1850 - 1170 BC Latakia Kingdom

865 - 1035 Alawite Emirate

02 Sep 1920 Alawite Territory

01 Jan 1925 Alawite State

22 Sep 1930 State of Latakia

05 Dec 1936 To Syria thereafter

Monarchs

1850-1825 Niqmaddu I

1825-1800 Yaqarum I

1600-.... Ibiranu I

1390-1360 Ammishtamru I

1360-1330 Niqmaddu II

1330-1324 Arhalbu

1324-1274 Niqmepa

1274-1240 Ammishtamru II

1240-1230 Ibiranu II

1230-1225 Niqmaddu III

1225-1180 Ammurapi

1180-1170 Yaqurum II

Emires

865 - 880 Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Namiri

880 - 890 Muhammad ibn Djundab

890 - 900 Abu Muhammad Abdullah al-Djunbulani

900 - 957 Abu Abdullah al-Hussein ibn Hamdan al-Khasibi

957 - 994 Muhammad ibn Ali al-Djilli

994 - 1035 Surur ibn al-Qasim al-Tabarani

Governors

03 Nov 1918 - 1919 .... Minault

1919 - 20 Sep 1920 .... de la Roche

20 Sep 1920 - 20 Sep 1921 Marie Joseph Émile Niéger .................... 1874-1951

20 Sep 1921 - 17 Nov 1922 Gaston Henri Gustave Billotte ................ 1875-1940

17 Nov - 31 Dec 1922 .... Desclaux

01 Jan 1923 - Sep 1925 Léon Henri Charles Cayla ..................... 1881-1965

01 Jan 1925 - 05 Dec 1936 Ernest Marie Hubert Schoeffler ............... 1877-1952

05 Dec 1936 - 01 Oct 1938 Eugène Paul Aimé Joseph Cahour ............... 1886-1954

01 Oct 1938 - 07 Dec 1939 Pierre Bart

07 Dec 1939 - 10 Dec 1940 .... Malartre

10 Dec 1940 - 27 Oct 1941 Jean Janvier Vital Jourdan

27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey ........................ 1892-1964

25 Oct 1942 - 1945 .... des Essars

1945 .... Bonnot

__________________________________________________________________________________

Damascus

. Home .

Suriya

3300-1200 Part of Egyptian Empire

724-612 Assyrian Empire

612-539 Part of Babylonian Empire

539-332 Part of Persia

332-319 Annexed by Makedonia

319-301 Antigonid Kingdom

301-198 Part of Egyptian Empire

198-63 Part od Seleucid Empire

64 BC - 261 AD Annexed by Roman Empire

261-271 Part of Palmyria

271-395 Part of Roman Empire

395-529 Part of Byzantine Empire

529-638 Kingdom of Ghassan

638 Arab conquest begins

1076 - 1154 Kingdom of the Seljuks

1154 - 1261 To Egypt

1260 - 1261 Mongol occupation

1261 - 1521 Egyptian control restored

1275 - 1521 Emirate of Damamscus

23 Aug 1516 - 14 Jun 1832 To Ottoman Empire

14 Jun 1832 - 10 Oct 1840 Annexed by Egypt

10 Oct 1840 - 30 Sep 1918 Part of Ottoman Empire

30 Sep 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Independence, Kingdom of Greater Syria

25 Oct 1918 French occupation beguins

28 Jul 1920 - 29 Sep 1923 French Syria

29 Sep 1923 - 31 Dec 1943 League of Nations Mandate under France

28 Jun 1922 - 31 Dec 1924 Union of Syrian States

1936 Independence declared (Not recognised)

23 Jul 1939 Antioch annexed by Turkey (Not recognised by Syria)

19 Jul 1939 - 16 Sep 1941 State of Syria

16 Sep 1941 - 28 Sep 1961 Syrian Republic

01 Jan 1944 - 22 Feb 1958 Syrian Arab Republic

17 Apr 1946 Independence recognised by France

22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961 Part of the United Arab Republic

28 Sep 1961 Syrian Arab Republic

10 Jun 1967 - Golan Heights under Israeli occupation,

annexed 14 Dec 1981 (Not recognised)

01 Jan 1972 - 11 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics

15 Mar 2011 - Civil War

Assyria

Kings of Assyria

1380-1353 Eriba Adad

1353-1317 Ashur Uballit

1317-1307 Enlil Nirari

1307-1295 Arik

1295-1263 Adad Nirari

1263-1233 Shalmaneser

1233-1196 Tukulti Ninura

1196-1193 Ashur-nadin-apli

1193-1187 Ashur-nirari III

1187-1182 Enlil Kudurri-usur

1182-1179 Ninurta-Tukulti Ashur

873-810 Benhadad I

810 Hazael

810-791 Benhadad II

740-730 Rezin

__________________________________________________________________________________

Greater Syria

Heads of States

30 Sep - 01 Oct 1918 Muhammad Said al-Jazairi ..................... 1872-19..

01 Oct - 05 Oct 1918 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi ..................... 1864-1943

King of Greater Syria

05 Oct 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim, Faisal I ............................. 1885-1933

Heads of State

28 Jul - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Basha ................... 18..-1920

21 Aug - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi ............................... 1883-1951

 

Prime Ministers

01 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1919 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (1st Time) .......... s.a

14 Dec - 30 Dec 1919 Abdul Hamad Pasha

30 Dec 1919 - May 1920 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (2nd Time)

May - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim al-Khalid al-Atassi ................... 1875-1939

28 Jul - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha ................... s.a

21 Aug - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi ............................... s.a

__________________________________________________________________________________

State of Syria (French Mandate of Syria)

French High Commissioner for Syria and Cilicia

Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919 François Georges Picot ....................... 1970-1951

High Commissioners of French-mandated Syria and Lebanon

21 Nov 1919 - 23 Nov 1922 Henri-Joseph-Eugène Gouraud .................. 1867-1946

23 Nov 1922 - 17 Apr 1923 Robert de Caix ............................... 1869-1970

(acting)

17 Apr 1923 - 29 Nov 1924 Maxime Weygand ............................... 1867-1965

29 Nov 1924 - 23 Dec 1925 Maurice Paul Emmanuel Sarrail ................ 1856-1929

23 Dec 1925 - 23 Jun 1926 Baron Henry de Jouvenel des Ursins ........... 1876-1935

Aug 1926 - Jul 1933 Auguste-Henri Ponsot ......................... 1877-1963

16 Jul 1933 - Jan 1939 Damien de Martel, comte de Martel ............ 1878-1940

Jan 1939 - 24 Nov 1940 Gabriel Puaux ................................ 1883-1970

24 Nov - 27 Nov 1940 Jean Chiappe ................................. 1878-1940

(did not take office)

06 Dec 1940 - 14 Jun 1941 Henri-Fernand Dentz .......................... 1881-1945

Delegates-general

24 Jun 1941 - 07 Jun 1943 Georges-Albert-Julien Catroux ................ 1877-1969

07 Jun - 23 Nov 1943 Jean Helleu .................................. 1885-1955

23 Nov 1943 - 23 Jan 1944 Yves Chataigneau ............................. 1891-1961

23 Jan 1944 - 15 Apr 1946 Étienne-Paul-Émile-Marie Beynet .............. 1883-1969

 

 

Heads of State

28 Jun 1922 - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakay al-Khalidi ................. 1883-1939

28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay ............ 1873-1962

15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani .................. 1885-1943

19 Nov 1931 - 11 Jun 1932 Leon Solomiac

Presidents

11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936 Muhammad Ali Bay al-Abid ..................... 1868-1939

21 Dec 1936 - 07 Jul 1939 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st Time) ........... 1875-1960

10 Jul 1939 - 04 Apr 1941 Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib ....................... 1895-1981

16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani

17 Jan - 25 Mar 1943 Jamil al-Ulshi

(acting)

25 Mar - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi ............................ 1877-1951

17 Aug 1943 - 17 Apr 1946 Shukri al-Kuwatli ............................ 1891-1967

 

 

Prime Ministers

01 Jan - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi ................. s.a

21 Dec 1925 - 06 Jan 1926 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (1st Time) ....... s.a

27 Apr 1926 - 09 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay ............ s.a

15 Apr 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (2nd Time)

07 Jun 1932 - 16 Mar 1934 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955

16 Mar 1934 - 22 Feb 1936 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (3rd Time)

22 Feb - 21 Dec 1936 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (1st Time)

21 Dec 1936 - 18 Feb 1939 Jamil Mardam Bay ............................. 1893-1960

18 Feb - 13 Mar 1939 Lutfi al-Haffar .............................. 1885-1968

06 Apr - 09 Jul 1939 Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari

04 Apr - 21 Sep 1941 Khalid al-Azm (1st Time)

21 Sep 1941 - 19 Apr 1942 Hassan al-Hakim .............................. 1886-1988

25 Mar - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (2nd Time)

19 Apr 1942 - 10 Jan 1943 Husni al-Barazi (1st Time) ................... 1893-1949

17 Aug 1943 - 31 Oct 1944 Saadallah al-Jabiri (1st Time) ............... 1893-1947

14 Oct 1944 - 01 Oct 1945 Faris al-Khuri (1st Time) .................... 1879-1962

__________________________________________________________________________________

Syrian Republic

Presidents

17 Apr 1946 - 30 Mar 1949 Shukri al-Kuwatli ............................ s.a

30 Mar - 14 Aug 1949 Husni az-Zaim ................................ 1897-1949

15 Aug 1949 - 02 Dec 1951 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st Time) ........... s.a

03 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953 Fawsi as-Silu ................................ 1905-1972

11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954 Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli ..................... 1909-1964

26 Feb - 28 Feb 1954 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ 1914-1998

28 Feb 1954 - 06 Sep 1955 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd Time)

06 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958 Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd Time)

 

Prime Ministers

01 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946 Saadallah al-Jabiri .......................... s.a

16 Dec 1946 - 17 Dec 1948 Jamil Mardan Bay ............................. s.a

17 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 Khalid al-Azm (2nd Time)

17 Apr - 26 Jun 1949 Husni al-Barazi (2nd Time)

26 Jun - 14 Aug 1949 Muhsin al-Bazazi ............................. 1904-1949

24 Dec - 27 Dec 1949 Nazim al-Kudsi (1st Time) .................... s.a

27 Dec 1949 - 04 Jun 1950 Khalid al-Azm (3rd Time)

04 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951 Nazim al-Kudsi (2nd Time)

27 Mar - 09 Aug 1951 Khalid al-Azm (4th Time)

09 Aug - 13 Nov 1951 Hassan al-Hakim .............................. s.a

13 Nov - 28 Nov 1951 Zaki al-Khatib ............................... 1887-1961

28 Nov - 29 Nov 1951 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (1st Time) ................. 1907-2004

03 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953 Fawzi as-Silu ................................ s.a

19 Jul 1953 - 01 Mar 1954 Adib ash-Shishakli ........................... s.a

01 Mar - 18 Jun 1954 Sabri al-Assali (1st Time) ................... 1903-1976

18 Jun - 03 Nov 1954 Said al-Ghazzi (1st Time) .................... 1893-1967

03 Nov 1954 - 13 Feb 1955 Faris al-Khuri (2nd Time)

13 Feb - 13 Sep 1955 Sabri al-Assali (2nd Time)

13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956 Said al-Ghazzi (2nd Time)

14 Jun 1956 - 06 Mar 1958 Sabri al-Assali (3rd Time)

__________________________________________________________________________________

Syrian Arab Republic

Presidents

28 Sep - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ s.a

(acting)

20 Nov - 14 Dec 1961 Izzat an-Nuss ................................ 1900-1972

(acting)

14 Dec 1961 - 08 Mar 1963 Nazim al-Kudsi ............................... 1906-1998

09 Mar - 27 Jul 1963 Louai ai-Atassi .............................. 1926-2003 B

27 Jul 1963 - 23 Feb 1966 Muhammad Amin al-Hafez ....................... 1911-2009 B

23 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970 Nureddin Muhammad Mustafa al-Atassi .......... 1929-1992 B

18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971 Sayyid Ahmedal-Hasan al-Khatib ............... 1933- B

22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad ......... 1930-2000 B

10 Jun - 17 Jul 2000 Abdul-Halim Khaddam .......................... 1932- B

(acting)

17 Jul 2000 - Bashar Hafez al-Assad ........................ 1965- B

 

 

Prime Ministers

28 Sep - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ 1914-1998

20 Nov - 14 Dec 1961 Izzat an-Nuss ................................ 1900-1972

14 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (2nd Time)

16 Apr - 14 Sep 1962 Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah ........................ 1910-1992

17 Sep 1962 - 09 Mar 1963 Khalid al-Azm (5th Time)

09 Mar - 12 Nov 1963 Salah ad-Din al-Bitar ........................ 1912-1980 B

12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (1st Time) ............ 1921-2009 B

13 May - 04 Oct 1964 Salah ad-Din Bitar (2nd Time)

04 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (2nd Time)

23 Sep - 31 Dec 1965 Yusuf Zuaiyin (1st Time) ..................... 1931-2015 B

01 Jan - 23 Feb 1966 Salah ad-Din Bitar (3rd Time)

25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968 Yusuf Zuaiyin (2nd Time)

29 Oct 1968 - 21 Nov 1970 Nureddin Mustafa al-Atassi ................... s.a B

21 Nov 1970 - 03 Apr 1971 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad B

03 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (1st Time) ............ 1930- B

21 Dec 1972 - 07 Aug 1976 Mahmoud al-Ayyubi ............................ 1932- B

07 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (2nd Time)

27 Mar 1978 - 09 Jan 1980 Muhammad Ali al-Halabi ....................... 1937- B

09 Jan 1980 - 01 Nov 1987 Abdul Rauf al-Kasm ........................... 1932- B

01 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000 Mahmoud Zuabi ................................ 1938-2000 B

13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003 Muhammad Mustafa Mero ........................ 1941- B

10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011 Muhammad Naji al-Otari ....................... 1944- B

14 Apr 2011 - 23 Jun 2012 Adel Safar ................................... 1953- B

23 Jun - 06 Aug 2012 Riyad Farid Hajib ............................ 1966- B

06 Aug - 09 Aug 2012 Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji ...................... 1954- B

(acting)

09 Aug 2012 - 03 Jul 2016 Wael al-Halki ................................ 1964- B

03 Jul 2016 - Imad Muhammed Deeb Khamis .................... 1961- B

 

____________________________________________________________________________________

Syrian National Council (in opposition)

 

 

President of the Syrian National Council (in Istanbul, Turkey)

02 Oct 2011 - 10 Jun 2012 Burhan Ghalioun

10 Jun - 09 Nov 2012 Abdul Baset Saida

Presidents National Coalition for the Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

11 Nov 2012 - 22 Apr 2013 Ahmad Mouaz Al-Khatib Al-Hasani .............. 1960-

22 Apr - 06 Jul 2013 George Sabra ................................. 1947-

06 Jul 2013 - 09 Jul 2014 Ahmad al-Jarba ............................... 1969-

09 Jul 2014 - 05 Jan 2015 Hadi al-Bahra ................................ 1959-

05 Jan 2015 - 05 Mar 2016 Khaled Khoja ................................. 1965-

05 Mar 2016 - 06 May 2017 Anas al-Abdan ................................ 1967-

06 May 2017 - Riad Seif .................................... 1946-

 

Prime Ministers

19 Mar - 08 Jul 2013 Ghassan Hitto ................................ 1963-

14 Sep 2013 - 16 May 2016 Ahmad Saleh Touma ............................ 1965-

16 May 2016 - Jawad Abu Hatab .............................. 1962-

___________________________________________________________________________________

Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava)

 

19 Jul 2012 - Kurdish rebels fighting both the Syrian army,

Free Syrian Army and Islamic militants, begin

the capture of Kurdish inhabited territory in Northern Syria

01 Aug 2012 Syria-Turkey border areas transferred to Kurdish control

by the Syrian military

12 Nov 2013 Interim self-administration of Western Kurdistan

29 Jan 2014 Cantons of Jazira, Kobane and Efrin formed (not recognised)

17 Mar 2016 - Federal Democratic Rojava-North Syria (not recognised)

 

Government: Federation.

Capital: Qamishlo (Qamishli/Bet Zalin)

Language: Kurdish, Syriac Aramaic, Arabic

Religion: Islam, Christian, Yazidi.

Demographics: Kurd, Arab, Assyrian, Turkomen, Armenian, Yazidi.

National Anthem:

National Motto:

Currency: Syrian Pound

Chairman of the Democratic Union Party

2010 - Salih Muslim Muhammad ........................ 1951- PYD

+ Asya Abdullah .

co-Presidents

Mar 2016 - Hediya Yousef ................................ 1954-

Mar 2016 - Mansur Selum

 

President of Cîzirê/Jazira Canton

21 Jan 2014 - Akram Hesso .................................. 1973- PYD

President of Kobanê/Ayn al-Arab Canton

27 Jan 2014 - Enver Muslim PYD

President of Efrîn/Afrin Canton

29 Jan 2014 - Hevi Ibrahim Mustefa ......................... 1951- PYD

 

 

PYD=Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat (Democratic Union Party, Kurdish nationalism, socialism)

__________________________________________________________________________________

Alawite Territory (Latakia)

Aleppo

1800 BC - 1400 AD Kingdom of Yamkhand

1400 - 1200 To the Hittites

1200 - 900 To Aramaeanes

900 - 609 To Assyria

945 - 1260 Emirate of Aleppo

1260 To Egypt

1516 To Ottoman Empire

Oct 1918 - 30 Nov 1920 Part of Syria

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Aleppo

28 Jun 1922 To Syria thereafter

19 Jul 2012 - 22 Dec 2016 City and surrounding area under control of rebel,

Kurdish and Islamic State forces

Monarchs

1800 - .... Yarimlim I

.... - .... Hammurabi I

.... - .... Abbael I

.... - .... Yarimlim II

.... - .... Niqmiepu I

.... - .... Irkabtum

.... - .... Hammurabi I

.... - .... Yarimlim III

.... - .... Abbael II

.... - .... Ilimilimma I

1550 - .... Idrimi I

.... - .... Niqmiepu II

.... - .... Ilimilimma II

1300 - 1330 Telipinu

1330 - .... Talmi-Sharruma

120. - .... Rimisharina

Emires of Aleppo

945 - 09 Feb 967 Hamdanid, Saif ud-Dawlah Ali

09 Feb 967 - Dec 991 Hamdanid, S'ad ud-Dawlah Sharif

991 - 1002 Hamdanid,Sa'id ud-Dawlah Sa'id

1002 - 1004 Hamdanid, Abu'l-Hassan Ali II

1004 Hamdanid, Abu l-Ma'ali Sharif II

1004 - 1009 Fatmid, Abu Muhammad Lu'lu' al-Kabir

1009 - 1016 Fatmid, Murtada al-Dawla Mansur

1016 - 1017 Fatmid, Mubarak al-Dawla Fatah

1017 - 1023 Fatmid, Fatik Aziz al-Dawla

1023 - 1029 Mirdasid, Salih ibn Mirdas

1029 - 1037 Mirdasid, Shibl ud-Dawlah Nasr

1042 - 1057 Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (1st Time)

1060 - 1061 Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (1st Time)

1061 - 1062 Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (2nd Time)

1062 Mirdasid, Abu Du'aba Atiya

1062 - 1075 Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (2nd Time)

1075 - 1076 Mirdasid, Djalal ud-Dawlah Nasr

1076 - 1079 Mirdasid, Abu'l-Fada'il Sabiq

1080 - 1085 Uqaylid, Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim

1085 Uqaylid, Ibrahim ibn Quraysh

1085 - 1086 Uqaylid, Al Sharif ibn al-Habibi

1086 - 1094 Seljuq, Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hadjib

1094 - 1095 Seljuq, Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush

1095 - 10 Dec 1113 Seljuq, Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan

10 Dec 1113 - 1114 Seljuq, Tadj ad-Dawla Alp-Arslan al-Akhras

1114 - 1123 Seljuq, Sultan Shah ibn-Radwan

1117 Artuqid, Ghazi ibn-Artuq

1117 - 1118 Artuqid, Timurtash ibn-al-Ghazi (1st Time)

1118 - 1121 Artuqid, Suleyman I ibn-al-Ghazi

1121 - 1123 Artuqid, Suleyman II

1123 - 1124 Artuqid, Nur ad-Dawla Balaq

1124 - 1127 Artuqid, Aq Sunqur al-Bursuqi

1127 - 1128 Artuqid, Masul ibn-Aq Sunkur

1128 - 14 Sep 1146 Zengid, Zenghi I ibn Ak Sunkur Qasim el Awla

14 Sep 1146 - 15 May 1174 Zengid, Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Imad-ad-Din

15 Sep 1174 - 1181 Zengid, Isma'il as Salih

1182 - 1183 Zengid, Zenghi II Imad ud-Din

1183 - 1186 Ayyubid, al-Adil Muhammad Sayf Abu-Bakr ud-Din

1186 - 08 Oct 1216 Ayyubid, az-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Din

08 Oct 1216 - 1236 Ayyubid, al-Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din

1236 - 1259 Ayyubid, al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din

1259 - 1260 Ayyubid, al-Muazzam Turan Shah

Governors

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Kamil Pasha al-Qudsi ......................... 1845-1926

16 Aug 2012 - Muhammed Wahid Aqqad

__________________________________________________________________________________

1076 - 1521 Emirate of Damascus

1521 - 1918 Part of Ottoman Empire

1918 Made capital of Greater Syria

1920 French occupation

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Damascus

28 Jun 1922 Incorporated into Syria

Monarchs

2500 BC Caananite, Uz ben Shem

c.1300 BC Caananite, Biryawaza

c.950 BC Aramaean, Rezon I

...-914 Aramaean, Tab-Rimmon I

914-880 Aramaean, Bar Haddad I

880-843 Aramaean, Bar Haddad II

843-804 Aramaean, Hazael I

804-796 Aramaean, Bar Haddad III

796-770 Aramaean, Tan-El I

740-732 Aramaean, Rezon II

978-983 Fatamid, Qassam at-Turab

Emires

1076 - 1079 Seljuk, Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi

1079 - 1095 Seljuk, Tadj ad-Dawla Abu Said Tutush I

1095 - 08 Jun 1104 Seljuk, Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq I

08 Jun - 1104 Seljuk, Tutush I

1104 Seljuk, Muhi ad-Din Baqtash

1104 - 12 Feb 1128 Burid, Saif-ul-Islam Zahir ud-Din Tughtigin

12 Feb 1128 - 06 Jun 1132 Burid, Taj ul-Muluk Buri

06 Jun 1132 - 1135 Burid, Shams ul-Muluk Ismail

1135 - 1139 Burid, Shihab ud-Din Mahmud

1139 - 1140 Burid, Djamal ud-Din Muhammad

1140 - 28 Aug 1149 Burid, Mi`id ad-Din Unur al-Atabeki

1140 - 1154 Burid, Mujir ud-Din `Abd al-Dawla Abu Sa`id Abaq

ibn Jamal ad-Din Muhammad

1154 - 15 May 1174 Zangid, Nur ad-Din Mahmud

15 May - 23 Nov 1174 Zangid, As-Salih Ismail al-Malik

27 Nov 1174 - 1186 Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub

1186 - 1196 Ayyubid, al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din

1196 - Aug 1218 Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Adil I Sayf al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub

Aug 1218 - 1227 Ayyubid, Sharaf ad-Din

1227 - 1229 Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din II

1229 - 27 Aug 1237 Ayyubid, Asharaf Musa Abu'l-Fath al-Muzaffar ad-Din

1237 - 1245 Ayyubid, Imad ad-Din al-Malik as-Salih Ismail

bin Saif ad-Din Ahmad

1250 - 1260 Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf Salidin III

1275 - 1280 Mameluk, Sunkur al-Ashkar

1280 - 1290 Mameluk, Lajin al-Ashkar

1290 - 1294 Mameluk, Akush Beg

1294 - 1296 Mameluk, Izz ad-Din Ayback

1296 - 1297 Mameluk, Shuja ad-Din Adirlu

1297 - 1312 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Kipchak

1312 - 1340 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanqiz as-Nasiri

1340 - 1350 Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri

1350 - 1370 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Manjak

1370 - 1380 Mameluk, Tash Timur

1380 - 1393 Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri

1393 - 1399 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanibak

1399 - 1400 Mameluk, Sudun

1401 - 1441 Mameluk, Taghribirdi al-Zahiri

1470 - 1500 Mameluk, Kijmas

1500 - 1516 Mameluk, Ghazali Arab

1516 - 1517 Mameluk, Shihab ad-Din Ahmad

1517 - Feb 1521 Mameluk, Janbiridi al-Ghazali

Governor

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955

__________________________________________________________________________________

Jebel Druze (Souaida)

01 May 1921 - 1941 Autonomous State of Souaida

1927 Renamed Jebel Bruze

02 Dec 1936 Incorporated into Syria

Governors

01 May 1921 - 15 Sep 1923 Amir Salim Basha al-Atrash ................... 18..-1923

15 Sep 1923 - 06 Mar 1924 Trenga

06 Mar 1924 - 28 May 1925 Gabriel Marie Victor Carbillet ............... 1890-1941

28 May - Jul 1925 .... Raynaud

(acting)

Jul - Oct 1925 Thomas Martin

18 Jul 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Amir Sultan Basha al-Atrash .................. 1885-1982

(in rebellion)

14 Oct 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Charles Andréa ............................... 1871-1954

1927 Marie Joseph Léon Augustin Henry ............. 1870-1942

1927 - 01 Feb 1932 Abel Jean Ernest Clément-Grancourt ........... 1873-1948

03 Feb 1932 - 28 Jan 1934 Claude Gabriel Rebaud Massiet ................ 1877-1947

1934 - 1935 Justin Antoine Devicq

05 Feb 1935 - 02 Dec 1936 Pierre Joseph François Tarrit ................ 1881-1965

02 Dec 1936 - 1937 Nasib al-Bakri ............................... 1888-1966

1937 - 17 Feb 1938 Bahig al-Hatib

17 Feb 1938 - 1939 Hasna Yahya al-Atrash ........................ 1905-1977

1937 - 1939 Paul Bouvier ................................. 1885-1972

1939 - 1942 Fernand-François Oliva-Roget ................. 1891-1949

27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey

__________________________________________________________________________________

 

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©2007