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Major Former States of Italy

Corsica

259 - 456 AD Part of Roman Empire

Ostrogoth rule

Byzantine rule

575 - 774 Part of Lombardy

774 - 8.. Frankish rule

927 Part of Holy Roman Empire

1002 Republic of Corsica

1050-1077 Under Genoa

1077-1098 Papal rule

1098-1288 Rule by Republic of Pisa

1288 Under Genoa

1401-1409 French occupation

1464-1479 Under suzerainty of Milan

1553-1559 French occupation

1559-1735 Ruled by Genoese Bank Uffizio di San Giorgio

1637 Styled Kingdom of Corsica

1735 Independence, Kingdom of Corsica

1739-1789 Rule by Genoa

1746 Independence proclaimed (not recognised by Genoa)

1753-1769 de facto Independence

1769-1789 Authority ceded to Franc

1789 Incorporation into France

17 Jun 1794 - 19 Oct 1796 Corsican Nation re-established under Great Britian

19 Oct 1796 To France therafter

Rulers

7.. - 807 ....

807 - 8.. Hugo Colonna

828 - 838 Bonifacio II

838 - 844 Louis de Italia

1392 - 1396 Arrigo Della Rocca, Condi di Corsica

Kings

1637 - 15 Mar 1736 The Heads of State of Genoa

15 Mar 1736 - 10 Jul 1739 Teodoro I Antonio Stefano (1st Time) ..... 1694-1756

(Theodor Anton Stephan, Freiherr von Neuhoff)

10 Jul 1739 - 07 Jun 1746 The Heads of State of Genoa

01 Feb - 16 Mar 1743 Teodoro I Antonio Stefano (2nd Time)

Heads of State

Jan - 02 Oct 1753 Conte Giovanni Pietro Gaffori ............ 1710-1753

22 Oct 1753 - 15 Jul 1755 Supreme Council

15 Jul 1755 - 13 Jun 1769 Filippo Antonio Pasquale Paoli ........... 1725-1807

(1st Time)

15 Jun - 19 Jun 1794 Filippo Antonio Pasquale Paoli (2nd Time)

King

19 Jun 1794 - 15 Oct 1796 Welf, Giorgio I .......................... 1738-1820

(George III of Great Britian and Hannover)

Prime Minister

19 Jun 1794 - 15 Oct 1796 Carlo Andrea, condi Pozzo di Borgo ....... 1764-1842

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Etruria

1200 - 550 BC Rasna (Etruscan civilization)

1801 Kingdom founded by Treaty of Aranjuez

1807 Kingdom dissolved

Kings

21 Mar 1801 - 27 May 1803 Bourbon-Parma, Ludovico I ................ 1773-1803

27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807 Bourbon, Maria Luisa of Spain ............ 1782-1824

(Queen-regent)

27 May 1803 - 10 Dec 1807 Bourbon-Parma, Carlo Ludovico ............ 1799-1883

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Genova (Genoa)

c. 780 County of Genoa

1284 - 1768 Genoa annexed Corsica

27 Jul 1318 - 03 Dec 1334 Genoa a condominium of the Papal States and Naples

23 Sep 1339 Serenissima Repubblica di Genova (Most Serene Republic of Genoa)

09 Oct 1353 - 14 Mpv 1356 Occupied by the Duchy of Milan

04 Nov 1396 - 03 Sep 1409 French occupation

06 Sep 1409 - 22 Mar 1413 Occupied by the Duchy of Montfferato

03 Jul 1415 Republic of Genoa (restored)

02 Mov 1421 - 27 Dec 1435 Occupied by the Duchy of Milan

11 May 1458 - 12 Mar 1461 French occupation

19 Apr 1464 - 08 Aug 1478 Occupied by the Duchy of Milan

23 Aug 1487 - 26 Oct 1499 Occupied by the Duchy of Milan

26 Oct 1499 - 29 Apr 1512 French occupation

07 Sep 1512 - 02 Jun 1522 French occupation

Aug 1527 - 12 Sep 1528 French occupation

1580 Serenissima Repubblica di Genova (Republic of Genoa)

06 Sep - 07 Dec 1746 Austrian occupation

15 May 1768 Corsica sold to France

14 Jun 1797 - 06 Jun 1800 French occupation

01 Jan 1798 Ligurian Republic

06 Aug 1800 Austrian and British occupation

06 Jun 1800 Republic of Genoa (restored)

24 Jun 1800 French occupation

08 Oct 1805 Annexed by France

26 Apr 1814 Republic of Genoa (re-restored)

26 Dec 1814 British occupation

03 Jan 1815 Annexed by Piedmonte-Sardinia

02 Apr - 11 Apr 1849 Genoa proclaimes a provinsional government,

Sardinian authorities expelled

Dogi

23 Sep 1339 - 23 Dec 1344 Simone Boccanegra (1st Time)

25 Dec 1344 - 06 Jan 1350 Giovanni da Murta

09 Jan 1350 - 08 Oct 1353 Giovanni da Valente

09 Oct 1353 - 1355 Guglielmo Pallavicino

1355 - 14 Nov 1356 Gaspare Visconti

15 Nov 1356 - 02 Mar 1363 Simone Boccanegra (2nd Time)

14 Mar 1363 - 13 Aug 1370 Gabriele Adorno

13 Aug 1370 - 17 Jun 1378 Domenico Fregoso

17 Jun 1378 Antoniotto Adorno (1st Time)

17 Jun 1378 - 07 Apr 1383 Nicolo Guarco

07 Apr 1383 Federico da Pagana

07 Apr 1383 - 14 Jun 1384 Leonardo Montaldo

15 Jun 1384 - 03 Aug 1390 Antoniotto Adorno (2nd Time)

03 Aug 1390 - 06 Apr 1391 Giacomo Fregoso

06 Apr 1391 - 16 Jun 1392 Antoniotto Adorno (3rd Time)

16 Jun 1392 - 15 Jul 1393 Antonio Montaldo (1st Time)

15 Jul 1393 Pietro Fregoso

15 Jul - 16 Jul 1393 Clemente Prommontorio

16 Jul - 30 Aug 1393 Francesco Giustiniani Garibaldo

30 Aug 1393 - 24 May 1394 Antonio Montaldo (2nd Time)

24 May - 17 Aug 1394 Nicolò Zoagli

17 Aug - 03 Sep 1394 Antonio Guarco

03 Sep 1394 - 18 Mar 1397 Antoniotto Adorno (4th Time)

18 Mar - Aug 1397 Vallerano de Luxembourg

(French Governor)

Aug - 21 Sep 1397 Borleo de Luxembourg

(French governor)

21 Sep 1397 - 18 Jul 1398 Pierre Fresnel

(French governor)

18 Jul 1398 - 16 Jan 1400 Collart de Colleville

(French governor)

12 Oct 1528 - 04 Jan 1530 Oberto Gattaneo Lazzari

04 Jan 1531 - 04 Jan 1533 Battista Spinola

04 Jan 1533 - 04 Jan 1535 Battista Lomellini

04 Jan 1535 - 04 Jan 1537 Cristoforo Rosso Grimaldi

04 Jan 1537 - 04 Jan 1539 Giovanni Battista Doria

04 Jan 1539 - 04 Jan 1541 Giannandrea Lungo Giustiniani

04 Jan 1541 - 04 Jan 1543 Leonardo Cattaneo della Volta

04 Jan 1543 - 04 Jan 1545 Andrea Centuriona Pietrasanta

04 Jan 1545 - 04 Jan 1547 Giovanni Battista De Fornari

04 Jan 1547 - 04 Jan 1549 Benedetto Gentile Pevere

04 Jan 1549 - 04 Jan 1551 Gaspere Grimaldi Bracelli

04 Jan 1551 - 04 Jan 1553 Luca Spinola

04 Jan 1553 - 04 Jan 1555 Giacomo Promontario

04 Jan 1555 - 04 Jan 1557 Agostino Pinello Ardimenti

04 Jan 1557 - 03 Dec 1558 Pietro Giovanni Chiavica Cibo

04 Jan 1559 - 04 Jan 1561 Girolamo Vivaldi

04 Jan - 27 Sep 1561 Paolo Battista Giudice Calvi

04 Oct 1561 - 04 Oct 1563 Battista Cicala Zoaglio

07 Oct 1563 - 07 Oct 1565 Giovanni Battista Lercari

11 Oct 1565 - 11 Oct 1567 Odorico Ottavio Gentile

15 Oct 1567 - 03 Oct 1569 Simone Spinola

06 Oct 1569 - 06 Oct 1571 Paolo Giustiniani Moneglia

10 Oct 1571 - 10 Oct 1573 Gianotto Lomellini

16 Oct 1573 - 17 Oct 1575 Giacomo Durazzo Grimaldi

17 Oct 1575 - 17 Oct 1577 Prospero Centurione Fattinanti

19 Oct 1577 - 19 Oct 1579 Giovanni Battista Gentile Pignolo

20 Oct 1579 - 20 Oct 1581 Niccolò Doria

21 Oct 1581 - 21 Oct 1583 Gerolamo De Franchi Toso

04 Nov 1583 - 04 Nov 1585 Gerolamo Chiavari

08 Nov 1585 - 13 Nov 1587 Ambrogio Di Negro

14 Nov 1587 - 14 Nov 1589 Davide Vacca

20 Nov 1589 - 15 Nov 1591 Battista Negrone

27 Nov 1591 - 26 Nov 1593 Agostino Campi Giustiniani

27 Nov 1593 - 26 Nov 1595 Antonio Cebà Grimaldi

05 Dec 1595 - 04 Dec 1597 Matteo Senarega

07 Dec 1597 - 15 Feb 1599 Lazzaro Cebà grimaldi

22 Feb 1599 - 21 Feb 1601 Lorenzo Sauli

24 Feb 1601 - 25 Feb 1603 Agostino Doria

26 Feb 1603 - 27 Feb 1605 Pietro Sacco De Franchi

01 Mar 1605 - 02 Mar 1607 Luca De Castro Grimaldi

03 Mar - 17 Mar 1607 Solvestro Invrea

22 Mar 1607 - 23 Mar 1609 Gerolamo Assereto

01 Apr 1609 - 02 Apr 1611 Agostino Luciani Pinello

06 Apr 1611 - 06 Apr 1613 Alessandro Longo Giustiniani

21 Apr 1613 - 21 Apr 1615 Tomaso Spinola

25 Apr 1615 - 25 Apr 1617 Bernardo Clavarezza

25 Apr 1617 - 29 Apr 1619 Giovanni Giacomo Imperiale

02 May 1619 - 02 May 1621 Pietro Durazzo

04 May - 12 Jun 1621 Ambrogio Doria

22 Jun 1621 - 22 Jun 1623 Giorio Centurione

25 Jun 1623 - 16 Jun 1625 Federico De Franchi

16 Jun 1625 - 25 Jun 1627 Giacomo Lomellini

28 Jun 1627 - 28 Jun 1629 Giovanni Luca Chiavari

26 Jun 1629 - 26 Jun 1631 Andrea Spinola

30 Jun 1631 - 30 Jun 1633 Leonardo Della Torre

05 Jul 1633 - 05 Jul 1635 Giovanni Stefano Doria

11 Jul 1635 - 11 Jul 1637 Francesco Brignole Sale

13 Jul 1637 - 13 Jul 1639 Agostino Pallavicini

28 Jul 1639 - 28 Jul 1641 Giovanni Battista Durazzo

14 Aug 1641 - 19 Jun 1642 Giovanni Agostino De Marini

04 Jul 1642 - 04 Jul 1644 Giovanni Battista Lercari

21 Jul 1644 - 21 Jul 1646 Luca Giustiniani

24 Jul 1646 - 24 Jul 1648 Giovanni Battista Lomellini

01 Aug 1648 - 01 Aug 1650 Giacomo Toso De Franchi

22 Aug 1650 - 22 Aug 1652 Agostino Centurione

08 Sep 1652 - 08 Sep 1654 Gerolamo De Franchi

09 Oct 1654 - 09 Oct 1656 Alessandro Spinola

12 Oct 1656 - 12 Oct 1658 Giulio Sauli

15 Oct 1658 - 15 Oct 1660 Giovanni Battista Centurione

28 Oct 1660 - 22 Mar 1661 Gian Bernrado Frugoni

28 Mar 1661 - 28 Mar 1663 Antoniotto Inrea

13 Apr 1663 - 12 Apr 1665 Stefano De Mari

18 Apr 1665 - 18 Apr 1667 Cesare Durazzo

10 May 1667 - 10 May 1669 Cesare Gentile

18 Jun 1669 - 18 Jun 1671 Francesco Garbarino

27 Jun 1671 - 27 Jun 1673 Alessandro Grimaldi

05 Jul 1673 - 04 Jul 1675 Agostino Saluzzo

11 Jul 1675 - 11 Jul 1677 Antonio Da Passano

16 Jul 1677 - 16 Jul 1679 Giannettino Odone

29 Jul 1679 - 29 Jul 1681 Agostino Spinola

13 Aug 1681 - 13 Aug 1683 Luca Maria Invrea

18 Aug 1683 - 18 Aug 1685 Francesco Maria Lercari Imperiale

23 Aug 1685 - 23 Aug 1687 Pietro Durazzo

27 Aug 1687 - 27 Aug 1689 Luca Spinola

31 Aug 1689 - 01 Sep 1691 Oberto Dello Torre

04 Sep 1691 - 05 Sep 1693 Giovanni Battista Cattaneo

09 Sep 1693 - 09 Sep 1695 Francesco Invrea

16 Sep 1695 - 16 Sep 1697 Bendinelli Negrone

19 Sep 1697 - 26 May 1699 Francesco Maria Sauli

03 Jun 1699 - 03 Jun 1701 Gerolamo De Mari ......................... 1644-1702

07 Jun 1701 - 07 Jun 1703 Federico De Franchi Toso ................. 1640-1737

01 Aug 1703 - 01 Aug 1705 Antonio Grimaldi Cebà .................... 1640-1717

22 Aug 1705 - 13 Aug 1707 Stefano Omorato Ferretti ................. 1641-1720

09 Sep 1707 - 09 Sep 1709 Domenico Maria de Mari ................... 1653-1725

14 Sep 1709 - 14 Sep 1711 Vincenzo Durazzo ......................... 1635-1712

22 Sep 1711 - 22 Sep 1713 Francesco Maria Imperiale ................ 1654-1737

22 Sep 1713 - 22 Sep 1715 Giovanni Antonio Giustiniani Campi ....... 1660-1735

26 Sep 1715 - 26 Sep 1717 Lorenzo Centurione Becchignoni ........... 1645-1735

30 Sep 1717 - 30 Sep 1719 Benedetto Viale .......................... 1660-1749

04 Oct 1719 - 04 Oct 1721 Ambrogio Imperiale Lomellini ............. 1649-1729

08 Oct 1721 - 08 Oct 1723 Cesare De Franchi Toso ................... 1666-1739

13 Oct 1723 - 13 Oct 1725 Domenico Negrone ......................... 1672-1736

18 Jan 1726 - 18 Jan 1728 Gerolamo Venersoso ....................... 1660-1749

22 Jan 1728 - 22 Jan 1730 Luca Grimaldi ............................ 1675-1750

26 Jan 1730 - 26 Jan 1732 Francesco Maria Balbi .................... 1671-1747

26 Jan 1732 - 29 Jan 1734 Domenico Maria Spinola ................... 1666-1743

03 Feb 1734 - 03 Feb 1736 Giovanni Stefano Durazzo ................. 1668-1744

07 Feb 1736 - 07 Feb 1738 Niccolò Cattaneo Della Volta ............. 1679-1751

11 Feb 1738 - 11 Feb 1740 Constantino Balbi ........................ 1676-1741

16 Feb 1740 - 16 Feb 1742 Niccolò Spinola .......................... 1678-1643

20 Feb 1742 - 20 Feb 1744 Domenico Maria Canevaro .................. 1683-1745

01 Mar 1744 - 01 Mar 1746 Lorenzo De Mari .......................... 1685-1772

03 Mar 1746 - 04 Mar 1748 Giovanni Francesco Saverio Brignole Sole . 1695-1760

06 Mar 1748 - 06 Mar 1750 Cesare Catteneo Della Volta .............. 1680-1756

10 Mar 1750 - 10 Mar 1752 Agostino Viale ........................... 1692-1777

28 Mar - 03 Jun 1752 Stefano Lomellini ........................ 1683-1753

07 Jun 1752 - 07 Jun 1754 Giovanni Battista Grimaldi ............... 1658-1737

23 Jun 1754 - 16 May 1756 Giovanni Giacomo Stefano Veneroso ........ 1701-1758

22 Jun 1756 - 22 Jun 1758 Giovanni Giacomo Grimaldi ................ 1705-1777

22 Aug 1758 - 22 Aug 1760 Giovanni Matteo Francesco Maria Franzoni . 1680-1767

10 Sep 1760 - 10 Sep 1762 Agostino Lomellini ....................... 1709-1791

25 Nov 1762 - 25 Nov 1764 Rodolfo Emilio Maria Brignole Sale ....... 1708-1774

29 Jan 1765 - 29 Jan 1767 Francesco Maria Gaetano Dello Rovere ..... 1695-1768

03 Feb 1767 - 03 Feb 1769 Marcello Giuseppe Durazzo ................ 1710-1791

16 Feb 1769 - 26 Jan 1771 Giovanni Battista Negrone ................ 1695-1768

26 Jan 1771 - 23 Dec 1772 Giovanni Battista Cambiaso ............... 1711-1772

09 Jan - 19 Jan 1773 Ferdinando Spinola ....................... 1694-1778

26 Jan 1773 - 26 Jan 1775 Alessandro Piero Francesco Grimaldi ...... 1715-1791

31 Jan 1775 - 31 Jan 1777 Fabrizio Giustiniani Banca ............... 1713-1778

04 Feb 1777 - 04 Feb 1779 Giuseppe Lomellini ....................... 1723-1803

04 Mar 1779 - 04 Mar 1781 Giacomo Maria Brignole (1st Time) ........ 1724-1801

08 Mar 1781 - 08 Mar 1783 Marco Antonio Gentile .................... 1723-1798

06 May 1783 - 06 May 1785 Giovanni Battista Airoli ................. 1731-1808

06 Jun 1785 - 06 Jun 1787 Giovanni Carlo Pallavicini ............... 1722-1794

04 Jul 1787 - 04 Jul 1789 Raffaele De Ferrari Rodino ............... 1732-1801

30 Jul 1789 - 30 Jul 1791 Alerame Maria Pallavicini ................ 1730-1805

03 Sep 1791 - 03 Sep 1793 Michelangelo Agostino Cambiaso ........... 1738-1813

30 Sep 1793 - 30 Sep 1795 Giuseppe Maria Doria,

duca di Massanova ....................... 1730-1816

17 Nov 1795 - 26 Jun 1797 Giacomo Maria Brignole (2nd Time)

President of the Provincial Government

26 Jun 1797 - 17 Jan 1798 Giacomo Maria Brignole ................... s.a

Dogi

03 Jul 1802 - 04 Jun 1805 Girolamo Luigi Francesco Durazzo ......... 1739-1809

Presidents of the Provincial Government

26 Apr 1814 - 07 Jan 1815 Girolamo Francesco Luciano Serra ......... 1761-1837

02 Apr - 11 Apr 1849 Giuseppe Avezzana ........................ 1797-1839

(in rebellion)

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Lombardia

568-814 Kingdom of Lombardia

980-1145 Duchy of Milan

1176-1439 Independent commune

1287-1796 Lordship and Duchy of Milan

1535-1556 Imperial rule

1556-1700 Spanish Habsburg rule

1700-1796 Austrian Habsburg rule

1796-1797 Lombard Republic

1797-1799 Part of the Cispadane Republic (see Italy)

1799-1800 Duchy of Milan restored

1800-1802 Cisalpine Republic restored (see Italy)

1802-1805 Part of Italian Republic

1805-1814 Part of the Kingdom of Italy

08 Nov 1813 Part of Austrian Empire

07 Apr 1815 Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom under Austria

22 Mar 1848 Lombardy revolution

08 Jun 1848 Administrated by Sardinia

06 Aug 1848 Returned to Austria

03 Jun 1859 French-Sardinian invasion

11 Nov 1859 Lombardy ceded to Sardinia by Treaty of Zürich

30 Nov 1859 Lombardy annexed by Sardinia

 

Captains

1277-1294 Visconti, Oddone I

1287-1322 Visconti, Matteo I

Lords of Milan

27 Jun 1322 – 20 Jul 1327 Visconti, Galeazzo I

15 Jan 1329 – 16 Aug 1339 Visconti, Azzone I

16 Aug 1339 – 24 Jan 1349 Visconti, Lucchino I

Apr 1349 – 05 Oct 1354 Visconti, Giovanni I

05 Oct 1354 – 06 May 1385 Visconti, Bernabo

05 Oct 1354 – 26 Sep 1355 Visconti, Matteo II

05 Oct 1354 – 04 Aug 1378 Visconti. Galeazzo II

04 Aug 1378 – 01 May 1385 Visconti, Gian Galeazzo I

Dukes of Milan

01 May 1395 - 03 Sep 1402 Visconti, Gian Galeazzo I

03 Sep 1402 - 16 May 1412 Visconti, Gian Maria

16 May 1412 - 13 Aug 1447 Visconti, Filippo I Maria,

Conti di Pavia (co-ruler)

16 May - 12 Jun 1412 Giancarlo Gianpiccinio

25 Mar 1450 - 08 Mar 1466 Sforza, Francesco I

20 Mar 1466 - 26 Dec 1476 Sforza, Galeazzo III Maria

26 Dec 1476 - 22 Oct 1494 Sforza, Gain Galeazzo II

22 Oct 1494 – 02 Sep 1499 Sforza, Ludovico Maria

(1st Time)

06 Sep 1499 – 06 Feb 1500 Valois, Louis XII of France (1st Time)

06 Feb - 14 Apr 1500 Sforza, Ludovico Maria

(2nd Time)

06 Feb - 09 Apr 1500 Ascanio Cardinal Sfoza

(acting)

14 Apr 1500 – 16 Jun 1512 Valois, Louis XII of France (2nd Time)

16 Jun 1512 - 08 Oct 1515 Sforza, Massimiliano I

19 Nov 1521 - 03 Oct 1524 Sforza, Francesco II

(1st Time)

19 Nov 1521 – 04 Apr 1522 Girolamo Morone

(acting)

26 Feb 1525 - 31 Oct 1535 Sforza, Francesco II

(2nd Time)

01 Nov 1535 - 01 Nov 1700 The Monarchs of Spain

01 Nov 1700 - 09 May 1796 The Monarchs of Austria

29 Apr 1799 - 29 Apr 1800 The Monarch of Austria

Viceroy

07 Jun 1805 - 24 Apr 1814 Eugenio Napoleone di Francia,

principe di Venezia, granduca

di Francoforte

Kings of Lombardy

07 Apr 1815 – 02 Mar 1835 Habsburg, Francesco I

02 Mar 1835 – 02 Dec 1848 Habsburg, Ferrantino I

02 Dec 1848 – 30 Nov 1859 Habsburg, Francesco Giuseppe I

Governors of Lombardy

28 Apr 1814 - 1817 Friedrich Heinrich Graf von

Bellegarde

1817 - 1818 Franz Anton Graf von Saurau

24 Feb 1818 - 03 May 1830 Giulio Giuseppe conti di Strassoldo

03 May 1830 - 26 Nov 1840 Franz Graf von Hartig

26 Nov 1840 - 03 May 1841 Robert Anton von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Raitz

(acting)

03 May 1841 - 18 Mar 1848 Johann Baptist Graf Spaur

18 Mar - 22 Mar 1848 Heinrich Graf O'Donnell

(acting)

23 May - 06 Aug 1848 Carlo Alberto, duca de Savoia

06 Aug - 01 Sep 1848 Felix von Schwartzenberg

01 Sep - 24 Sep 1848 Franz Graf von Wimpfen

25 Sep 1848 - 1849 Albrecht von Montecuccoli-Laderchi

1849 - 1850 Karl II Borromäus Philipp

Fürst zu Schwartzenberg

25 Oct 1849 - 28 Mar 1857 Josef Wenzel Radetzky Graf

von Radetzky von Radetz

28 Mar 1857 - 09 Jun 1859 Friedrich Freiherr von Burger

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Napoli

The Kingdom of Naples was the southern part of the Italian peninsula

(traditionaly known as Mezzogiorno meaning "midday" because of the sun's

position over the Northern Hemisphere at midday). Despite the name Kingdom

of Naples, the Kingdom officially was styled the Regno di Sicilia

(Kimgdom of Sicily), confusuingly one of two southern Italian Kingdoms

called Sicily. Before 1282 the Kingdom of Sicily included the southern

mainland and the island of Sicily which following the division of the

kingdom split into two separate states baring the same name. The use

of the style "Kingdom of Naples" is generally used to distinguish it

from the island Kingdom of Sicily. The two Sicilies were united once

more from 1816 to Italian unification in 1861.

 

 

600-326 BC Greek colony of Neapouleis

326-476 Roman Rule

476-493 Heruli Confederation

493-553 Part of Kingdom of Ostrogoths

553-1027 To the Byzantine Empire

1027 - 1030 To Capua

1030 - 1130 To the Byzantine Empire

25 Dec 1130 Part of the Kingdom of Sicily

06 Jan 1266 Regno di Sicilia (Kingdom of Sicily, or Kingdom of

Sicily and Puglia)

31 Mar 1282 The Vesper rebellion expels the Angevin rulers

from the island of Sicily; the Kingdom is divided

into two Kingdoms, Regno di Napoli (Kingdom of Naples)

and Kingdom of Sicily

02 Jun 1442 - 27 Jun 1458 Part of the Crown of Aragon, in Personal Union

with the Kingdom of Sicily

31 Mar 1504 Part of the Crown of Aragon

23 Jan 1516 Part of the Spanish Monarchy

22 Oct 1647 - 05 Apr 1648 Neapolitan Republic (in rebellion)

23 Jan - 23 Jun 1799 Parthenopean Republic

27 Dec 1805 - 1814 French occupation

01 Mar 1806 Annexed to the French Empire

01 Aug 1808 Kingdom of Sicily (restored)

08 Dec 1816 To the Kingdom of the Two Sicily

17 Dec 1860 Annexed by Piedmonte-Sardinia

05 May 1861 Autonomy abolished

09 Oct 1861 Fully incorporated into Italy

 

 

Capital: Naples.

Language(s): Italian, Greek.

Religian: Roman Catholic.

Motto: NOXIAS HERBAS.

Currency: Neapolitan piastra.

Dukes of Napoli (Byzantine untill 840)

661-666 Basil I

666-670 Theophylactus I

670-673 Cosmas I

673-677 Andrus I

677-684 Caesarius I

684-687 Stefano I

687-696 Bonellus I

696-706 Theodosius I

706-711 Caesarius II

711-719 Ionas I

719-729 Theodore I

729-739 Giorgius I

739-755 Gregori I

755-766 Stefano II

766-794 Gregori II

794-801 Theophylactus II

801-818 Antheminus I

821-832 Stephen III

832-834 Bonus I

834-840 Andrus II

840 Contardus I

840-860 Sergius I

864-870 Gregori III

870-877 Sergius II

877-898 Athanasius I

898-915 Gregori IV

915-919 Ionas II

919-928 Marinus I

928-968 Ionas III

968-975 Marinus II

975-999 Sergius III

999-1002 Ionas IV

1002-1036 Sergius IV

1036-1050 Ionas V

1050-1082 Sergius V

1082-1097 Sergius VI

1097-1120 Ionas VI

1120-1137 Sergius VII

Monarchs of Napoli

31 Mar 1282 - 07 Jan 1285 Capet-Anjou, Carlo I

07 Jan 1285 - 06 May 1309 Capet-Anjou, Carlo II "il Zoppo"

06 May 1309 - 19 Jan 1343 Capet-Anjou, Roberto II "il Saggio"

19 Jan 1343 - 26 Aug 1381 Capet-Anjou, Ioanna

26 Aug 1381 - 24 Feb 1386 Capet-Anjou, Carlo III "il Piccolo"

24 Feb 1386 - 06 Aug 1414 Capet-Anjou, Ladislas

06 Aug 1414 - 02 Feb 1435 Capet-Anjou, Ioanna II

02 Feb 1435 - 12 Jun 1442 Capet-Anjou, Renato "il Buono"

12 Jun 1442 - 27 Jun 1458 Trastamara, Alfonso I "il Magnanimo"

27 Jun 1458 - 25 Jan 1494 Trastamara, Ferrantino I "il Bastardo"

25 Jan 1494 - 22 Feb 1495 Trastamara, Alfonso II

18 Dec 1495 - 07 Oct 1496 Trastamara, Ferrantino II

07 Oct 1496 - 01 Aug 1501 Trastamara, Frederico II

01 Aug 1501 - 31 Mar 1504 Valois, Louis VII of France

31 Mar 1504 - 23 Jan 1516 Trastamara, Ferrantino III "il Cattolico"

14 Mar 1516 - 16 Jan 1556 Habsburg, Carlo VI

16 Jan 1556 - 13 Sep 1598 Habsburg, Filippo I

13 Sep 1598 - 31 Mar 1621 Habsburg, Filippo II

31 Mar 1621 - 17 Sep 1665 Habsburg, Filippo III

22 Oct 1647 - 05 Mar 1648 Henri de Lorraine, duc de Guise

(Dogi of the Neopolitan Republic in rebellion)

17 Sep 1665 - 01 Nov 1700 Habsburg, Carlo V

16 Nov 1700 - 07 Jul 1707 Bourbon, Fillipo IV

07 Jul 1707 - 02 Jun 1734 Habsburg, Carlo VI

02 Jun 1734 - 06 Oct 1759 Bourbon, Carlo VII

06 Oct 1759 - 23 Jan 1799 Bourbon, Ferrantino IV (1st Time) .......... 1751-1825

23 Jun 1799 - 01 Mar 1806 Bourbon, Ferrantino IV (2nd Time)

30 Mar 1806 - 08 Jul 1808 Bounaparte, Guiseppe I Napoleone

01 Aug 1808 - 22 May 1815 Bounaparte, Giocchino

22 May 1815 - 08 Dec 1816 Bourbon, Ferrantino IV (3rd Time)

Kings of the Two Sicilies

08 Dec 1816 - 04 Jan 1825 Bourbon, Ferdinando I ...................... s.a

(Ferrantino IV of Naples)

04 Jan 1825 - 08 Nov 1830 Bourbon, Francesco I ....................... 1777-1830

08 Nov 1830 - 22 May 1859 Bourbon, Ferdinando II ..................... 1810-1859

22 May 1859 - 07 Sep 1860 Bourbon, Francesco II ...................... 1836-1894

Presidents of the Council of Ministers

1839 - 28 Jan 1848 Giuseppe Ceva Grimaldi Pisanelli ........... 1776-1862

28 Jan - 03 Apr 1848 Nicola Maresca, duca di Serracapriola

03 Apr - 19 May 1848 Carlo Troja ................................ 1798-1858

19 May 1848 - 22 Aug 1849 Gennaro Spinelli, principe de Cariati ...... 1780-1851

22 Aug 1849 - 19 Jan 1852 Giustino Fortunato ......................... 1777-1862

19 Jan 1852 - 09 Jun 1859 Ferdinando cavaliere Troja

09 Jun 1859 - 19 Mar 1860 Carlo Filangieri, principe di Satriano,

duca di Taormina .......................... 1784-1867

19 Mar - Aug 1860 Antonio Statella, principe di Cassaro

Aug - Sep 1860 Antonio Spinelli di principi di Scaléa ..... 1785-1884

Sep - 1861 Francesco Antonio Cavaliere Casella ........ 1819-1894

(in Gaeta exile)

1861 - 19 Oct 1870 Pietro Calà Ulloa .......................... 1801-1879

(in Rome exile)

Viceroys

1501 - 28 Apr 1503 Louis Armagnac, duc de Nemours

1503 - 27 Jan 1504 Ludovico II di Saluzzo

 

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Modena

Monarchs

871-893 Leondolino

893-898 Giovanni I

898-902 Geminolf

902-933 Gotfred I

933-943 Arding

943-968 Guido I

968-981 Canossa, Attone I

981-1012 Canossa, Tedalo I

1012-1052 Canossa, Boniface I

1052-1115 Canossa, Matilda de Contessa

1196-1212 Azzo I

1212-1215 Aldobrandino

1215-1264 Azzo II

1264-1294 d'Este, Obizzo I

1294-1308 d'Este, Azzo III

1308-1312 Pico, Francesco I

1308-1324 Aldbrandino II

1317-1344 Niccolo I

1317-1335 Rinaldo

1317-1352 Obizzo III

1352-1361 Aldobrandino III

1361-1388 Niccolo II

1388-1394 Alberto I

1394-1441 Niccolo III

26 Dec 1441 - 01 Oct 1450 d'Este, Leonello I ....................... 1407-1450

Dukes

01 Oct 1450 - 20 Aug 1471 d'Este, Borso ............................ 1413-1471

20 Aug 1471 - 15 Jun 1505 d'Este, Ercole I ......................... 1431-1505

15 Jun 1505 - 31 Oct 1534 d'Este, Alfonso I ........................ 1476-1534

31 Oct 1534 - 03 Oct 1559 d'Este, Ercole II ........................ 1508-1559

03 Oct 1559 - 27 Oct 1597 d'Este, Alfonso II ....................... 1533-1597

30 Jan 1598 - 11 Dec 1628 d'Este, Cesare ........................... 1552-1628

11 Dec 1628 - 24 Jul 1629 d'Este, Alfonso III ...................... 1591-1644

24 Jul 1629 - 14 Oct 1658 d'Este, Francesco II ..................... 1610-1658

14 Oct 1658 - 16 Jul 1662 d'Este, Alfonso IV ....................... 1634-1662

16 Jul 1662 - 06 May 1674 Ducessa Laura Martinozzi ................. 1639-1687

(regent)

16 Jul 1662 - 06 Sep 1694 d'Este, Francesco III .................... 1660-1694

07 Sep 1694 - 26 Oct 1737 d'Este, Rinaldo II ....................... 1665-1737

(in exile 30 Jul 1702 - 20 Nov 1706 and

20 Jul 1734 - 24 May 1736)

26 Oct 1737 - 22 Apr 1780 d'Este, Francesco IV ..................... 1698-1780

22 Apr 1780 - 06 Oct 1796 d'Este, Ercole III Reinaldo .............. 1727-1803

(1st Time)

20 Jun 1799 - 20 Jun 1800 d'Este, Ercole III Reinaldo

(2nd Time)

14 Apr 1810 - 09 Feb 1814 Ouidinot, Nicolas-Charles

(Duke of Reggio)

09 Feb 1814 - 21 Jan 1846 Habsburg, Francesco V .................... 1779-1846

(deposed 09 Feb - 09 Mar 1831)

21 Jan 1846 - 24 Mar 1848 Habsburg, Francesco VI ................... 1819-1875

(1st Time)

14 Aug 1849 - 13 Jun 1859 Habsburg, Francesco VI

(2nd Time)

President of the Provisional government

24 Mar - 17 Jun 1848 Giuseppe Malmusi ......................... 1803-1865

24 Mar - 02 Apr 1848 Provisional Government (in Reggio)

- Luigi Peretti

- Jacopo Ferrari

Commissioner

15 Jun - 19 Jun 1859 Luigi Zini ............................... 1821-1894

Governor of the Province

19 Jun 1859 - 18 Mar 1860 Luigi Carlo Farini ....................... 1812-1860

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Papal States (see Vatican City)

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Parma and Piacenza

16 Sep 1545 Duchies of Parma and Picenza

01 Nov 1802 - 24 May 1808 French occupation

24 May 1808 - 11 Apr 1814 Annexed by France

02 Mar - 09 Mar 1814 Austrian occupation

11 Apr 1814 Duchies restored, given to ex-Empress of France

Maria Louise von Habsburg by peace treaty

14 Feb - 20 Mar 1848 Austrian occupation

30 Jun - 17 Aug 1848 Annexation to Piedmonte-Sardinia decreed

17 Aug 1848 - Mar 1849 Austrian occupation

Mar - 05 Apr 1849 Occupied by the Kingdom of Sardinia

18 Aug 1859 United with Modena

12 Sep 1859 - 18 Mar 1860 Administrated by Sardinia

18 Mar 1860 Annexed to Sardinia

17 Mar 1861 Part of Italy

 

Lords

807-835 Suppone I

835-860 Adalgis I

860-882 Suppone II

882-911 Adalgis II

911-921 Adalberto

921-931 Radaldo

931-967 Manfredo

967-977 Bernardo I

977-998 Guido I

998-1037 Bernardo II

1037-1051 Bonifacio

1051-1073 Arduin

1073-1095 Uberto I

1095 Uberto II

1095-1101 Alberto de'Guiberti

1101-1111 Ghiberto de'Guiberti

1111-1115 Matilda Canossa

1303-1308 Giberto da Correggio

(1st Time)

1311 Guido II Cocconato

1311 Franceschino Malspina

1311 Falcone Enrici

1311-1316 Giberto da Correggio

(2nd Time)

1316-1322 Gianquirico San Vitale

1322-1326 Marsilio Rossi

(1st Time)

1326-1328 Passerino Della Torre

1328-1329 Rolando Rossi

1329-1331 Marsilio Rossi

(2nd Time)

1331-1333 Castellino Beccaria

1333-1335 Mattias da Sommo

1335-1341 Alberto II Della Scala

1341-1344 Azzo da Correggio

1344-1346 Obizzo Este

Dukes

16 Feb 1545 - 10 Sep 1547 Farnese, Pier Luigi ...................... 1503-1547

09 Nov 1547 - 15 Sep 1586 Farnese, Ottavio ......................... 1524-1686

15 Sep 1586 - 03 Dec 1592 Farnese, Alessandro ...................... 1545-1592

03 Dec 1592 - 05 Mar 1622 Farnese, Ranuccio I ...................... 1569-1622

05 Mar 1622 - 11 Sep 1646 Farnese, Odoardo ......................... 1612-1646

11 Sep 1646 - 11 Dec 1694 Farnese, Ranuccio II ..................... 1630-1694

11 Dec 1694 - 26 Feb 1727 Farnese, Francesco Maria ................. 1678-1727

26 Feb 1727 - 20 Jan 1731 Farnese, Antonio Francesco ............... 1679-1731

20 Jan 1731 - 03 Oct 1735 Bourbon, Carlo I ......................... 1716-1788

(Carlos III of Spain)

03 Oct 1735 - 18 Oct 1748 The Dukes of Milan

18 Oct 1748 - 18 Jul 1765 d'Bourbon, Filippo ....................... 1720-1765

18 Jul 1765 - 09 Oct 1802 d'Bourbon, Ferdinando Maria .............. 1751-1802

24 Apr 1808 - 11 Apr 1814 de'Cambacérès, Jean Jacques Regis ........ 1753-1824

(in Parma)

24 Apr 1808 - 11 Apr 1814 Charles François Lebrun,

duc de Plaisance ........................ 1739-1824

(in Piacenza)

11 Apr 1814 - 17 Dec 1847 Habsburg, Maria Luigia ................... 1791-1847

17 Dec 1847 - 14 Mar 1848 d'Bourbon, Carlo II ...................... 1799-1883

Presidents of the Provisional Government

11 Apr - 30 Jun 1848 Gregorio Ferdinando, conte di Castagnola

(in Parma)

Sardinian Royal Commissioners

30 Jun - 17 Aug 1848 Federico Colla ........................... 1790-1879

22 Mar - 05 Apr 1849 Giacomo Plezza ........................... 1806-1893

Dukes

23 Aug 1849 - 27 Mar 1854 d'Bourbon, Carlo III ..................... 1823-1854

27 Mar 1854 - 09 Jun 1859 d'Bourbon, Roberto ....................... 1848-1907

27 May 1854 - 09 Jun 1859 Louisa Maria di Berry .................... 1819-1864

Presidents of the Provisional Government

10 Jun - 17 Jun 1859 Girolamo Cantelli, conte di Rubbiano

Sardinian Royal Commissiioners

17 Jun - 09 Aug 1859 Diodato conte Pallieri ................... 1813-1892

09 Aug - 18 Aug 1859 Giuseppe Manfredi ........................ 1828-1918

(acting)

Dictator

18 Aug - 08 Dec 1859 Luigi Carlo Farini ....................... 1812-1866

Chief Ministers

06 Aug 1814 - 1816 Filippo Francesco, conte Magaely

Cerati de Carly

1834 - 20 Mar 1848 Charles René, Comte de Bombelles

06 Apr - 17 May 1849 Antonio Cavaliere Lombardi

17 May 1849 - 03 May 1859 Enrico Salati

______________________________________________________________________________

Sardegna (Sardinia)

687 Founding of the four giuducati

Arborea, Cagliari, Gallura and Torres

1284 Torres annexed by Genoa

1297-1720 Kingdom of Sardinia (Nominal)

1298 Part of Cagliari annexed by Pisa

1308 Remaining part of Cagliari and Gallura annexed by Genoa

24 Apr 1326 Kingdom of Sardinia part of the Crown of Aragon

1478 Arborea extinct

13 Aug 1708 - 30 Sep 1717 Austrian occupation

24 Aug 1717 - 17 Feb 1720 Spanish occupation

17 Feb 1720 Aquired by House of Savoy, styled Regno di Sardegna;

includes Piedmonte and the counties of Nice and Savoy

20 Dec 1814 Genoa annexed to Piedmonte-Sardinia

30 Nov 1859 Lombardy annexed

18 Mar 1860 Modena, Parma and Romagna annexed

22 Mar 1860 Tuscany annexed

02 Aug 1860 Nice and Savoy ceded to France

17 Dec 1860 Sicily and Umbria annexed

17 Mar 1861 Part of united Kingdom of Italy, the King becomes the

first Monarch of united Italy

 

Kings

1241 - 1257 Hohenstaufen, Enzo ........................ 1218-1272

01 Nov 1700 - 08 Aug 1720 Bourbon, Filipe V of Spain

(deposed 1708-1717)

13 Aug 1708 - 30 Sep 1717 Habsburg, Karl IV Holy Roman Emperor

(in opposition)

24 Aug 1720 - 03 Sep 1730 Savoia, Vitorio Amadeus II ................ 1666-1732

03 Sep 1730 - 20 Feb 1773 Savoia, Carlo Emanuele III ................ 1701-1773

20 Feb 1773 - 16 Oct 1796 Savoia, Vitoior Amadeus III ............... 1726-1796

16 Oct 1796 - 04 Jun 1802 Savoia, Carlo Emanuele IV ................. 1751-1819

(in refuge in Sardinia from 12 Dec 1798)

04 Jun 1802 - 12 Mar 1821 Savoia, Vitorio Emanuele I ................ 1759-1824

(in refuge in Sardinia to 25 Apr 1814)

12 Mar 1821 - 27 Apr 1831 Savoia, Carlo Felico Giuseppe Maria ....... 1765-1831

27 Apr 1831 - 23 Mar 1849 Savoia, Carlo Alberto I ................... 1798-1849

23 Mar 1849 - 17 Mar 1861 Savoia, Vittorio Emmanuele II ............. 1820-1878

Prime Ministers

11 May 1814 - Dec 1821 Filippo Antonio Asinari,

marchese di San Marzano .................. 1767-1838

Jan 1822 - 21 Mar 1835 Vittorio Sallier della Torre .............. 1774-1858

21 Mar 1835 - 16 Mar 1848 Clemento Solaro,

conte della Margherita ................... 1792-1869

16 Mar - 27 Jul 1848 Conte Cesare Balbo ........................ 1789-1853

27 Jul - 15 Aug 1848 Conte Gabrio Casati ....................... 1798-1873

15 Aug - 11 Oct 1848 Cesare Alfieri, marchese de Sostegno ...... 1799-1869

11 Oct - 16 Dec 1848 Ettore, conte Perrone de San Martino ...... 1789-1849

16 Dec 1848 - 21 Feb 1849 Vincenzo Gioberti ......................... 1801-1852

21 Feb - 27 Mar 1849 Barone Agostino Chiodo .................... 1791-1861

27 Mar - 07 May 1849 Claudio Gabriele Delaunay ................. 1786-1850

07 Mar 1849 - 04 Nov 1852 Massimo Taparelli,

marchese d'Azeglio ....................... 1798-1866

04 Nov 1852 - 19 Jul 1859 Camillio Benso, conde di Cavour ........... 1810-1861

19 Jul 1859 - 21 Jan 1860 Alfonso Ferrero,

marchese di La Marmora ................... 1804-1878

_______________________________________________________________________________

Savoia

1000 - 1416 County of Savoy

24 Nov 1310 Counts of Savoy are made prices of the Holy Roma

19 Feb 1416 Duchy of Savoy

21 Dec 1713 Duke becomes King of Sicily, uniting the Duchy with

the Kingdom as the Kingdom of Sicily

08 Aug 1720 Savoy acquires Sardinia, styled Kingdom of Sardinia

with Piedmonte, Savoy and Nice; core of the Kingdom

remains based in Turin

21 Sep 1792 Savoy occupied by France

27 Nov 1792 - 25 Apr 1814 Annexed by France

25 Apr 1814 Savoy reincorporated into Piedmont-Sardinia

30 Nov 1847 Savoy fully incorporated into Piedmont-Sardinia

02 Aug 1860 Savoy and Nice ceded to France by Treaty of Turin,

Piedmont and Liguria remain part of the Kingdom

of Sardinia

17 Mar 1861 - 18 Jun 1946 The Italian Monarch uses the style "Duke of Savoy"

 

 

Counts

1000-1048 de'Maurienne, Umberto I

1048-1059 de'Maurienne, Amandeo I

1059-1078 de'Maurienne, Peto I

1078-1080 de'Maurienne, Amandeo II

1080-1103 de'Maurienne, Umberto II

1103-1149 de'Maurienne, Amadeo III

1149-1189 de'Maurienne, Umberto III

1189-1233 de'Maurienne, Tommaso I

1233-1253 de'Savoia, Amandeo IV

1258-1268 de'Savoia, Boniface I

1263-1268 de'Savoia, Peto II

1268-1285 de'Savoia, Filipe I

1285-1323 de'Savoia, Amandeo V

1323 - 04 Nov 1329 Savoia, Edoardo ......................... 1284-1329

04 Nov 1329 - 22 Mar 1343 Savoia, Aimone I ........................ 1291-1343

22 Mar 1343 - 27 Feb 1383 Savoia, Amandeo VI ...................... 1334-1383

27 Feb 1383 - 01 Nov 1391 Savoia, Amandeo VII ..................... 1360-1391

01 Nov 1391 - 19 Feb 1416 Savoia, Amadeo VIII ..................... 1383-1451

Dukes

19 Feb 1416 - 1440 Savoia, Amadeo VIII

(Antipope Felix V 1439-1449)

1440 - 29 Jan 1465 Savoia, Ludovico ........................ 1413-1465

29 Jan 1465 - 30 Mar 1472 Savoia, Amandeo IX ...................... 1435-1472

30 Mar 1472 - 22 Sep 1482 Savoia, Filberto I ...................... 1465-1482

22 Sep 1482 - 13 Mar 1490 Savoia, Carlo I ......................... 1468-1490

13 Mar 1490 - 16 Apr 1496 Savoia, Carlo II ........................ 1489-1496

16 Apr 1496 - 07 Nov 1497 Savoia, Filipo II ....................... 1438-1497

07 Nov 1497 - 10 Nov 1504 Savoia, Filberto II ..................... 1480-1504

10 Sep 1504 - 17 Aug 1553 Savoia, Carlo III ....................... 1486-1553

17 Jul 1553 - 30 Aug 1580 Savoia, Emanuele Filberto I ............. 1528-1580

30 Aug 1580 - 26 Jul 1630 Savoia, Carlo Emanuele I ................ 1562-1630

26 Jul 1630 - 07 Oct 1637 Savoia, Vittorio Amadeo I ............... 1587-1637

07 Oct 1637 - 04 Oct 1638 Savoia, Francesco Giacinto .............. 1632-1638

04 Oct 1638 - 12 Jun 1675 Savoia, Carlo Emanuele II ............... 1634-1675

12 Jun 1675 - 03 Sep 1730 Savoia, Vitorio Amadeo II

03 Sep 1730 - 20 Feb 1773 Savoia, Carlo Emanuele III

20 Feb 1773 - 16 Oct 1796 Savoia, Vitoior Amadeo III

16 Oct 1796 - 04 Jun 1802 Savoia, Carlo Emanual IV

(in refuge in Sardinia from 12 Dec 1798)

04 Jun 1802 - 12 Mar 1821 Savoia, Vitorio Emanuel I

(in refuge in Sardinia to 25 Apr 1814)

12 Mar 1821 - 27 Apr 1831 Savoia, Carlo Felice

27 Apr 1831 - 23 Mar 1849 Savoia, Carlo Alberto

23 Mar 1849 - 09 Jan 1878 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele II ............ s.a

09 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900 Savoia, Umberto IV ...................... 1844-1900

29 Jul 1900 - 09 May 1946 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele III ........... 1869-1947

09 May - 18 Jun 1946 Savoia, Umberto V ....................... 1904-1983

_____________________________________________________________________________

Sicilia

Greek colony

Part of Roman Empire

965 - 1072 Emirate of Sicily

Jul 1061 County of Sicily

25 Dec 1130 Kingdom of Sicily

20 Oct 1194 - 25 May 1254 Part of the Holy Roman Empire

31 Mar 1282 Split into Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily

25 Jul 1409 Ruled by Aragon

23 Jan 1516 Spanish rule

22 Sep 1713 Part of Savoy

29 Oct 1719 - 17 Oct 1720 Austrian occupation

17 Feb 1720 Austrian rule

02 Jun 1734 Spanish rule

06 Oct 1759 Part of Naples

08 Dec 1816 - 17 Dec 1860 Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Naples and Sicily beyond the Lighthouse

13 Apr 1848 - 05 May 1849 Rebellion agaianst Naples

17 Dec 1860 Annexed by Sardinia

17 Mar 1861 Part of Italy

Monarchs

505-498 Cleander

498-491 Hippocrates

491-478 Gelon I

478-466 Heiron I

466-465 Thrashybulus

405-367 Dionysius I

367-357 Dionysius II

(1st Time)

357-354 Dion

354-353 Callippus

353-351 Hipparinus

351-347 Nysaeus

347-344 Dionysius II

(2nd Time)

344-337 Timoleon

317-389 Agathocles

270-215 Hieron II

216-215 Gelon II

214-215 Hieronymus

Emirate of Siciliy

948-954 Kalbi, Hassan I

954-969 Kalbi, Ahmad I

969-982 Kalbi, Ali I

982-983 Kalbi, Djabir I

983-985 Kalbi, Dja'far I

985-986 Kalbi, Abdullah I

986-998 Kalbi, Yusuf I

998-1019 Kalbi, Dja'far II

1019-1036 Kalbi, Ahmad II al-Akhal

1036-1040 Zaid, Abdullah II

1040-1053 Kalbi, Hassan II as-Samsam

1053-1062 Kalbi, Muhammed I ath-Thumma

Counts

1071 - 1101 Hauteville, Ruggero I

1101 - 1105 Hauteville, Simon

1105 - 25 Dec 1130 Hauteville, Roggero II

Kings

25 Dec 1130 - 26 Feb 1154 Hauteville, Ruggero II

26 Feb 1154 - 07 May 1166 Hauteville, Gulgielmo I

07 May 1166 - 11 Nov 1189 Hauteville, Guglielmo II

11 Nov 1189 - 20 Feb 1194 Hauteville, Tancred

- 24 Dec 1193 Hauteville, Ruggero III

(co-ruler)

20 Feb - 20 Nov 1194 Hauteville, Guglielmo III

25 Dec 1194 - 28 Sep 1197 Hohenstaufen, Enrico I

25 Dec 1194 - 27 Nov 1198 Hauteville, Constanza

28 Sep 1197 - 13 Dec 1250 Hohenstaufen, Frederico I

Feb 1212 - 1217 Hohenstaufen, Enrico II

(co-ruler)

13 Dec 1250 - 21 May 1254 Hohenstaufen, Conrrado I

21 May 1254 - 26 Feb 1266 Hohenstaufen, Manfred

(co-ruler)

21 May 1254 - 29 Oct 1268 Hohenstaufen, Conrrado II

(co-Ruler)

26 Feb 1266 - 04 Sep 1282 Anjou, Carlo

04 Sep 1282 - 02 Nov 1285 Angevin, Pietro I

02 Nov 1285 - 20 Jun 1286 Angevin, Giacobbe

11 Dec 1296 - 25 Jun 1337 Angevin, Frederico II

25 Jun 1337 - 15 Aug 1342 Angevin, Pietro II

15 Aug 1342 - 16 Oct 1355 Angevin, Luigi

16 Oct 1355 - 27 Jan 1377 Angevin, Frederico III

27 Jan 1377 - 25 May 1401 Angevin, Maria

25 May 1401 - 25 Jul 1409 Angevin, Martino I

25 Jul 1409 - 20 Jan 1410 Angevin, Martino II

1412 - 02 Apr 1416 Trastamára, Ferdinando

02 Apr 1416 - 27 Jun 1458 Trastamára, Alfonso

27 Jun 1458 - 20 Jan 1479 Trastamára, Giovanni

20 Jan 1479 - 23 Jan 1516 Trastamára, Ferdinando II

23 Jan 1516 - 16 Nov 1700 The Monarchs of Spain

16 Nov 1700 - 22 Sep 1713 Habsburg, Filippo

22 Sep 1713 - 17 Feb 1720 Savoia, Vittorio Amedeo

17 Feb 1720 - 02 Jun 1734 Habsburg, Carlo I

02 Jun 1734 - 06 Oct 1759 Habsburg, Carlo II

06 Oct 1759 - 08 Dec 1816 Bourbon, Ferdinando III .................... 1751-1825

1812 - 19 May 1815 Principe Francesco di Bourbon .............. 1777-1830

(regent)

 

Viceroys

1517 - 1534 Ettore Pignatelli e Caraffa, duca de Monteleone

1813 - 1816 Francisco, duca di Calabria

1816 Niccolò Filangieri, Principe di Cutò

Presidents of the Provisional Governemnt

12 Jan - 14 Jan 1848 Giuseppe La Masa ........................... 1819-1882

14 Jan 1848 Carlo Ventimiglia, principe di Grammonte

14 Jan 1848 - 22 Apr 1849 Ruggero Settimo ............................ 1778-1863

Ministers of State for Sicily (in Naples)

26 Jul 1849 - 09 Jun 1859 Giovanni Cassisi ........................... 1788-1865

09 Jun 1859 - 19 Mar 1860 Paolo Cumbo

Dictator

11 May - 08 Nov 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi ......................... 1807-1882

 

________________________________________________________________________________

Toscana (Tuscany)

To 1570 1570-1737

774 - 1000 March of Tuscia

1115 - 1250 Florence a free commune (interrupted by periods of Imperial rule)

1250 - 1531 Republica di Firenze (Republic of Florence)

16 Sep 1260 - 11 Nov 1266 Occupied by Sicily

05 Nov 1301 - 12 Apr 1302 French occupation

Jul 1313 - 28 Dec 1327 Occupied by Sicily

30 Aug 1404 - 09 Nov 1494 Pisa incorporated

20 Nov 1494 - 07 Apr 1498 Anti-Medici rebellion restors the 'popular republic'

01 Mar 1532 Ducato di Firenze (Duchy of Florence)

27 Aug 1569 Granducato di Toscana (Grand Duchy of Tuscany)

09 Jul 1737 Given to the Duke of Lorraine by Imperial decree;

Lorraine the incorporated into France while the House

of Habsburg inherits Tuscany

25 Mar 1799 French occupation

27 Mar 1799 Etruscan Republic

07 Jul 1799 Grand Duchy of Tuscany restored

02 Aug 1801 - 10 Dec 1807 Part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Etruria

10 Dec 1807 - 01 Feb 1814 Annexed by France

09 Jun 1815 Grand Duchy of Tuscany (restored)

08 Feb - 12 Apr 1849 Provisional republican government

11 May 1859 Administered by Piedmonte-Sardinia

22 Mar 1860 Incorporated into Piedmonte-Sardinia

17 Mar 1861 Part of united Italy

23 Oct 1861 Autonomy terminated

Margraves

797-810 Wicheramo

812-813 Bonifacio I

828-835 Bonifacio II

835-845 Agano

847-884 Adelberto I

886-915 Adelberto II

915-930 Guido

930-931 Lamberto I

931-936 Boso

936-961 Umberto

961-1001 Hugo

1001-1012 Bonifacio III

1014-1027 Rainier I

1027-1052 Canosso, Boniface IV

1052-1053 Canossa, Frederico I

1053-1076 Canossa, Beatrice I

1076-1115 Canossa, Mathilda I

1089-1095 Canossa, Guelf I

1120-1127 Canossa, Conrado I

1135-1139 Canossa, Enrico I

1139-1152 Canossa, Ulich I von Attems

1152-1167 Canossa, Guelf II

1167-1173 Canossa, Cristiano I

1195-1197 Canossa, Filippo I

Lords

1313-1322 d'Anjou, Roberto I

1325-1327 d'Anjou, Carlo I

1342-1343 de Brienne, Walter I

1382 - 1417 Maso degli Albizzi

1417 - 1434 Rinaldo degli Alizzi ............. 1370-1442

1434 - 01 Aug 1464 di Medici, Cosimo I .............. 1389-1464

01 Aug 1464 - 02 Dec 1469 di Medici, Piero I ............... 1416-1469

02 Dec 1469 - 09 Apr 1492 di Medici ,Lorenzo I ............. 1449-1492 "il Magnifico"

02 Dec 1469 - 26 Apr 1478 di Medici, Giuliano .............. 1453-1478

(co-ruler)

09 Apr 1492 - 08 Nov 1494 di Medici, Piero di Cosimo II .... 1472-1503

Gonfalonieri di giustizia

28 Nov 1494 - 23 May 1498 Girolamo Savonarola .............. 1452-1498

01 Nov 1502 - 01 Sep 1512 Piero di Tommaso Soderino ........ 1452-1522

01 Sep - 14 Sep 1512 Giovanni Battista di Luigi Ridolfi 1448-1514

Podesta

14 Sep 1512 - 10 Aug 1513 di Medici, Cardinal Giovanni ..... 1475-1521

(Pope Leo X, regent)

10 Aug 1513 - 04 May 1519 di Medici, Lorenzo II ............ 1492-1519

04 May 1519 - 19 Nov 1523 di Medici, Cardinal Giulio ....... 1478-1534

(Pope Clement VII, regent)

19 Nov 1523 - 11 May 1527 Silvo di Rosado,

Cardinale di Passerini .......... 1469-1529

(regent)

30 Jul 1524 - 06 May 1527 di Medici, Cardinal Ippolito ..... 1511-1535

Supreme Rulers of Florence

06 Jul 1531 - 06 Jan 1537 Alessandro Lorenzo di Medici ..... 1510-1537

06 Jan - 09 Jan 1537 Innocenzo di Francesco,

Cardinale Cybo, arcivescovo

di Genova ....................... 1491-1550

(acting)

09 Jan - 20 Sep 1537 Cosimo di Giovanni Medici ........ 1519-1574

Dukes

20 Sep 1537 - 18 Feb 1570 di Medici, Cosimo II ............. s.a

Grand Dukes

18 Feb 1570 - 21 Apr 1574 di Medici, Cosimo II ............. s.a

21 Apr 1574 - 19 Oct 1587 di Medici, Francesco I ........... 1541-1613

19 Oct 1587 - 07 Feb 1609 di Medici, Ferdinando I .......... 1549-1609

07 Feb 1609 - 28 Feb 1621 di Medici, Cosimo III ............ 1590-1621

28 Feb 1621 - 23 May 1670 di Medici, Ferdinando II ......... 1610-1670

23 May 1670 - 31 Oct 1723 di Medici, Cosimo IV ............. 1642-1723

31 Oct 1723 - 09 Jul 1737 di Medici, Gian Gastone .......... 1671-1737

09 Jul 1737 - 18 Aug 1765 Habsburg, Francesco II ........... 1708-1765

18 Aug 1765 - 22 Jul 1790 Habsburg, Pietro Leopoldo I ...... 1747-1792

22 Jul 1790 - 27 Mar 1799 Habsburg, Ferdinando III ......... 1769-1824

(1st Time)

07 Jul 1799 - 15 Oct 1800 Habsburg, Ferdinando III

(2nd Time)

27 Apr 1814 - 18 Jun 1824 Habsburg, Ferdinando III

(3rd Time)

18 Jun 1824 - 21 Jul 1859 Habsburg, Leopoldo II ............ 1797-1870

(in exiled 27 Mar - 12 Apr 1849)

27 Mar - 12 Apr 1849 Francesco Domenico Guerrazzi ..... 1804-1873

(Dictator [in rebellion])

21 Jul - 16 Aug 1859 Habsburg, Ferdinando IV .......... 1835-1908

______________________________________________________________________

Venezia

697 - 1204 Respublica Veneta (Republic of Venice), under Byzantine suzerainty

1143 Comune Venetiarum (Comune of Venice)

12 Aug 1204 - 27 Sep 1669 Crete a Venetian possession

20 May 1386 - 1797 Ionian Islands annexed

09 Jul 1409 Dalmatia annexed

07 Jun 1420 Costal Istria annexed to the Venetian Republic

13 Jul 1420 Duchy of Fiuli annxed

12 May 1462 Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia (Most Serene Republic of Venice)

14 May 1489 - 15 Aug 1571 Kingdom of Cyprus annexed

15 Aug 1571 Cyprus conquered by the Ottoman Empire

1685 - 1715 Morea occupied by Venice

03 Jun 1796 Start of Austrian and French occupation in violation

of Venitian neutrality

26 Apr 1797 - 18 Jan 1798 French occupation

16 May 1797 Repubic extinguished

18 Jan 1798 Ceded to Austria

26 Dec 1805 Ceded to French Empire

01 May 1806 Part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy

08 Nov 1813 To Austria

22 Mar 1848 State of Venice (in rebellion), informally Republica di San Marco

04 Jul 1848 Venetia

27 Jul - 12 Aug 1848 Annexed to Piedmonte-Sardinia

11 Aug 1848 Stato di Venezia (State of Venice)

24 Aug 1849 - 23 Aug 1866 Part of Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom (Part of Austrian Empire)

16 Oct 1866 French administration

22 Oct 1866 Ceded to Italy by France

Dogi Veneziani

697 - 717 Pauli Anafesto

717 - 726 Marcellus Tegalliano

726 - 737 Orso Ipato

737 Domenico Leone

738 Felice Cornicula

739 Diodato Orso (1st Time)

740 Jovian Ypatus

741 Giovanni Fabricous

742 - 755 Diodato Orso (2nd Time)

755 - 756 Gallas Lupanio

756 - 764 Domenico Monegario

764 - 787 Maurizio Galbaio

787 - 804 Giovanni Galbaio

804 - 810 Antenorero Obelerio

811 - 827 Angelo Partecipazio

827 - 829 Giustiniano Partecipazio

829 - 837 Giovanni I Partecipazio

837 - 864 Pietro Tradonico

864 - 881 Orso I Partecipazio

881 - 887 Giovanni II Partecipazio

Apr - 18 Sep 887 Pietro I Candiano

887 - 912 Pietro Tribuno

912 - 932 Orso II Partecipazio

932 - 939 Pietro II Candiano

939 - 942 Pietro Partecipazio

942 - 959 Pietro III Candiano

959 - 976 Pietro IV Candiano

976 - 01 Sep 978 Pietro I Orseolo

978 - 979 Vitale Candiano

979 - 991 Tribuno Memmo

991 - 1009 Pietro II Orseolo

1009 - 1026 Ottone Orseolo

1026 - 1030 Pietro Centranico

1031 Orso Orseolo

1032 Domenico Orseolo

1032 - 1043 Domenico Flabanico

1043 - 1071 Domenico Contarini

1071 - 1084 Domenico Selvo

1084 - 1096 Vitalis Falieri

1096 - 1102 Vitalis Michieli I

1102 - 1117 Ordelafo Faliere

1117 - 1130 Dominico Michieli

1130 - 1148 Pietro Polani

1148 - 1156 Dominico Morosini

1156 - 1173 Vitalis Michieli II

29 Nov 1172 - 28 Mar 1178 Sebastiano Ziani

17 Apr 1178 - 1192 Orio Malipiero

21 Jun 1192 - 01 Jun 1205 Aurio Dandolo

15 Aug 1205 - Feb 1229 Pietro Yiani

06 Mar 1229 - 02 May 1249 Jacobo Tiepoli

13 Jun 1249 - 01 Jan 1253 Marino Morosini

08 Jan 1253 - 07 Jul 1268 Rainiero Zeno

23 Jul 1268 - 15 Aug 1275 Lorenzo Tiepoli

06 Sep 1275 - 06 Mar 1280 Jacobo Contarini

31 Mar 1280 - 02 Nov 1289 Giovanni Dandolo

25 Nov 1289 - 13 Aug 1311 Pietro Granenigo

23 Aug 1311 - 03 Jul 1312 Marino Zorzi

13 Jul 1312 - 31 Dec 1328 Giovanni Sorenzo

04 Jan 1329 - 31 Oct 1339 Francesco Dandolo

07 Nov 1339 - 28 Dec 1342 Bartolomeo Granenigo

04 Jan 1343 - 07 Sep 1354 Andrea Dandolo

16 Sep 1354 - 17 Apr 1355 Marino Falieri

21 Apr 1355 - 08 Aug 1356 Giovanni Grandenigo

13 Aug 1356 - 12 Jul 1361 Giovanni Delfino

16 Jul 1361 - 18 Jul 1365 Lorenzo Celsi

21 Jul 1365 - 13 Jan 1368 Marco Cornaro

20 Jan 1368 - 05 Jun 1382 Andrea Contarini

10 Jun - 16 Oct 1382 Michael Morosini

21 Oct 1382 - 23 Nov 1400 Antonio Venieri

01 Dec 1400 - 26 Dec 1413 Michael Steno

07 Jan 1414 - 04 Apr 1423 Tommaso Mocenigo

04 Apr 1423 - 25 Oct 1457 Francesco Foscari

30 Oct 1457 - 07 Mar 1462 Paschalis Malipiero

12 Mar 1462 - 09 Nov 1471 Cristoforo Moro

09 Nov 1471 - 28 Jul 1473 Niccolo Trono

28 Jul 1473 - 01 Dec 1474 Niccolo Marcello

14 Dec 1474 - 23 Feb 1476 Pietro Mocenigo

05 Mar 1476 - 05 May 1478 Andrea Vendramini

18 May 1478 - 14 Sep 1485 Giovanni Mocenigo

19 Sep 1458 - 14 Aug 1486 Marco Barbadigo

30 Aug 1486 - 20 Sep 1501 Agostino Barbadigo

02 Oct 1501 - 21 Jun 1521 Leondardo Loredano

06 Jul 1521 - 07 May 1523 Antonio Grimani

20 May 1523 - 07 May 1538 Andrea Gritti

19 Jan 1539 - 09 Nov 1545 Pietro Lando

24 Nov 1545 - 23 May 1553 Francesco Donato

04 Jul 1553 - 31 May 1554 Marcantonio Trevigiano

11 Jun 1554 - 02 Jun 1556 Francesco Venieri

14 Jun 1556 - 17 Aug 1559 Lorenzo Priuli

01 Sep 1559 - 04 Nov 1567 Geronimo Priuli

04 Nov 1567 - 03 May 1570 Pietro Lorendano

May 1570 - 04 Jun 1577 Aloisio Mocenigo

11 Jun 1577 - 03 Mar 1578 Sebastiano Venieri

11 Mar 1578 - 30 Jun 1585 Niccolo da'Ponte

18 Aug 1585 - 02 Apr 1595 Pashalias Cicogna

26 Apr 1595 - 25 Dec 1605 Marino Grimani

10 Jan 1606 - 16 Jul 1612 Leonardo Donato

24 Jul 1612 - 31 Oct 1615 Marcantonio Memmo

02 Dec 1615 - 16 Mar 1618 Giovanni Bembo

04 Apr - 09 May 1618 Niccolo Donato

17 May 1618 - 12 Aug 1623 Antonio Priuli

12 Aug 1623 - 06 Dec 1624 Francesco Contarini (1st Time)

06 Dec 1624 - 23 Dec 1629 Giovanni Cornaro

18 Jan 1630 - 02 Apr 1631 Niccolo Contarini

10 Apr 1631 - 03 Jan 1646 Francesco Erizzo

20 Jan 1646 - 27 Feb 1655 Francesco Molino

27 Mar 1655 - 01 May 1656 Carlo Contarani

17 May - 05 Jun 1656 Francesco Contarini (2nd Time)

18 Jun 1656 - 29 Mar 1658 Bertuccio Falieri

08 Apr 1658 - 30 Sep 1659 Giovanni Pesaro

16 Oct 1659 - 26 Jan 1675 Dominico Contarani

06 Feb 1675 - 14 Aug 1676 Niccolo Sagredo

26 Aug 1676 - 15 Jan 1684 Aloisio Conarani

26 Jan 1684 - 23 Mar 1688 Marcantonio Giustiniani

03 Apr 1688 - 06 Jan 1694 Francesco Morosoni

25 Feb 1694 - 05 Jul 1700 Silvesto Valiero

16 Jul 1700 - 06 May 1709 Aloisio Marco Antonio Mocenigo II

06 May 1709 - 12 Aug 1722 Giovanni Cornaro

24 Aug 1722 - 21 May 1732 Aloisio Sebastiano Mocenigo III

02 Jun 1732 - 05 Jan 1735 Carlo Ruzzini

17 Jan 1735 - 17 Jun 1741 Alosio Pisani

30 Jun 1741 - 07 Mar 1752 Pietro Grimani

18 Mar 1752 - 19 May 1762 Francesco Loredano

31 May 1762 - 31 Mar 1763 Marco Foscarini

19 Apr 1763 - 31 Dec 1778 Aloisio Giovanni Mocenigo IV

14 Jan 1779 - 13 Feb 1789 Paolo Rainiero

13 Feb 1789 - 16 May 1797 Lodovico Manini

Prince

1807 - 1824 de'Beauharnais, Eugene I Prince de'Venezia

Austrian Governors of Venetia

20 Apr 1814 - Jan 1815 Heinrich XI Fürst zu Reuss-Plauen

1815 - 1819 Peter Graf Goëss

1819 - 1820 Ferdinand Ernst Maria Graf

von Bissingen und Nippenburg

1820 - 1826 Karl Rudolph Graf Inzaghi

1826 - 1840 Johan Baptist Graf Spaur

1840 - 22 Mar 1848 Aloys Graf Pállfy de Erdöd

22 Mar - 1848 Ferdinand Graf Zichy zu Zich

von Vasonykeöy

Apr 1848 - 1849 Laval Graf Nugent von Westmeath

Heads of State

12 Aug 1848 - 24 Aug 1849 Daniele Manin

- Leone Graziani

- Giovanni Battista Cavedalis

Austrian Governors of Venetia

28 Aug - Oct 1849 Karl Ritter Gorzowsky von Gorzkow

Oct 1849 - 22 Jul 1850 Anton Freiherr von Puchner

21 Jul 1850 - Feb 1855 Georg Otto Ritter von Toggenburg-Sargans

(1st Time)

Aug 1855 - 06 Feb 1860 Cajetan Graf Bissingen-Nippenburg

09 Feb 1860 - 19 Oct 1866 Georg Otto Ritter von Toggenburg-Sargans

(2nd Time)

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