South Africa

07 Apr 1652 - 16 Sep 1795 Dutch Cape colony

05 Mar 1797 - 21 Feb 1803 Cape colony a British colony

21 Feb 1803 - 10 Jan 1806 Dutch Colony

10 Jan 1806 - 31 May 1910 Cape a British colony, ceded to Britain in 1814

06 Jun 1837 - 12 May 1843 Natal Republic

12 May 1843 Natal annexed by Great Britain

17 Jan 1852 Britain recognises Boer independence east of the Vaal river

21 Sep 1853 - 12 Apr 1877 South-African Republic (Boer)

23 Feb 1854 - 31 May 1902 Orange Free State (Boer)

08 Aug 1881 - 31 May 1902 Transvaal Republic (Boer)

16 Dec 1880 - 23 Mar 1881 First Anglo-Boer war

11 Oct 1899 - 31 May 1902 Second Anglo-Boer War

31 May 1902 Boer resistance ceases with the Treaty of Vereeniging

31 May 1910 - 31 May 1961 Union of South Africa

09 Jul 1915 - 21 Mar 1990 German Southeast Africa (Namibia from 1970) annexed

11 Dec 1931 Full sovereignty granted by UK

04 Jun 1948 - 11 Feb 1990 Apartheid Era

31 May 1961 Republic of South Africa

1976 - 26 Apr 1994 Four Black Homelands independant (recognised only by South Africa)

21 Mar 1990 Independence of Namibia

27 Apr 1994 End of White minority rule

27 Apr 1994 Walvis Bay ceded to Namibia

South African Republic (Transvaal)

1848 Establishment of the United Band

17 Jan 1852 - 1853 Holland-African Republic

21 Sep 1853 - 1855 South-African Republic

12 Apr 1877 - 1883 British colony

1880 - 1881 1st Anglo-Boer war

08 Aug 1881 Self-rule under British suzraignty

1883 - 1902 South-African Republic (restored

08 Aug 1884 Transvaal independent as the South African Republic

1899 - 1902 2nd Anglo-Boar war

31 May 1902 British colony

31 May 1910 Part of South Africa

1914 - 1915 Maritz rebellion

Commandants at Magaliesberg

22 Dec 1838 - Jun 1845 Andries Hendrik Potgieter ......................... 1792-1852

Jun 1845 - 20 Jun 1848 Gert Kruger ....................................... 1802-1872

Commandants-General

20 Jun 1848 - 20 Sep 1849 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (1st Time) .... 1798-1853

20 Sep 1849 - 16 Oct 1850 Post Abolished

16 Oct 1850 - 15 Jan 1851 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius (2nd Time)

- Lijdenburg -

15 Jan 1851 - 17 Dec 1856 Willem François Joubert ........................... 1801-1891

- Zoutpansberg -

15 Jan 1851 - 16 Dec 1852 Andries Hendrik Potgieter ......................... s.a

16 Dec 1852 - 06 Nov 1854 Pieter Johannes Potgieter ......................... 1822-1854

06 Nov 1854 - 18 Feb 1858 Stephanus Schoeman ................................ 1810-1890

- Marico -

15 Jan 1851 - Apr 1852 Johan Adam Enslin ................................. 1800-1852

- Potchefstroom-Rustenburg -

15 Jan 1851 - 23 Jul 1853 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius ............... s.a

09 Aug 1853 - 06 Jan 1857 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius ........................ 1819-1901

Chairmen of the Volksraad

23 May - 25 May 1849 Andries Wilhelmus Jacobus Pretorius ............... s.a

19 Sep 1849 Jacob de Clercq

06 Dec - 12 Dec 1849 Pieter Ernst Kruger (1st Time)

22 Jan - 30 Jan 1850 Willem C. Swart

26 May - 24 Aug 1850 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (1st Time) .............. 1804-1864

10 Sep 1850 - 15 Feb 1851 Cornelis D. Potgieter (1st Time)

05 May 1851 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (2nd Time)

09 May 1851 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (3rd Time)

11 Jun 1851 Johannes N. Hendrik Grobler

05 Jul 1851 Johannes Christoffel Steyn

01 Sep - 03 Sep 1851 Cornelis D. Potgieter (2nd Time)

27 Nov - 29 Nov 1851 Willem Hendrik Jacobszoon (4th Time)

12 Feb 1852 Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo (1st Time)

14 Feb 1852 Pieter Ernst Kruger (2nd Time)

17 May - 06 May 1852 Cornelis D. Potgieter (3rd Time)

06 May 1852 Andreas Theodorus Spies ........................... 1800-1889

07 May 1852 C. Viljoen

15 Jun - 12 Jul 1852 Cornelis D. Potgieter (4th Time)

04 Oct 1852 Joachim Johannes Petrus Prinsloo (2nd Time)

04 Oct 1852 - 05 Jul 1855 Cornelis D. Potgieter (5th Time)

10 Sep - 18 Sep 1855 Hercules Albertus Pretorius ....................... 1803-1889

05 Nov - 20 Nov 1855 Johannes Hermanus Grobler (1st Time) .............. 1813-1892

27 Nov 1855 Cornelis D. Potgieter (6th Time)

04 Mar - 11 Mar 1856 Johannes Hermanus Grobler (2nd Time)

11 Mar 1856 Hendrik Teodor Bührmann ........................... 1822-1890

27 May - 30 May 1856 Cornelis D. Potgieter (7th Time)

05 Jan - 06 Jan 1857 Johannes Pieter Furstenberg

State Presidents

06 Jan 1857 - 15 Sep 1860 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (1st Time)

15 Sep - 06 Dec 1860 Johannes Hermanus Grobler

06 Dec 1860 - 17 Apr 1862 Stephanus Schoeman

18 Apr 1862 - 10 May 1864 Willem Cornelis Janse van Renseburg ............... 1818-1865

10 May 1864 - 21 Nov 1871 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (2nd Time)

21 Nov 1871 - 01 Jul 1872 Daniel Jacobus Erasmus van Straten ................ 1830-1913

01 Jul 1872 - 12 Apr 1877 Thomas François Burgers ........................... 1834-1881

12 Apr 1877 - 08 Aug 1881 British occupation

08 Aug 1881 - 31 May 1902 Stephanus Johannes Paulus Kruger .................. 1825-1904

(in exile in Switzerland from 10 Sep 1900)

10 Sep 1900 - 31 May 1902 Schalk Willem Burger .............................. 1852-1918

(acting for Kruger)

Leaders of the Republic of South Africa (in rebellion)

15 Sep 1914 - 04 Feb 1915 Manie Salmon Gerhardus Maritz ..................... 1876-1940

- Christian Rudolf de Wet ........................... 1854-1922

Prime Minister

04 Feb 1907 - 31 May 1910 Louis Botha ....................................... 1862-1919

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South Africa 1910-1994

31 May 1910 - 31 May 1961 Union of South Africa

11 Dec 1931 Statute of Westminster grants full sovereignty

04 Jun 1948 - 11 Feb 1990 Aparteid Era

31 May 1961 Republic of South Africa

10 May 1994 End of white minority rule

Capital: Pretoria.

Language: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa.

Religion: Roman Catholic, Methodist, Dutch Reformed Church, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Die Stem van Suid Afrika" (The Call of South Africa).

National Motto: Ex Unitate Vires (From Unity, Strength).

National Day: National day, 31 May (1910).

Currency: South African Rand.

Governors-General

31 May 1910 - 08 Sep 1914 Herbert John Gladstone,

Viscount Newtimber ............................... 1854-1930

11 Jul - 02 Sep 1914 Johan Henry de Villers,

Baron de Villers

(acting for Viscount Newtimber)

02 Sep - 08 Sep 1914 Sir James Rose-Innes .............................. 1855-1942

(acting for Viscount Newtimber)

08 Sep 1914 - 17 Nov 1920 Sydney Charles Buxton,

Earl of Buxton ................................... 1853-1934

17 Nov 1920 - 07 Dec 1923 Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert,

Prince of Conaught ............................... 1883-1938

07 Dec 1923 - 21 Jan 1924 Sir James Rose-Innes .............................. s.a

(acting for Prince Arthur)

21 Jan 1924 - 26 Jan 1931 Augustus Alexander George Cambridge

Earl of Athlone .................................. 1874-1957

26 Jan 1931 - 05 Apr 1937 George Herbert Hyde Villiers,

Earl of Clarendon ................................ 1877-1955

05 Apr 1937 - 17 Jul 1943 Sir Patrick Duncan ................................ 1870-1943

17 Jul 1943 - 31 Dec 1945 Nicolaas Jacobs de Wet ............................ 1873-1960

01 Jan 1946 - 31 Dec 1950 Gideon Brand van Zyl .............................. 1873-1956

01 Dec 1951 - 11 Dec 1959 Ernest George Jansen .............................. 1881-1959

11 Dec 1959 - 31 May 1961 Charles Robert Swart .............................. 1894-1982

State Presidents

31 May 1961 - 01 Jun 1967 Charles Robert Swart .............................. 1894-1982

01 Jun - 06 Dec 1967 Theophilus Ebenhaezer Dönges ...................... 1898-1968

(Did not take office)

01 Jun 1967 - 10 Apr 1968 Jozua François Naudé .............................. 1889-1969

(acting)

10 Apr 1968 - 09 Apr 1975 Jacobus Johannes Fouché ........................... 1898-1980

09 Apr - 19 Apr 1975 Johannes de Klerk ................................. 1903-1979

(acting)

19 Apr 1975 - 21 Aug 1978 Nicolaas Johannes Diederichs ...................... 1903-1978

14 Aug - 10 Oct 1978 Marais Viljoen .................................... 1915-2007

(1st Time, acting)

10 Oct 1978 - 04 Jun 1979 Balthazar Johannes Vorster ........................ 1915-1983

04 Jun 1979 - 03 Sep 1984 Marais Viljoen

(2nd Time)

03 Sep 1984 - 15 Aug 1989 Pieter Willem Botha ............................... 1916-2006

19 Jan - 15 Mar 1989 Jan Christian Heunis .............................. 1927-2006

(acting)

15 Aug 1989 - 10 May 1994 Frederik Willem de Klerk .......................... 1936-

Prime Ministers

31 May 1910 - 27 Aug 1919 Louis Botha ....................................... 1862-1919

27 Aug 1919 - 30 Jun 1924 Jan Christiaan Smuts .............................. 1870-1950

(1st Time)

30 Jun 1924 - 05 Sep 1939 James Barry Munnik Hertzog ........................ 1866-1942

05 Sep 1939 - 04 Jun 1948 Jan Christiaan Smuts (2nd Time)

04 Jun 1948 - 30 Nov 1954 Daniël François Malan ............................. 1874-1959

01 Dec 1954 - 24 Aug 1958 Johannes Gerhards Strijdom ........................ 1893-1958

02 Sep 1958 - 06 Sep 1966 Hendrik Frensch Verwoed ........................... 1901-1966

13 Sep 1966 - 28 Sep 1978 Balthazar Johannes Vorster ........................ s.a

28 Sep 1978 - 14 Sep 1984 Pieter Willem Botha ............................... s.a

Chairmen of the Minister's Council

- House of the Assembly (Afrikana) -

14 Sep - Dec 1984 Sarel Hayward ..................................... 1924-1999

(1st Time, acting)

Dec 1984 - Apr 1985 Cornelius van der Merwe ........................... 1921-1985

Apr - Jul 1985 Sarel Hayward (2nd Time)

Jul 1985 - Sep 1989 Frederik Willem de Klerk

Sep 1989 - Dec 1991 Jacobus Coetsee ................................... 1931-2000

Jan 1992 - Mar 1993 Magnus André de Merindol Mala ..................... 1930-2011

Mar 1993 - Mar 1994 Adriaan Johannes Vlok ............................. 1937-

- House of Representatives (coloured) -

14 Sep 1984 - Feb 1992 Helenand Hendrickse ............................... 1927-2005

Feb 1994 - Mar 1994 Jakobus A. Rabie .................................. 1938-2008

- House od Delegates (Indian) -

14 Sep 1984 - Jan 1989 Amichand Rajbansi ................................. 1942-2011

Jan - Mar 1989 Kassipershad Ramduth .............................. 1921-2001

(acting)

Mar 1989 - Feb 1992 Jayaram N. Reddy .................................. 1925-

Feb 1992 - 31 Mar 1994 Bhadra Ranchod .................................... 1944-

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South Africa

Capital: Pretoria

Language: Afrikaans, English, Zulu, Xhosa, Tswana, Sotho, Ndebele, Swazi, Tsonga

Religion: Zion Christian, Roman Catholic, Methodist, Dutch Reformed Church, Islam, Jewish

National Anthem: "National Anthem of South Africa"

National Motto: !ke e: Ixarra Ilke (Unity in Diversity)

National Day: Election day, 27 April (1994)

Currency: Rand

Presidents

10 May 1994 - 16 Jun 1999 Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ......................... 1918-2013 ANC

16 Jun 1999 - 25 Sep 2008 Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki .............................. 1942- ANC

25 Sep 2008 Ivy Matsepe-Casaburri ............................. 1937-2009 ANC

(acting)

25 Sep 2008 - 09 May 2009 Petrus Kgalema Motlanthe .......................... 1949- ANC

09 May 2009 - Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma ......................... 1942- ANC

 

 

ANC=African National Congress, Left-wing nationalism, social democratic, anti-Aparteid.

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kwaZulu

Kwa Zulu Kingdom

1879 British occupation

1887-1897 British Crown Colony

1897 Incorporated into Natal

 

Kings

Mnguni

Nkosinkulu

Mdlani

Luzumana

Mandela kaLuzumana

Ntombhela kaMalandela

1709-1715 Zulu kaNtombhele

1715-1720 Gumede kaZulu

1720-1727 Phunga kaGumede

1727-1745 Mageba kaPhunga

1745-1763 Ndaba kaMageba

1763-1781 Jama kaNdaba

1781-1816 Senzangakhona KaJama

1816 - 23 Sep 1828 Shaka kaSenzangakhona ............................. 1787-1828

Nov 1828 - 29 Jan 1840 Dingane kaSenzangakhona ........................... 1795-1840

10 Feb 1840 - 18 Oct 1872 Mpande kaSenzangkhona ............................. 1798-1872

18 Oct 1872 - 28 Aug 1879 Cetshwayo Ka Mpande (1st Time) .................... 1832-1884

28 Aug 1879 - 29 Jan 1883 Thirteen Chiefs

- John Robert Dunn

- Hlubi

- Faku

- Gawuzi

- Mfanawendlela

- Mgitshwa

- Mlandela

- Mqonjama

- Ntshingiswao

- Sekethwayo

- Somkhele

- Uhamu ka Mpande

- Zibhebhu ka Mapitha

29 Jan 1883 - 08 Feb 1884 Cetshwayo Ka Mpande (2nd Time)

21 May 1884 - 18 Oct 1913 Dinizulu kaCetshwayo .............................. 1868-1913

(not recognised by South Africa)

01 Nov 1913 - 04 Mar 1933 Salamoni Nkashiyana Maphumuzana

ka Dinizulu ...................................... 1891-1913

02 Apr 1933 - 27 Aug 1948 Arthur Edward Mshiyeni Zulu

Ka Dinuzulu ...................................... 1897-1953

(acting)

27 Aug 1948 - 17 Sep 1968 Cyprian Bhekuzulu ka Nyangayezizwe

ka Nkashiyana Solomon ............................ 1925-1968

Nov 1968 - 03 Dec 1971 Israel Mcwayizeni Zulu ka Nkashiyana .............. 1931-1999

(acting)

03 Dec 1971 - Goodwill Zwelethini ka Bhekuzulu .................. 1948-

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Xhosa

amaGcaleka

Paramount Chiefs

1695-1697 Ngconde a Togu

1697-1702 Tshiwo a Ngconde

1702-1736 Mdange a Ngconde

1736-1775 Phalo a Tshiwo

1775-1791 Gcaleka a Phalo

1791-1804 Khawuta a Gcaleka

1804-1820 Nqoko a Gcaleka

1820 - 12 May 1835 Hintsa a Khawatu

19 May 1835 - Feb 1893 Sarhili a Hitsa

Feb 1893 - 1902 Sigcawu a Sarhili

1902 - 30 May 1921 Salukaphathwa Gwebinkumbi a Sigcawu

01 Aug 1921 - 31 Dec 1923 Daliza a Sigcawu .................................. 18..-1921

01 Jan 1924 - 02 Jun 1933 Mpisekhaya Ngangomhlaba

Sigcawu a Gwebinkumbi ............................ 18..-1933

02 Jun 1933 - 09 Apr 1965 Bungeni Zwelidumile Sigcawu

a Gwebinkumbi ..................................... 1906-1965

09 Apr 1965 - 30 Dec 2005 Xolilizwe Mzikayise Sigcawu ....................... 1926-2005

27 Jan 2006 - Zwelonke Sigcawu .................................. 1968-

 

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amaMbalu

Chiefs

1740 - 1794 Ulanga a Phalo

1794 - 01 Apr 1846 Ngqeno a Ulanga

01 Apr 1846 - 18.. Stockwe a Ngqeno

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amaGqunukhwebe

Chiefs

17.. - 1793 Tshaka a Tyakha

1793 - 07 Jan 1812 Cungwa a Tshaka

07 Jan 1812 - 01 Oct 1869 Phatho a Cungwa

01 Oct 1869 - 14 Aug 1875 Kama a Cungwa

14 Aug 1875 - 1899 William Shaw a Kama

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