Polska

830 Polish Principality

25 Dec 1025 Królestwo Polskie (Polish Kingdom)

Jun 1079 Polish Principality

28 Oct 1138 Division into principalities

20 Jan 1320 Polish Kingdom

04 Jul 1569 Accord of Lublin unites Poland and Lithuania into

a United Commonwealth (Rzeczpospolita Królestwa Polskiego)

15 Sep 1697 - 01 Feb 1733 In Personal Union with the Saxony (except 1704-1709)

05 Aug 1772 First Partition of Poland between Austria, Prussia and Russia

23 Jan 1793 Second Partition of Poland between Prussia and Russia

07 Jan 1795 Third Partition of Poland between Prussia and Russia

09 Jul 1807 - 20 Jun 1815 Polish independence restored with the creation of the Duchy

of Warsaw under French protection

14 Mar 1813 - 1815 Księstwo Warszawskie (Duchy of Warsaw) under Russian occupation

03 May 1815 Territory is partitioned between Russia, Prussia and Austria,

the majority (Warsaw area) is ceded to Russia, Poznan is ceded

to Prussia and Krakow placed under Austrian protection

21 May 1815 Polish Kingdom in personal union with Russian Empire,

fully integrated into Russia by 1832. Russian rule ended by

German occupation in 1915

27 Nov 1815 Autonomous, historically refered to as "Congress Poland"

29 Nov 1830 - 05 Oct 1831 First (November) insurrection against foreign rule

22 Jan 1863 - 1865 Second (January) insurrection

17 Jan 1905 - 1906 Local rebellions during the 1905 revolution

05 Aug 1915 Russian 'Congress Poland' occupied by Germany and Austria-Hungary

05 Nov 1916 - 11 Nov 1918 Królestwo Polskie (Kingdom of Poland) under Austrian-German occupation

06 Nov 1918 Polish State

22 Nov 1918 Independence proclaimed, Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish Republic)

30 Jul - 20 Aug 1920 Polish Soviet Socialist Republic (Proclaimed in Bialystok)

1933 Proposal to offer the Polish throne to Prince Friedrich Christian of Saxony

01 Sep 1939 German invasion from the west, government surrenders 30 Sep 1939

17 Sep 1939 Soviet Invasion from the east, Western Ukraine and west Belorussia

incorporated into the USSR

28 Sep 1939 Soviet occupied Wilno (Vilnius) is annexed to Lithuania

21 Jun 1941 Soviet occupied areas occupied by Germany

01 Aug 1941 Eastern Galicia added to the General government

01 Jan 1944 Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish Republic)

Jul 1944 Begining of Soviet re-occupation, Warsaw taken on 17 Jan 1945,

German forces surrender

1945 Regions of Lwow, Nowogródek, Poleskie, Stanislawow, Tarnopol,

Równe and Wilno ceded to the USSR

25 Aug 1945 Former German areas of Pomerania, Silesia, Southern East Prussia

and Brandenburg east of the Oder incorporated into Poland

01 Aug 1952 Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa (People's Republic of Poland)

30 Dec 1989 Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish Republic)

01 May 2004 Accession to the European Union

Medieval Poland

Monarchs

830 - 842 Paist, Michal I

842 - 861 Paist, Piast, Duke of Poland

861 - 892 Paist, Ziemowit

892 - 913 Paist, Leszek I

913 - 960 Paist, Ziemonislaw

960 - 992 Paist, Mieczislaw I

25 May 992 - 17 Jun 1025 Paist, Bolesław I, Duke of Poland "the Brave)

17 Jun 1025 - Nov 1031 Paist, Mieczislaw II Lampert (1st Time)

Nov 1031 - 1032 Paist, Bezprym

1031 - 10 May 1034 Paist, Mieczislaw II Lampert (2nd Time)

10 May 1039 - 28 Nov 1058 Paist, Kazimierz I Karol

28 Nov 1058 - Jun 1079 Paist, Bolesław II "Szczodry"

(King from 25 Dec 1076)

1079 - 04 Jun 1102 Paist, Władysław I Herman, Duke of Poland

04 Jun 1102 - 1106 Piast, Zbygniew

04 Jun 1102 - 28 Oct 1138 Paist, Bolesław III, Duke of Poland

(co-ruler)

28 Oct 1138 - 1179 Paist, Mieszko III "Stary"

(1st Time, co-ruler)

1179 - 1181 Piast, Odon (1st Time)

1181 - 13 Mar 1202 Piast, Mieszko III "Stary"

(2nd Time)

1181 - 20 Apr 1194 Piast, Odon (2nd Time, co-ruler)

1191 - 02 Aug 1193 Piast, Mieszko ...................................... 116.-1193

(co-ruler in Kalisz)

1194 - 1229 Paist, Władysław II

(co-ruler)

1202 - 23 Nov 1227 Paist, Leszek II

05 May 1228 - 03 Nov 1231 Paist, Władysław III

(co-ruler)

1207 - 1217 Paist, Władysław IV (1st Time) ...................... 1190-1239

(co-ruler in Kalisz)

1229 - 22 Sep 1234 Paist, Władysław IV (2nd Time)

03 Nov 1231 - 19 Mar 1238 Paist, Henryk I ..................................... 1160-1238

19 Mar 1238 - 09 Apr 1241 Paist, Henryk II .................................... 1196-1241

09 Apr - 10 Jul 1241 Paist, Bolesław IV .................................. 1217-1278

10 Jul 1241 - May 1243 Paist, Konrad I Mazowiecki

Jun 1241 - 04 Jun 1257 Paist, Przemysł I ................................... 1220-1257

15 May 1253 - 13 Apr 1279 Paist, Bolesław V (2nd Time)

1273 - 26 Jun 1295 Přemyslovci, Przemysł II (Ottokar) of Bohemia ....... 1257-1296

(co-ruler in Poznan)

Jan 1293 - 10 Jun 1294 Kazimierz (III)

(pretender)

26 Jun 1295 - 08 Feb 1296 Paist, Przemysł I, King of Poland ................... s.a

08 Feb 1296 - Aug 1300 Paist, Władysław V, Duke of Poland (1st Time) ....... 1261-1333

Aug 1300 - 21 Jun 1305 Paist, Wacław I, King of Poland ..................... 1271-1305

21 Jun 1305 - 04 Aug 1306 Paist, Wacław II, King of Poland .................... 1289-1306

04 Aug 1306 - 09 Dec 1309 Paist, Henryk III, Duke of Poland ................... 132.-1309

16 Oct 1306 - 03 Jul 1307 Habsburg, Rudolf, King of Bohemia,

Archduke of Austria ................................ 1281-1307

(pretender)

09 Dec 1309 - Aug 1314 Paist, Henryk IV, Duke of Poland .................... 1292-1342

01 Sep 1310 - 24 Aug 1335 Jan ................................................. 1296-1346

(pretender)

Aug 1314 - 20 Jan 1320 Paist, Władysław V (2nd Time)

Kings

20 Jan 1320 - 02 Mar 1333 Paist, Władysław I (V) .............................. s.a

25 Apr 1333 - 05 Nov 1370 Paist, Kazimierz III, King of Poland ................ 1310-1370 "Wielki"

05 Nov 1370 - 12 Sep 1382 Angevin, Ludwik I Wegierski ......................... 1326-1382

28 Mar 1383 - 17 Jul 1399 Angevin, Jadwiga .................................... 1374-1399

(co-ruler from 1386)

18 Feb 1386 - 31 May 1434 Jagiellonowie, Władysław II ......................... 1351-1434

25 Jul 1434 - 10 Nov 1444 Jagiellonowie, Władysław III ........................ 1424-1444

25 Jun 1447 - 07 Jun 1492 Jagiellonowie, Kazimierz IV ......................... 1427-1492

23 Sep 1492 - 17 Jun 1501 Jagiellonowie, Jan I Olbract ........................ 1459-1501

17 Jun - 12 Dec 1501 Fryderyk Kardynał Jagiełłończyk,

arcybiskup Gniezenski .............................. 1468-1503

12 Dec 1501 - 19 Aug 1506 Jagiellonowie, Aleksander ........................... 1461-1506

19 Aug 1506 - 24 Jan 1507 Andrzej Róża Boryszewski,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1436-1510

24 Jan 1507 - 01 Apr 1548 Jagiellonowie, Zygmunt I ............................ 1467-1548

20 Feb 1550 - 30 Jun 1569 Jagiellonowie, Zygmunt II August .................... 1520-1572

 

Grand Marshals

1358 - 1368 Pelka Koscielec z Koscielca

1369 - 1374 Jan Kolczek z Zakrzowa

1375 - 1378 Przedbór z Brzezia (1st Time) ....................... 13..-1387

1378 - 1379 Jan Tarnowski z Tarnowa

1381 - 1387 Przedbór z Brzezia (2nd Time)

1387 - Oct 1388 Mikolaj z Bogorii

Oct 1388 - Dec 1389 Dymitr z Goraja ..................................... 1340-1400

Dec 1389 - 1391 Mikolaj Wezyk z Rebowa

30 Sep 1394 - 18 Aug 1399 Zbigniew Lanckoronski

z Brzezia (1st Time) ............................... 1360-1425

18 Aug - 09 Nov 1399 Gniewosz z Dalewicz

09 Nov 1399 - 22 Feb 1425 Zbigniew Lanckoronski

z Brzezia (2nd Time)

07 Apr 1426 - 24 Jul 1430 Wawrzyniec Zaremba z Kalinowy

21 Oct 1430 - 14 Jan 1440 Jan Głowacz z Oleśnicy .............................. 1400-1460

30 May 1440 - 09 Mar 1462 Mikołaj Marszałkowicz

Lanckoroński z Brzezia

01 May 1462 - 10 Oct 1477 Jan Rytwianski z Rytwian ............................ 1422-1478

24 Oct 1477 - 21 Oct 1492 Rafał Jakób z Jarosławski

z Jaroslawia i z Przeworska ........................ 1436-1493

22 Dec 1493 - 24 Mar 1494 Rafał Leszczyński

(acting)

24 Mar 1494 - 16 Apr 1505 Piotr Kmita z Wisnicza

i z Sobienia ....................................... 1442-1505

16 Apr - 1505 Jan Tęczyński z Rabsztyna

(acting)

15 Jul - Aug 1505 Stanisław Jarocki z Jaroczyna

(acting)

Aug 1505 - 30 Apr 1529 Stanisław Chodecki z Chodcza ........................ 14..-1529

01 May 1529 - 31 Oct 1553 Piotr Kmita Sobieński z Wiśnicza .................... 1477-1553

31 Oct 1553 - 21 Jun 1555 Stanisław Maciejowski ............................... 15..-1563

(1st Time, acting)

21 Jun 1555 - 13 Mar 1561 Jan Mieclecki ....................................... 1501-1561

13 Mar 1561 - 1563 Stanisław Maciejowski

(2nd Time, acting)

22 Jul 1563 - 30 Jun 1569 Jan Firlej z Dąbrowicy .............................. 1511-1574

 

Full style of the Monarch: Król Polski. Lat. Rex Poloniae.

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Capital: Warsaw.

Government: Elective Monarchy.

Demographics: Polish, Ukrainian, Belarussian, Lithuanian, Jewish, Livonian, Latvian.

Religions: Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Orthordoxy, Jewish, Islam.

National Anthem: "Gaude Mater Polonia" (Rejoice Mother Poland).

National Day: Constitution day. 03 May (1791)

National Motto: Si Deus nobiscum, quis contra nos (If God is with us, then who is against us?)

Currency: Golden Zloty.

 

Kings

01 Jul 1569 - 07 Jul 1572 Jagiellonowie, Zygmunt II August .................... s.a

07 Jul 1572 - 18 Feb 1574 Jakub Uchański z Służewa,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1502-1581

(Interrex, 1st Time)

21 Feb 1574 - 12 May 1575 Valois, Henryk I .................................... 1551-1589

(Henri III de France)

18 Jun 1574 - 16 Feb 1576 Jakub Uchański z Służewa,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. s.a

(Interrex, 2nd Time)

01 May 1576 - 12 Dec 1586 Bathory, Stefan ..................................... 1533-1586

(also Prince of Transylvania)

12 Dec 1586 - 07 Oct 1587 Stanisław Karnkowski,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1520-1603

(Interrex)

22 Aug 1587 - 09 Mar 1589 Habsburg, Maksymilian of Austria .................... 1558-1618

(pretender)

27 Dec 1587 - 30 Apr 1632 Wasa, Zygmunt III ................................... 1566-1632

30 Apr 1632 - 06 Feb 1633 Jan Wężyk, arcybiskup Gnieźeński .................... 1575-1638

(Interrex)

06 Feb 1633 - 20 May 1648 Wasa, Wladyslaw VII ................................. 1595-1648

20 May 1668 - 17 Jan 1649 Maciéj Łubieński, arcybiskup Gnieźeński ............. 1572-1652

(Interrex)

17 Jan 1649 - 16 Sep 1668 Wasa, Jan II Kazimierz .............................. 1609-1672

16 Sep 1668 - 07 Jul 1669 Mikołaj Jan Prażmowski,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1617-1673

(Interrex)

29 Sep 1669 - 10 Nov 1673 Wiśniowiecki, Michal Tomasz II Korybut .............. 1640-1673

10 Nov 1673 - 15 May 1674 Prince Kazimierz Florian Czartoryski ................ 1614-1674

(Interrex)

10 Nov 1673 – 5 Jun 1674 Andrzej Trzebicki, biskup Krakówski ................. 1607–1679

(Interrex)

05 Jun 1674 - 17 Jun 1696 Sobieski, Jan III ................................... 1629-1696

17 Jun 1696 - 27 Jul 1697 Michał Stefan Kardynał Radziejowski,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1645-1705

((Interrex excercising Royal authority)

15 Sep 1697 - 16 Feb 1704 Wettin, Fryderyk August II Mocny .................... 1670-1733 "The Strong"

(1st Time)

04 Oct 1705 - 08 Aug 1709 Leszczynski, Stanislaw I ............................ 1677-1766

(1st Time)

08 Aug 1709 - 01 Feb 1733 Wettin, Fryderyk August II Mocny (2nd Time)

01 Feb 1733 - 06 Jan 1734 Teodor Andrzej Potocki,

arcybiskup Warmiński ............................... 1664-1738

(Interim excercising Royal authority)

12 Sep 1733 - 30 Jun 1734 Leszczynski, Stanislaw I

(2nd Time, in disstance in Gdansk)

06 Jan 1734 - 05 Oct 1763 Wettin, August III .................................. 1696-1763

05 Oct 1763 - 25 Nov 1764 Władysław Alexander Łubieński,

arcybiskup Gnieźeński .............................. 1703-1767

(Interim excercising Royal authority)

07 Sep 1764 - 25 Nov 1795 Poniatowski, Stanislaw II ........................... 1732-1798

(Left Poland 07 Jan 1795, in Russian captivity)

 

 

Grand Marshalls

22 Jul 1563 - 25 Apr 1574 Jan Firlej z Dąbrowicy

25 Apr 1574 - 30 Mar 1593 Andrzej Opalinski z Bnina ........................... 1540-1593

30 Mar 1593 - 19 Sep 1595 Stanislaw Przyjemski ................................ 15..-1595

19 Sep 1595 - 27 Nov 1600 Mikolaj Zebrzydowski ................................ 1553-1620

25 Jan 1603 - 05 Jul 1615 Zygmund Myszkowski Gonzaga-Myszkowski,

margrabia na Mirowie ............................... 1562-1615

06 Jul 1616 - 09 Mar 1630 Mikolaj Wolski z Podhajec

15 Apr 1630 - 19 Feb 1650 Łukasz Opaliński z Bnina ............................ 1584-1654

19 Feb 1650 - 30 Dec 1664 Prince Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski ................... 1616-1667

17 Jan 1666 - 21 May 1674 Jan Sobieski ........................................ s.a

19 Feb 1676 - 17 Jan 1702 Stanislaw Herakliusz Lubomirski ..................... 1642-1702

17 Jan - 15 Dec 1702 Prince Józef Karol Lubomirski ....................... 1638-1702

(acting)

15 Dec 1702 - 24 Mar 1713 Kazimierz Ludwik Bielinski .......................... 166.-1713

24 Mar - 02 Apr 1713 Wojciech Andrzej Dambski z Lubrańca ................. 1676-1725

(acting)

02 Apr 1713 - 20 May 1742 Józef Wandalin Mniszech ............................. 1670-1747

21 May 1742 - 08 Oct 1766 Franciszek Bielinski ................................ 1683-1766

10 Oct 1766 - 12 Aug 1783 Prince Stanislaw Lubomirski ......................... 1719-1783

12 Aug - 23 Aug 1783 Franciszek Rzewuski ................................. 1730-1800

(acting)

23 Aug 1783 - 08 Jul 1793 Michal Jerzy Wandelin Mniszech ...................... 1742-1806

08 Jul - 23 Aug 1793 Kazimiérz Jan Nepomucen Raczyński ................... 1739-1824

(acting)

23 Aug 1793 - 07 Jan 1795 Fryderyk Józef Moszynski ............................ 1738-1817

 

Full style of the Monarch: Z Bożej łaski, Król Polski, Wielki Książę Litewski, Ruski,

Pruski, Mazowiecki, Żmudzki, Kijowski, Wołyński, Podolski, Podlaski, Inflancki, Smoleński,

Siewierski i Czernihowski ("by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Prince of Lithuania,

Russia, Prussia, Mazovia, Samogithia, Kiev, Volhynia, Podolia, Podlachia, Livonia, Smolensk,

Severia and Chernigov, etc., etc,").

 

Orders: Order Orła Białego (Order of thw White Eagel).

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Duchy of Warsaw and Congress Poland

Duke of Warsaw

09 Jul 1807 - 21 May 1815 Wettin, Fryderyk .................................... 1750-1827

(King Friedrich of Saxony, prisoner from 19 Oct 1813)

Kings

20 Jun 1815 - 05 Aug 1915 The Emperors of Russia

 

Military Governor

09 Dec 1815 - 01 Dec 1830 Grand Duke Konstantin Pavlovich Romanov ............. 1779-1831

Naměstnik (Viceroys)

11 Dec 1815 - 28 Jul 1826 Prince Józef Zajaczek ............................... 1752-1826

28 Jul 1826 - 04 Dec 1830 Walenty Faustyn Sobolewski z Piętek ................. 1765-1831

04 Dec 1830 - 10 Jun 1831 Hans Karl Friedrich Anton von Diebitsch ............. 1785-1831

(Commander of the Russian Troops)

13 Jun 1831 - 20 Jan 1856 Count Ivan Fyodorovych Paskevych-Yerivansky,

Prince Varshavsky .................................. 1782-1856

01 Feb - 03 Apr 1856 Wincenty Krasiński .................................. 1782-1858

(acting)

03 Apr 1856 - 18 May 1861 Prince Mikhail Dmitryevich Gorchakov ................ 1793-1861

30 May - 06 Aug 1861 Nikolay Onufriyevich Gorchakov ...................... 1794-1871

(acting)

06 Aug 1861 - 21 Apr 1862 Count Karl Karlovich Lambert ........................ 1815-1865

27 Oct 1861 - 08 Jun 1862 Count Aleksey Nikolayevich von Lüders ............... 1790-1874

08 Jun 1862 - 31 Oct 1863 Grand Duke Konstantin Nikolayevich Romanov .......... 1827-1892

08 Sep 1863 - 18 Jan 1874 Friedrich Wilhelm Rembert Graf von Berg ............. 1793-1874

Governors-General

18 Jan 1874 - 18 May 1880 Paul Demetrius Graf von Kotzebue .................... 1801-1880

18 May 1880 - 19 May 1883 Pyotr Pavlovich Albedinsky .......................... 1826-1883

07 Jun 1883 - 06 Dec 1894 Iosif Vladimirovich Romeyko-Gourko .................. 1828-1901

13 Dec 1894 - 12 Dec 1896 Count Pavel Andreyevich Shuvalov .................... 1830-1908

01 Jan 1897 - 17 Nov 1900 Prince Aleksandr Konstantinovich

Bagration-Imeretinsky .............................. 1837-1900

24 Mar 1901 - 19 Feb 1905 Mikhail Iavnovich Chertkov .......................... 1829-1905

19 Feb - 15 Aug 1905 Konstantn Klavdievich Maksimovich ................... 1849-1917

15 Aug 1905 - 01 Feb 1914 Georgy Antonovich Skalon ............................ 1847-1914

04 Mar - 03 Sep 1914 Yakov Grigoriyevich Zhilinskiy ...................... 1853-1918

(acting)

09 Sep - 23 Dec 1914 Anton Ottovich Essen ................................ 1862-1919

(acting)

23 Dec 1914 - 25 Aug 1915 Prince Pavel Nikolayevich Yengalychev ............... 1864-1944

(continues in exile to 04 Apr 1917)

 

Presidents of the Council of Ministers

05 Oct - 16 Dec 1807 Count Stanislaw Malachowski ......................... 1736-1809

16 Dec 1807 - 25 Mar 1809 Duke Ludwik Gutakowski .............................. 1738-1811

25 Mar 1809 - May 1813 Stanislaw Kostka Potocki ............................ 1775-1821

Chairman of the Supreme Provisional Council of the Duchy of Warsaw

14 Mar 1813 - 09 Jun 1815 Vasily Sergeyevich Lanskoy .......................... 1753-1831

Chairmen of the Council of State

24 Dec 1832 - 1833 Josef Rautenstrauch ................................. 1773-1842

12 Apr 1833 - 1836 Nikita Petrovich Pankraiev

1836 - 1837 Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Golovin ...................... 1797-1858

1837 - 1841 Roman Thiyodorovich Furhmann

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Polish Rebelions

Dictator

05 Dec 1830 - 25 Jan 1831 Józef Grzegorz Chlopicki ............................ 1771-1854

Presidents of the National Government

25 Jan - 30 Jan 1831 Count Wladyslaw Tomasz Ostrowski .................... 1790-1869

30 Jan - 17 Aug 1831 Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski ....................... 1770-1861

17 Aug - 07 Sep 1831 Jan Stefan Krukowiecki .............................. 1772-1850

07 Sep - 26 Sep 1831 Bonawentura Niemojowski ............................. 1787-1835

22 Jan - 24 May 1863 Stefan Bobrowski .................................... 1841-1863

 

Chairman of the Provisional Government

16 Sep 1831 - 22 Feb 1832 Theodor Engel ....................................... 1769-1837

Head of the Provisional Government

08 Jun 1862 - 31 Oct 1863 Count Aleksander Wielopolski, Marquis of Gonzaga .... 1803-1877

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Kingdom of Poland 1916-1918

Capital: Warsaw.

Government: client state of Germany and Austria-Hungary.

Demographics: Polish, Ukrainian, Jewish.

Currency: Polish Marka

 

King

10 Oct 1916 - 26 Oct 1917 Provisional Council of State

- Wraclaw Józef Niemojowski ........................... 1864-1939

- Józef Karol Mateusz Mikulowski-Pomorski ............. 1868-1935

- Józef Klemens Pilsudski ............................. 1867-1935

- Wojciech Hilary Rostworowski ........................ 1877-1952

- Stanislaw Dzierzbicki ............................... 1854-1919

- Michal Lempicki ..................................... 1867-1946

- Stanislaw Janicki ................................... 1872-1939

- Wlodzimierz Kunowski ................................

- Stanislaw Bukowiecki ................................

05 Nov 1916 - 11 Nov 1918 Habsburg, Karol Stefan .............................. 1860-1933

(Archduke Karl Stephan von Oesterreich,

candidate, never reigned)

27 Oct 1917 - 14 Nov 1918 Regency Council

- Aleksander Kakowski, Archbishop of Warsaw ........... 1862-1938

- Prince Zdzislaw Lubomirski .......................... 1865-1943

- Count Józef August Ostrowski ........................ 1850-1923

 

Prime Ministers

01 Feb - 15 Aug 1917 Michal Lempiki ...................................... 1856-1930

27 Nov 1917 - 27 Feb 1918 Jan Kucharzewski .................................... 1876-1952

27 Feb - 04 Apr 1918 Antoni Ponikowski (1st Time) ........................ 1878-1949

04 Apr - 05 Sep 1918 Jan Kanty Steczkowski ............................... 1862-1929

05 Sep - 30 Sep 1918 Stanislaw Dzierzbicki ............................... 1854-1919

30 Sep - 26 Oct 1918 Bohdan Broniewski ................................... 1855-1922

26 Oct - 07 Nov 1918 Józef Swiezynski .................................... 1864-1948

07 Nov - 14 Nov 1918 Wladyslaw Wroblewski ................................ 1875-1951

14 Nov - 17 Nov 1918 Ignacy Ewarysy Daszynski ............................ 1866-1936

________________________________________________________________________________________

Republic of Poland 1918-1939

Capital: Warsaw.

Government: Republic.

Demograthics: Polish 68.9%, Ukrainian 13%, Jewish 10%, Belarusian 3%, German 2% (1931).

Religion: Roman Catholic, Eastern Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox Christian, Protestant, Tatar Muslim

Languages: Polish, Ukrainian, Yiddish, Belarussian, German.

National Anthem: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Poland is not yet Lost).

National Emblem: White Eagel.

National Motto: Bóg, Honor, Ojczyznaó (God, Honor, Fatherland).

Currency: Polish Zloty.

 

 

Head of State

14 Nov 1918 - 14 Dec 1922 Józef Klemens Piłsudski ............................. 1867-1935

(de facto until 12 May 1935)

Presidents

14 Dec - 16 Dec 1922 Gabriel Józef Narutowitcz ........................... 1865-1922

16 Dec - 20 Dec 1922 Maciej Rataj ........................................ 1884-1940

(1st Time, acting)

20 Dec 1922 - 15 May 1926 Stanisław Wojciechowski ............................. 1869-1952

15 May - 04 Jun 1926 Maciej Rataj ........................................ s.a

(2nd, acting)

04 Jun 1926 - 30 Sep 1939 Ignacy Mościcki ..................................... 1867-1946

 

 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

17 Nov 1918 - 19 Jan 1919 Jedrzej Edward Moraczewski .......................... 1879-1944

19 Jan - 13 Dec 1919 Ignacy Jan Paderewski ............................... 1860-1941

13 Dec 1919 - 23 Jun 1920 Leopold Skulski ..................................... 1878-1940

23 Jun - 24 Jul 1920 Wladislaw Grabski (1st Time) ........................ 1874-1938

24 Jul 1920 - 19 Sep 1921 Wincenty Witos (1st Time) ........................... 1874-1945

19 Sep 1921 - 23 Jun 1922 Antoni Ponikowski (2nd Time) ........................ 1878-1949

23 Jun - 16 Jul 1922 Artur Sliwinski ..................................... 1877-1953

16 Jul - 31 Jul 1922 Wojciech Korfanty ................................... 1873-1939

31 Jul - 16 Dec 1922 Julian Ignacy Nowak ................................. 1865-1946

16 Dec 1922 - 29 May 1923 Wladyslaw Eugeniusz Sikorski ........................ 1881-1943

29 May - 19 Dec 1923 Wincenty Witos (2nd Time)

19 Dec 1923 - 20 Nov 1925 Wladislaw Grabski (2nd Time)

20 Nov 1925 - 10 May 1926 Count Aleksander Józef Skrzynski .................... 1882-1931

10 May - 17 May 1926 Wincenty Witos (3rd Time)

17 May - 02 Oct 1926 Kazimierz Wladyslaw Bartel (1st Time) ............... 1882-1941

02 Oct 1926 - 27 Jun 1928 Józef Klemens Piłsudski (1st Time) .................. s.a

27 Jun 1928 - 14 Apr 1929 Kazimierz Wladyslaw Bartel (2nd Time)

14 Apr - 29 Dec 1929 Kazimierz Switalski ................................. 1886-1962

29 Dec 1929 - 29 Mar 1930 Kazimierz Wladyslaw Bartel (3rd Time)

29 Mar - 25 Aug 1930 Walery Jan Slawek (1st Time) ........................ 1879-1939

25 Aug - 04 Dec 1930 Józef Klemens Piłsudski (2nd Time)

04 Dec 1930 - 27 May 1931 Walery Jan Slawek (2nd Time)

27 May 1931 - 12 May 1933 Aleksander Blazej Prystor ........................... 1874-1941

12 May 1933 - 14 May 1934 Janusz Jedrzejewicz ................................. 1885-1951

15 May 1934 - 28 Mar 1935 Leon Tadeusz Kozlowski .............................. 1892-1944

28 Mar - 12 Oct 1935 Walery Jan Slawek (3rd Time)

12 Oct 1935 - 15 May 1936 Marian Zyndram-Kościałkowski ........................ 1892-1946

15 May 1936 - 30 Sep 1939 Felicjan Sławoj Składkowski ......................... 1885-1962

 

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Polish People's Republic

Capital: Warsaw.

Government: Communist republic, Soviet allied state.

Demographics: Polish, 98%, German, Belarussian.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

National Anthem: "Mazurek Dabrowskiego" (Poland is not yet Lost).

National Day: Labour day, 01 May.

Currency: Polish Zloty.

 

Secretaries General of the United Polish Workers Party

23 Nov 1943 - 03 Sep 1948 Władysław Wieslaw Gomułka .......................... 1905-1982 PZPR

(1st Time)

03 Sep 1948 - 12 Mar 1956 Bolesław Tomasz Bierut ............................. 1892-1956 PZPR

20 Mar - 21 Oct 1956 Edward Ochab ....................................... 1906-1989 PZPR

21 Oct 1956 - 20 Dec 1970 Władysław Wieslaw Gomułka .......................... s.a

(2nd Time)

20 Dec 1970 - 06 Sep 1980 Edward Gierek ...................................... 1913-2001 PZPR

06 Sep 1980 - 18 Oct 1981 Stanisław Kania .................................... 1927- PZPR

18 Oct 1981 - 29 Jul 1989 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski ......................... 1923-2014 PZPR

29 Jul 1989 - 27 Jan 1990 Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski ..................... 1926-2008 PZPR

 

Chairmen of the Council of State

01 Jan 1944 - 20 Nov 1952 Bolesław Tomasz Bierut ............................. s.a

20 Nov 1952 - 07 Aug 1964 Aleksander Zawadzhik ............................... 1899-1964 PZPR

07 Aug 1964 - 11 Apr 1968 Edward Ochab ....................................... s.a

11 Apr 1968 - 23 Dec 1970 Marian Spychalski .................................. 1906-1980 PZPR

23 Dec 1970 - 28 Mar 1972 Józef Adam Zygmunt Cyrankiewicz .................... 1911-1989 PZPR

28 Mar 1972 - 06 Nov 1985 Henryk Jabłoński ................................... 1909-2003 PZPR

06 Nov 1985 - 30 Dec 1989 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski ......................... s.a

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

21 Jul 1944 - 04 Feb 1947 Edward Bolesław Osóbka-Morawski .................... 1909-1997 PZPR

04 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952 Józef Adam Zygmunt Cyrankiewicz (1st Time)

20 Nov 1952 - 19 Mar 1954 Bolesław Tomasz Bierut ............................. s.a

19 Mar 1954 - 23 Dec 1970 Józef Adam Zygmunt Cyrankiewicz (2nd Time)

23 Dec 1970 - 18 Feb 1980 Piortr Jaroszewicz ................................. 1909-1992 PZPR

18 Feb - 24 Aug 1980 Edward Babiuch ..................................... 1927-

24 Aug 1980 - 09 Feb 1981 Józef Pińkowski .................................... 1929-2000 PZPR

09 Feb 1981 - 06 Nov 1985 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski ......................... s.a

06 Nov 1985 - 27 Sep 1988 Zbigniew Messner ................................... 1929-2014 PZPR

27 Sep 1988 - 02 Aug 1989 Mieczysław Franciszek Rakowski ..................... s.a

02 Aug - 24 Aug 1989 Czesław Kiszczak ................................... 1925-2015 PZPR

 

Marshals of the Sejm

01 Jan 1944 - 04 Feb 1947 Boleslaw Bierut .................................... 1892-1956

04 Feb 1947 - 20 Nov 1952 Wladyslaw Kowalski ................................. 1894-1958

20 Nov 1952 - 20 Nov 1956 Jan Bohdan Dembowski ............................... 1889-1963

20 Feb 1957 - 13 Feb 1971 Czeslaw Wycech ..................................... 1899-1977

13 Feb 1971 - 28 Mar 1972 Dyzma Galaj ........................................ 1915-2000

28 Mar 1972 - 06 Nov 1985 Stanislaw Gucwa .................................... 1919-1994

06 Nov 1985 - 04 Jul 1989 Roman Malinowski ................................... 1935-

04 Jul 1989 - 25 Nov 1991 Mikolaj Kozakiewicz ................................ 1923-1998

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Republic of Poland

Government: Republic.

Capital: Waszawa.

Language: Polish, German.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Orthodox.

National Anthem: "Dabrowski's Mazurka" (Poland is not yet lost).

National Emblem: White Eagel.

National Day: Constitution Day, 3rd May (1791).

National Motto: Bóg, Honor, Ojczyna (God, Honour, Fatherland,[unofficial]).

EU Accession: 1st May 2004.

Currency: Zloty.

 

Presidents

30 Dec 1989 - 22 Dec 1990 Wojciech Witold Jaruzelski ......................... 1923-2014

22 Dec 1990 - 23 Dec 1995 Lech Wałęsa ........................................ 1943- NSZZ

23 Dec 1995 - 23 Dec 2005 Aleksander Kwaśniewski ............................. 1954- SLD

23 Dec 2005 - 10 Apr 2010 Lech Aleksander Kaczyński .......................... 1949-2010 PiS

10 Apr 2010 - 06 Aug 2015 Bronisław Maria Komorowski ......................... 1952- PO

(acting to 08 Aug 2010)

06 Aug 2015 - Andrzej Sebastian Duda ............................. 1972- PiS

 

 

Prime Ministers

24 Aug 1989 - 04 Jan 1991 Tadeusz Mazowiecki ................................. 1927-2013 NSZZ

04 Jan - 05 Dec 1991 Jan Krysztof Bielecki .............................. 1951-

05 Dec 1991 - 05 Jun 1992 Jan Ferdynand Olszewski ............................ 1930-

05 Jun - 08 Jul 1992 Waldemar Pawlak (1st Time) ......................... 1959-

08 Jul 1992 - 26 Oct 1993 Hanna Suchocka ..................................... 1946-

26 Oct 1993 - 06 Mar 1995 Waldemar Pawlak (2nd Time)

06 Mar 1995 - 07 Feb 1996 Józef Oleksy ....................................... 1946-2015 SLD

07 Feb 1996 - 31 Oct 1997 Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz ............................ 1950- SLD

31 Oct 1997 - 19 Oct 2001 Jerzy Karol Buzek .................................. 1940- AWSP/NSZZ

19 Oct 2001 - 02 May 2004 Leszek Cezary Miller ............................... 1946- SLD

02 May 2004 - 31 Oct 2005 Marek Belka ........................................ 1953- SLD

31 Oct 2005 - 14 Jul 2006 Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz ............................ 1959- PiS

14 Jul 2006 - 16 Nov 2007 Jarosław Aleksander Kaczyński ...................... 1949- PiS

16 Nov 2007 - 22 Sep 2014 Donald Franciszek Tusk ............................. 1957- PO

22 Sep 2014 - 16 Nov 2015 Ewa Bozena Kopacz .................................. 1956- PO

16 Nov 2015 - Beata Maria Szydło ................................. 1963- PiS

 

Marshals of Sejm

25 Nov 1991 - 14 Oct 1993 Wieslaw Marian Chrzanowski ......................... 1923-2012

14 Oct 1993 - 03 Mar 1995 Józef Oleksy (1st Time) ............................ 1946-2015

03 Mar 1995 - 20 Oct 1997 Józef Zych ......................................... 1938-

20 Oct 1997 - 19 Oct 2001 Maciej Płażyński ................................... 1958-2010

19 Oct 2001 - 21 Apr 2004 Marek Stefan Borowski .............................. 1946-

21 Apr 2004 - 05 Jan 2005 Józef Oleksy (2nd Time)

05 Jan - 25 Oct 2005 Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz ............................ 1950-

26 Oct 2005 - 27 Apr 2007 Marek Jurek ........................................ 1960- PiS

27 Apr - 05 Nov 2007 Ludwik Dorn ........................................ 1954- PiS

05 Nov 2007 - 08 Jul 2010 Bronoslaw Maria Komorowski ......................... s.a PO

08 Jul 2010 - 08 Nov 2011 Grzegorz Juliusz Schetyna .......................... 1963- PO

08 Nov 2011 - 22 Sep 2014 Ewa Bozena Kopacz .................................. s.a PO

22 Sep - 24 Sep 2014 Jerzy Wenderlich ................................... 1954-

(1st Time, acting)

24 Sep 2014 - 23 Jun 2015 Radosław Tadeusz Sikorski .......................... 1963- PO

23 Jun - 25 Jun 2015 Jerzy Wenderlich (2nd Time)

25 Jun - 11 Nov 2015 Małgorzata Maria Kidawa-Błońska .................... 1957- PO

11 Nov 2015 - Marek Tadeusz Kuchciński ........................... 1955- PiS

NSZZ=Niezalezny Samorzadzacy Zwiazek Zadowy (Solidarity, Conservative)

PiS=Prawo i Sprawiedliwosc (Law and Jusice party, conservative, eurosceptic)

PSL=Polskie Stronnicto Ludowe (Polish peasants party, agrarian, conservative)

PO=Platforma Obywatelska (Civic Platform, Liberal, Centrist)

PZPR=Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza (Polish united workers party, Communist

SLD=Sojusz Lewicy Demokratcynej (Democratic Left, Socialist)

 

 

 

________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Komancza Republic

04 Nov 1918 35 ethnic Lemko villages declare union with Western Ukraine,

retrospectively called the Komancza (Koman'cha) Republic

24 Jan 1919 Area occupied and incorporated into Poland

 

Chairman of the County Assembly

04 Nov 1918 - 23 Jan 1919 Pantelejmon Shpylka ................................ 1883-1950

________________________________________________________________________________________

 

Lemko-Rusyn

05 Dec 1918 Lemko-Rusyn Republic established in Florynka,

restrospectivley refered to as Ruthenian Republic of the Lemkos

20 Apr 1919 The Lemkos favour annexation to Czechoslovakia

12 Mar 1920 Incorporated in to Poland

Chairman of the Lemko Supreme Council

05 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1920 Mykhaylo Osypovych Yurchakevych .................... 1869-af.1939

Chairman of the Rusyn Assembly

05 Dec 1918 - 12 Mar 1920 Iaroslav Teofilovych Kachmarchyk ................... 1885-1944

________________________________________________________________________________________

Ermland (Warmia)

1243 - 1772 Bishopic of Ermland

1251 Sovereignty under The Holy Roman Empire

06 Mar 1454 To Poland

26 Sep 1629 - 12 Sep 1635 Ceded to Sweden

13 Sep 1772 Annexed to Prussia

1812 - 1813 Occupied by France

1870 - 02 Apr 1945 Part of Germany

02 Apr 1945 To Poland

Prince-Bishops

1680 - 1688 Augustyn Michał Stefan Radziejowski

1688 - 1698 Jan Stanisław Zbąski

06 Jun 1698 - 01 May 1711 Andrzej Chryzostom Zaluski

01 May - 16 Nov 1711 Stefan Wierzbowski

16 Nov 1711 - 09 Jan 1723 Teodor Andrzej Potocki

09 Jan 1723 - 14 Feb 1724 Jan Franciszek Kurdwanowski

14 Feb 1724 - 16 Mar 1740 Krzysztof Andrzej Jan Szembek

16 Mar 1741 - 14 Apr 1741 Michal Remigiusz Laszewski

14 Apr 1741 - 15 Dec 1766 Adam Stanislaw Grabowski

15 Dec 1766 - 13 Sep 1772 Ignacy Blazej Franciszek Krasicki

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©2005