreb ibn Mafi

1048 - 1049 Jabara ibn Mukhtar

1049 Madhi ibn Mukharreb

1172 - 1182 Sharaf al-Din Karakush al-Mudhaffari an-Nassiri

1837 - 07 Sep 1859 Sanusi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Ali as-Sanusi ..... 1787-1859

07 Sep 1859 - 02 Jun 1902 Sanusi, Sayyid Muhammad ibn Sayyid ............ 1844-1902

02 Jun 1902 - 21 Aug 1918 Sanusi, Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Muhammad

ash-Sharif as-Sanusi ......................... 1873-1933

21 Aug 1918 - Sep 1929 Sanusi, Idris ibn Sayyid Muhammad

(1st Time)

1923 - 1928 Sayyid Muhammad ar-Rida ....................... 1890-1955

1928 - 1929 `Umar Muhtar

Oct 1946 - 24 Dec 1951 Sanusi, Idris ibn Sayyid Muhammad (2nd Time)

Governors

24 Dec 1951 - Aug 1953 Muhammad Sakizli .............................. 1892-1954

Aug 1953 - 15 Oct 1961 Hussain Maziq ................................. 1918-2006

15 Oct 1961 - Dec 1962 Mahmud Abu Hidma

Dec 1962 - 25 Apr 1963 Muhammad Sakizli (2nd Time)

Head of the Cyrenaica Transitional Council

06 Mar 2012 - Ahmed Al-Zubair al-Sanusi ..................... 1933-

(not recognised by Libya)

Head of the Council of Cyrenaica in Libya

24 Oct 2013 - Ibrahim al-Jadhran ............................ 1961-

(in rebellion in Ra's Lanuf)

Prime Ministers

09 Nov 1949 - 18 Mar 1950 Umar Mansur Kikhia ............................ 1880-1962

18 Mar 1950 - 24 Dec 1951 Muhammad Sakizli

Presidents of the Executive Council

24 Dec 1951 - 1962 Wanis al-Qaddafi .............................. 1924-1986

1962 - 25 Apr 1963 Hamid Abbar

Prime Minister

03 Nov 2013 - Abd-Rabbo al-Barassi

(appointed by Jadhran, not recognised)

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Fezzan

918 Sultanate of Fezzan

1190 To Egypt

1580 - 1911 Part of Ottoman Empire

15 Oct 1912 Annexed by Italy

1923 - 1930 Anarchic conditions

01 Jan 1934 United as Libya

08 Jan 1943 - 24 Dec 1951 French adimistration

24 Dec 1951 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomy within Libya

26 Sep 2013 - Declaration of autonomy (not recognised by Libya)

Capital: Sabha

Sultans

1190 - 1195 Sharaf al-Din Karakush

1195 - 1209 Yahya ibn Ghaniya

1566 - 1580 al-Munstasir ibn Mohammad

1580 - 1599 an-Nasir

1599 - 1612 al-Mansur

1612 - 1614 .....

1614 - 1623 Tahir I

1623 - 1626 .....

1626 - 1658 Mohammad I

1658 - 1682 Nagib

1682 - 1689 Mohammad II an-Nasir (1st Time)

1689 Mohammad al-Mukni

1689 Temmam

1689 - 1690 Mohammad III

1690 Ali al-Mukni

1690 - 1709 Mohammad II an-Nasir (2nd Time)

1709 - 1767 Ahmad I

1767 - 1776 Tahir II

1776 - 1780 Ahmad II al-Mansur

1789 - 1804 Sharif Mohammad ibn al-Mansur al-Hakim

1804 - 1811 Sharif Mohammad ibn al-Mansur al-Muntasr

1811 - 1831 Yusuf al-Mukkani

1831 - 1852 Sayf an-Nasr `Abd al-Jalil ibn Rad

1835 - 1856 Jumah ibn Khalifa

Oct 1946 - 12 Feb 1950 Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr ............................ 1876-1954

Governors

Aug 1909 - 15 Oct 1912 Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (1st Time)

1915 - 1923 Sayyid Muhammad al-Abid (2nd Time)

12 Feb 1950 - 12 Jun 1954 Ahmad Sayf an-Nasr ............................ s.a

12 Jun 1954 - 25 Apr 1963 Omar Sayf an-Nasr

President of the Province

26 Sep 2013 - Nouri Mohammad al-Qouizi

(not recognised by Libya)

Prime Minister

24 Dec 1951 - 12 Jun 1954 .....

01 Jul 1954 - 25 Apr 1963 Abdul Jalil Sayf an-Nasr

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Tripolitania

977 - 1146 Kingdom of Zirid

1146 - 22 Jan 1160 Norman rule

22 Jan 1160 Part of Morocco

1248 Part of Tunis

1327 Sultanate of Tripoli

1401 Part of Tunis

24 Jul 1510 - 25 Jul 1530 Spanish rule

25 Jul 1550 Transfered to the Knights of St. John Hospitaller

14 Aug 1551 - 03 Oct 1911 Part of Ottoman Empire

03 Oct 1911 - 23 Jan 1943 Italian rule

16 Nov 1918 - 1923 Tripolitanian Republic

12 Nov 1922 Annexed to Italy

01 Jan 1934 United as Libya

23 Oct 1942 - 24 Sec 1951 British occupation

24 Dec 1951 - 25 Apr 1963 Autonomy within Libya

Capital: Tripoli

Monarchs

1001-1009 Fulful ibn Said

1009-1012 Warru ibn Said

1023-1041 Khalifa ibn Warru

1041-1054 Said ibn Khazrum

1054-1058 Khazrun ibn Khalifa

1058-1067 al-Muntasir ibn Khazrun

1067-1095 Khalifa ibn Khazrun

1095 Shah Malik at-Turki

1095-1146 Mohammed in Khazrun

1324-1326 Thabit I ibn Mohammad al-Wishahi

1326-1348 Mohammed ibn Thabit

1348-1355 Thabit II ibn Mohammed

1355-1365 Ahmed ibn Makki

1365-1369 Abd al-Rahman ibn Ahmad

1369-1389 Abu Bakr ibn Mohammed

1389-1398 Ali ibn Ammar

1398-1400 Yahya ibn Abi Bakr

1470-1472 Sheikh Mansur

1472-1480 Yusef

1480-1492 Mohammed

1492-1510 Abdullah ibn Sharef

1610-1620 Suleiman

1620-1631 Mstafa Sharif

1631 Kasim

1631 Ramadan Agha

1631-1649 Mehmad Saqizli

07 Nov 1649 - 1672 Osman Saqizli

- 28 Nov 1672 Osman Reis as-Suhali

28 Nov 1672 - 26 Apr 1673 Bali Javush

26 Apr 1673 - 1675 Arnavut Halil

1675 Mustafa Pehlevan

May 1675 - 03 Apr 1676 Ibrahim Misirli-Oglu

03 Apr - 07 Apr 1676 Ibrahim Jelebi

07 Apr 1676 - 04 Apr 1677 Mustafa Kapudan

04 Apr 1677 - 27 Apr 1678 Baba Osman

27 Apr 1678 - 09 Sep 1679 Ak Mahmed

09 Sep 1679 - 11 Jun 1683 Hassan Abaza

11 Jun - 13 Jun 1683 Yulk Mahumd

13 Jun 1683 - 18 Jun 1684 Ali Jezairli

18 Jun 1684 - 08 Feb 1687 Hajji Abdullah Izimirli

May - Nov 1687 Ibrahim Terzi

Nov 1687 - 19 May 1701 Mehmed Iman Kerdeki

19 May - 11 Aug 1701 Osman

11 Aug 1701 - 29 Jul 1702 Mustafa Galibuli

29 Jul 1702 - Oct 1706 Mehmed Iman Kerdeki

(2nd Time)

Oct 1706 - Nov 1709 Halil

Nov 1709 - 23 Nov 1710 Ibrahim Alayali

23 Nov 1710 - 20 Jan 1711 Ismail Hoca

20 Jan 1711 Haci Receb

20 Jan - 04 Jul 1711 Mehmed Huseyin Cavush

04 Jul - 29 Jul 1711 Abu Umays Mahmud

29 Jul 1711 - 04 Nov 1745 Ahmad I Pasha

04 Nov 1745 - 24 Jul 1754 Mehmed Pasha

24 Jul 1754 - 30 Jul 1793 Ali I Pasha

30 Jul 1793 - 20 Jan 1795 Ali II Burghul Pasha Cezayril

20 Jan - 11 Jun 1795 Ahmad II Pasha

11 Jun 1795 - 20 Aug 1832 Yusuf I Pasha

20 Aug 1832 - 26 May 1835 Ali III Pasha

Oct 1911 - 16 Nov 1918 Sulayman ibn `Abd Allah al-Baruni ............ 1870-1940

Head of State

16 Nov 1918 - 1923 Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid

Governors

24 Dec 1951 - 14 May 1953 Fadhill bin Zikri (1st Time)

14 May 1953 - 1954 Al-Saddiq al-Muntasir

1954 - 1955 Abdessalam Bussairy

1955 - 1958 Jamal Bashaga

1958 - 1960 Taher Bekir

1960 - 13 Jun 1961 Abu Bakr Na'ama

13 Jun 1961 - 25 Apr 1963 Fadhill bin Zikri (2nd Time)

Chairman of the Central National Congress

04 Aug 2014 - Nuri Abu Sahim

(in rebellion)

Presidents of the Executive Council

1949 - 24 Dec 1951 Mahmud al-Muntasir ........................... 1903-1970

1951 - 19 Jan 1954 Ali al-Dib (1st Time)

03 Aug 1954 Mohieddin Fikini

1954 - 1958 Mahmud el-Bishti

1958 - 1961 Abdul Dansouf

1961 - 25 Apr 1963 Ali al-Dib (2nd Time)

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