Alawite Territory (Latakia)

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Suriya

3300-1200 Part of Egyptian Empire

724-612 Assyrian Empire

612-539 Part of Babylonian Empire

539-332 Part of Persia

332-319 Annexed by Makedonia

319-301 Antigonid Kingdom

301-198 Part of Egyptian Empire

198-63 Part od Seleucid Empire

64 BC - 261 AD Annexed by Roman Empire

261-271 Part of Palmyria

271-395 Part of Roman Empire

395-529 Part of Byzantine Empire

529-638 Kingdom of Ghassan

638 Arab conquest begins

1076 - 1154 Kingdom of the Seljuks

1154 - 1261 To Egypt

1260 - 1261 Mongol occupation

1261 - 1521 Egyptian control restored

1275 - 1521 Emirate of Damamscus

23 Aug 1516 - 14 Jun 1832 To Ottoman Empire

14 Jun 1832 - 10 Oct 1840 Annexed by Egypt

10 Oct 1840 - 30 Sep 1918 Part of Ottoman Empire

30 Sep 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Independence, Kingdom of Greater Syria

25 Oct 1918 French occupation beguins

28 Jul 1920 - 29 Sep 1923 French Syria

29 Sep 1923 - 31 Dec 1943 League of Nations Mandate under France

28 Jun 1922 - 31 Dec 1924 Union of Syrian States

1936 Independence declared (Not recognised)

23 Jul 1939 Antioch annexed by Turkey (Not recognised by Syria)

19 Jul 1939 - 16 Sep 1941 State of Syria

16 Sep 1941 - 28 Sep 1961 Syrian Republic

01 Jan 1944 - 22 Feb 1958 Syrian Arab Republic

17 Apr 1946 Independence recognised by France

22 Feb 1958 - 28 Sep 1961 Part of the United Arab Republic

28 Sep 1961 Syrian Arab Republic

10 Jun 1967 - Golan Heights under Israeli occupation,

annexed 14 Dec 1981 (Not recognised)

01 Jan 1972 - 11 Nov 1977 Part of the Federation of Arab Republics

15 Mar 2011 - Civil War

Assyria

Kings of Assyria

1380-1353 Eriba Adad

1353-1317 Ashur Uballit

1317-1307 Enlil Nirari

1307-1295 Arik

1295-1263 Adad Nirari

1263-1233 Shalmaneser

1233-1196 Tukulti Ninura

1196-1193 Ashur-nadin-apli

1193-1187 Ashur-nirari III

1187-1182 Enlil Kudurri-usur

1182-1179 Ninurta-Tukulti Ashur

873-810 Benhadad I

810 Hazael

810-791 Benhadad II

740-730 Rezin

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Arab Kingdom of Syria

Capital: Damascus.

Government: Kingdom.

Religion: Sunni Islam, Sh'ia Islam, Christian, Jewish.

Ethnic Groups: Arab, Kurd, Armenian, Jewish.

National Anthem:

National Motto:

National Day:

Currency: Egyptian Pound.

 

Heads of States

30 Sep - 01 Oct 1918 Muhammad Said al-Jazairi ..................... 1872-19..

01 Oct - 05 Oct 1918 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi ..................... 1864-1943

King of Greater Syria

05 Oct 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim, Faisal I ............................. 1885-1933

Heads of State

28 Jul - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Basha ................... 18..-1920

21 Aug - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi ............................... 1883-1951

 

Prime Ministers

01 Oct 1918 - 14 Dec 1919 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (1st Time) .......... s.a

14 Dec - 30 Dec 1919 Abdul Hamad Pasha

30 Dec 1919 - May 1920 Ali Rida Basha ar-Rikabi (2nd Time)

May - 28 Jul 1920 Hashim al-Khalid al-Atassi ................... 1875-1939

28 Jul - 21 Aug 1920 Ala ad-Din ad-Durubi Pasha ................... s.a

21 Aug - 30 Nov 1920 Jamil al-Ulshi ............................... s.a

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State of Syria (French Mandate of Syria)

French High Commissioner for Syria and Cilicia

Oct 1918 - 21 Nov 1919 François Georges Picot ....................... 1970-1951

High Commissioners of French-mandated Syria and Lebanon

21 Nov 1919 - 23 Nov 1922 Henri-Joseph-Eugène Gouraud .................. 1867-1946

23 Nov 1922 - 17 Apr 1923 Robert de Caix ............................... 1869-1970

(acting)

17 Apr 1923 - 29 Nov 1924 Maxime Weygand ............................... 1867-1965

29 Nov 1924 - 23 Dec 1925 Maurice Paul Emmanuel Sarrail ................ 1856-1929

23 Dec 1925 - 23 Jun 1926 Baron Henry de Jouvenel des Ursins ........... 1876-1935

Aug 1926 - Jul 1933 Auguste-Henri Ponsot ......................... 1877-1963

16 Jul 1933 - Jan 1939 Damien de Martel, comte de Martel ............ 1878-1940

Jan 1939 - 24 Nov 1940 Gabriel Puaux ................................ 1883-1970

24 Nov - 27 Nov 1940 Jean Chiappe ................................. 1878-1940

(did not take office)

06 Dec 1940 - 14 Jun 1941 Henri-Fernand Dentz .......................... 1881-1945

Delegates-general

24 Jun 1941 - 07 Jun 1943 Georges-Albert-Julien Catroux ................ 1877-1969

07 Jun - 23 Nov 1943 Jean Helleu .................................. 1885-1955

23 Nov 1943 - 23 Jan 1944 Yves Chataigneau ............................. 1891-1961

23 Jan 1944 - 15 Apr 1946 Étienne-Paul-Émile-Marie Beynet .............. 1883-1969

 

 

Heads of State

28 Jun 1922 - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakay al-Khalidi ................. 1883-1939

28 Apr 1926 - 15 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay ............ 1873-1962

15 Feb 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani .................. 1885-1943

19 Nov 1931 - 11 Jun 1932 Leon Solomiac

Presidents

11 Jun 1932 - 21 Dec 1936 Muhammad Ali Bay al-Abid ..................... 1868-1939

21 Dec 1936 - 07 Jul 1939 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st Time) ........... 1875-1960

10 Jul 1939 - 04 Apr 1941 Bahij ad-Din al-Khatib ....................... 1895-1981

16 Sep 1941 - 17 Jan 1943 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani

17 Jan - 25 Mar 1943 Jamil al-Ulshi

(acting)

25 Mar - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi ............................ 1877-1951

17 Aug 1943 - 17 Apr 1946 Shukri al-Kuwatli ............................ 1891-1967

 

 

Prime Ministers

01 Jan - 21 Dec 1925 Subhi Bay Barakat al-Khalidi ................. s.a

21 Dec 1925 - 06 Jan 1926 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (1st Time) ....... s.a

27 Apr 1926 - 09 Feb 1928 Damad-i Shahriyari Ahmad Nami Bay ............ s.a

15 Apr 1928 - 19 Nov 1931 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (2nd Time)

07 Jun 1932 - 16 Mar 1934 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955

16 Mar 1934 - 22 Feb 1936 Sheikh Taj ad-Din al-Hasani (3rd Time)

22 Feb - 21 Dec 1936 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (1st Time)

21 Dec 1936 - 18 Feb 1939 Jamil Mardam Bay ............................. 1893-1960

18 Feb - 13 Mar 1939 Lutfi al-Haffar .............................. 1885-1968

06 Apr - 09 Jul 1939 Nasuhi Salim al-Bukhari

04 Apr - 21 Sep 1941 Khalid al-Azm (1st Time)

21 Sep 1941 - 19 Apr 1942 Hassan al-Hakim .............................. 1886-1988

25 Mar - 17 Aug 1943 Ata Bay al-Ayyubi (2nd Time)

19 Apr 1942 - 10 Jan 1943 Husni al-Barazi (1st Time) ................... 1893-1949

17 Aug 1943 - 31 Oct 1944 Saadallah al-Jabiri (1st Time) ............... 1893-1947

14 Oct 1944 - 01 Oct 1945 Faris al-Khuri (1st Time) .................... 1879-1962

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Syrian Republic

Presidents

17 Apr 1946 - 30 Mar 1949 Shukri al-Kuwatli ............................ s.a

30 Mar - 14 Aug 1949 Husni az-Zaim ................................ 1897-1949

15 Aug 1949 - 02 Dec 1951 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (1st Time) ........... s.a

03 Dec 1951 - 11 Jul 1953 Fawsi as-Silu ................................ 1905-1972

11 Jul 1953 - 25 Feb 1954 Adib ibn Hasan Shishakli ..................... 1909-1964

26 Feb - 28 Feb 1954 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ 1914-1998

28 Feb 1954 - 06 Sep 1955 Hashim Khalid al-Atassi (2nd Time)

06 Sep 1955 - 22 Feb 1958 Shukri al-Kuwatli (2nd Time)

 

Prime Ministers

01 Oct 1945 - 16 Dec 1946 Saadallah al-Jabiri .......................... s.a

16 Dec 1946 - 17 Dec 1948 Jamil Mardan Bay ............................. s.a

17 Dec 1948 - 30 Mar 1949 Khalid al-Azm (2nd Time)

17 Apr - 26 Jun 1949 Husni al-Barazi (2nd Time)

26 Jun - 14 Aug 1949 Muhsin al-Bazazi ............................. 1904-1949

24 Dec - 27 Dec 1949 Nazim al-Kudsi (1st Time) .................... s.a

27 Dec 1949 - 04 Jun 1950 Khalid al-Azm (3rd Time)

04 Jun 1950 - 27 Mar 1951 Nazim al-Kudsi (2nd Time)

27 Mar - 09 Aug 1951 Khalid al-Azm (4th Time)

09 Aug - 13 Nov 1951 Hassan al-Hakim .............................. s.a

13 Nov - 28 Nov 1951 Zaki al-Khatib ............................... 1887-1961

28 Nov - 29 Nov 1951 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (1st Time) ................. 1907-2004

03 Dec 1951 - 19 Jul 1953 Fawzi as-Silu ................................ s.a

19 Jul 1953 - 01 Mar 1954 Adib ash-Shishakli ........................... s.a

01 Mar - 18 Jun 1954 Sabri al-Assali (1st Time) ................... 1903-1976

18 Jun - 03 Nov 1954 Said al-Ghazzi (1st Time) .................... 1893-1967

03 Nov 1954 - 13 Feb 1955 Faris al-Khuri (2nd Time)

13 Feb - 13 Sep 1955 Sabri al-Assali (2nd Time)

13 Sep 1955 - 14 Jun 1956 Said al-Ghazzi (2nd Time)

14 Jun 1956 - 06 Mar 1958 Sabri al-Assali (3rd Time)

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Syrian Arab Republic

Capital: Damascus.

Government:

Language: Arabic (official), Kurdish, Aramaic, French.

Religion: Sunni Islam 74, Sh'ia Islam 2% (Alawi 11%), Christian 10%, Druze 3%.

Ethnic Groups: Arab 90%, Kurd 8%, Armenian 2%.

National Anthem: "Humat ad-Diyar" (Guardians of the Homeland).

National Motto: Waḥdah, Ḥurrīyah, Ishtirākīyah (Unity, Freedom, Socialism).

National Day: Independence day, 17 April (1946).

Currency: Syrian Pound.

 

Presidents

28 Sep - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ s.a

(acting)

20 Nov - 14 Dec 1961 Izzat an-Nuss ................................ 1900-1972

(acting)

14 Dec 1961 - 08 Mar 1963 Nazim al-Kudsi ............................... 1906-1998

09 Mar - 27 Jul 1963 Louai ai-Atassi .............................. 1926-2003 B

27 Jul 1963 - 23 Feb 1966 Muhammad Amin al-Hafez ....................... 1911-2009 B

23 Feb 1966 - 18 Nov 1970 Nureddin Muhammad Mustafa al-Atassi .......... 1929-1992 B

18 Nov 1970 - 22 Feb 1971 Sayyid Ahmedal-Hasan al-Khatib ............... 1933- B

22 Feb 1971 - 10 Jun 2000 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad ......... 1930-2000 B

10 Jun - 17 Jul 2000 Abdul-Halim Khaddam .......................... 1932- B

(acting)

17 Jul 2000 - Bashar Hafez al-Assad ........................ 1965- B

 

 

Prime Ministers

28 Sep - 20 Nov 1961 Maamun al-Kuzbari ............................ 1914-1998

20 Nov - 14 Dec 1961 Izzat an-Nuss ................................ 1900-1972

14 Dec 1961 - 28 Mar 1962 Maarf ad-Dawalibi (2nd Time)

16 Apr - 14 Sep 1962 Ahmad Bashir al-Azmah ........................ 1910-1992

17 Sep 1962 - 09 Mar 1963 Khalid al-Azm (5th Time)

09 Mar - 12 Nov 1963 Salah ad-Din al-Bitar ........................ 1912-1980 B

12 Nov 1963 - 13 May 1964 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (1st Time) ............ 1921-2009 B

13 May - 04 Oct 1964 Salah ad-Din Bitar (2nd Time)

04 Oct 1964 - 23 Sep 1965 Muhammad Amin al-Hafaz (2nd Time)

23 Sep - 31 Dec 1965 Yusuf Zuaiyin (1st Time) ..................... 1931-2015 B

01 Jan - 23 Feb 1966 Salah ad-Din Bitar (3rd Time)

25 Feb 1966 - 29 Oct 1968 Yusuf Zuaiyin (2nd Time)

29 Oct 1968 - 21 Nov 1970 Nureddin Mustafa al-Atassi ................... s.a B

21 Nov 1970 - 03 Apr 1971 Hafez ibn `Ali ibn Sulayman al-Assad B

03 Apr 1971 - 21 Dec 1972 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (1st Time) ............ 1930- B

21 Dec 1972 - 07 Aug 1976 Mahmoud al-Ayyubi ............................ 1932- B

07 Aug 1976 - 27 Mar 1978 Abdul Rahman Khleifawi (2nd Time)

27 Mar 1978 - 09 Jan 1980 Muhammad Ali al-Halabi ....................... 1937- B

09 Jan 1980 - 01 Nov 1987 Abdul Rauf al-Kasm ........................... 1932- B

01 Nov 1987 - 13 Mar 2000 Mahmoud Zuabi ................................ 1938-2000 B

13 Mar 2000 - 10 Sep 2003 Muhammad Mustafa Mero ........................ 1941- B

10 Sep 2003 - 14 Apr 2011 Muhammad Naji al-Otari ....................... 1944- B

14 Apr 2011 - 23 Jun 2012 Adel Safar ................................... 1953- B

23 Jun - 06 Aug 2012 Riyad Farid Hajib ............................ 1966- B

06 Aug - 09 Aug 2012 Omar Ibrahim Ghalawanji ...................... 1954- B

(acting)

09 Aug 2012 - 03 Jul 2016 Wael al-Halki ................................ 1964- B

03 Jul 2016 - Imad Muhammed Deeb Khamis .................... 1961- B

 

 

Commanders of the Russian Military Forces in Syria

30 Sep 2015 - 30 Jun 2016 Col-Gen. Aleksandr Vladimirovich Dvornikov ... 1961-

01 Jul - Dec 2016 Col-Gen. Alexander Alexandrovich Zhuravlyov .. 1965-

Dec 2016 - 09 Jun 2017 Andrey Kartapolov

09 Jun 2017 - Col-Gen. Sergey Vladimirovich Surovikin ...... 1966-

 

 

B=Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya (Arab Socialist Rebirth Party-

Syria Branch, Arab nationalism, socialism, secular-nationalism).

SSNP=Al-Ḥizb Al-Sūrī Al-Qūwmī Al-'Ijtimā'ī (Syrian Social Nationalist Party, Syrian

nationalism, Fascism, secularism).

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Syrian National Council (in opposition)

 

 

President of the Syrian National Council (in Istanbul, Turkey)

02 Oct 2011 - 10 Jun 2012 Burhan Ghalioun

10 Jun - 09 Nov 2012 Abdul Baset Saida

Presidents National Coalition for the Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces

11 Nov 2012 - 22 Apr 2013 Ahmad Mouaz Al-Khatib Al-Hasani .............. 1960-

22 Apr - 06 Jul 2013 George Sabra ................................. 1947-

06 Jul 2013 - 09 Jul 2014 Ahmad al-Jarba ............................... 1969-

09 Jul 2014 - 05 Jan 2015 Hadi al-Bahra ................................ 1959-

05 Jan 2015 - 05 Mar 2016 Khaled Khoja ................................. 1965-

05 Mar 2016 - 06 May 2017 Anas al-Abdan ................................ 1967-

06 May 2017 - Riad Seif .................................... 1946-

 

Prime Ministers

19 Mar - 08 Jul 2013 Ghassan Hitto ................................ 1963-

14 Sep 2013 - 16 May 2016 Ahmad Saleh Touma ............................ 1965-

16 May 2016 - Jawad Abu Hatab .............................. 1962-

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Syrian Kurdistan (Rojava)

 

19 Jul 2012 - Kurdish rebels fighting both the Syrian army,

Free Syrian Army and Islamic militants, begin

the capture of Kurdish inhabited territory in Northern Syria

01 Aug 2012 Syria-Turkey border areas transferred to Kurdish control

by the Syrian military

12 Nov 2013 Interim self-administration of Western Kurdistan

29 Jan 2014 Cantons of Jazira, Kobane and Efrin formed (not recognised)

17 Mar 2016 - Federal Democratic Rojava-North Syria (not recognised)

 

Government: Federation.

Capital: Qamishlo (Qamishli/Bet Zalin)

Language: Kurdish, Syriac Aramaic, Arabic

Religion: Islam, Christian, Yazidi.

Demographics: Kurd, Arab, Assyrian, Turkomen, Armenian, Yazidi.

National Anthem:

National Motto:

Currency: Syrian Pound

Chairman of the Democratic Union Party

2010 - Salih Muslim Muhammad ........................ 1951- PYD

+ Asya Abdullah .

co-Presidents

Mar 2016 - Hediya Yousef ................................ 1954-

Mar 2016 - Mansur Selum

 

President of Cîzirê/Jazira Canton

21 Jan 2014 - Akram Hesso .................................. 1973- PYD

President of Kobanê/Ayn al-Arab Canton

27 Jan 2014 - Enver Muslim PYD

President of Efrîn/Afrin Canton

29 Jan 2014 - Hevi Ibrahim Mustefa ......................... 1951- PYD

 

 

PYD=Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat (Democratic Union Party, Kurdish nationalism, socialism)

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1850 - 1170 BC Latakia Kingdom

865 - 1035 Alawite Emirate

02 Sep 1920 Alawite Territory

23 Sep 1923 - 05 Sep 1938 Hatay part of the Alawite Territory

01 Jan 1925 Alawite State

22 Sep 1930 State of Latakia

05 Dec 1936 To Syria thereafter

27 Jan 1937 France secretly agrees to cede Hatay to Turkey

05 Sep 1938 Hatay proclaims independence

23 Jun 1939 Hatay incorporated into Turkey

2011 - Under Syrian government control

 

Capital: Latakia (Alexandretta before 1938).

Religion: Alawi Islam, Christianity.

Monarchs

1850-1825 Niqmaddu I

1825-1800 Yaqarum I

1600-.... Ibiranu I

1390-1360 Ammishtamru I

1360-1330 Niqmaddu II

1330-1324 Arhalbu

1324-1274 Niqmepa

1274-1240 Ammishtamru II

1240-1230 Ibiranu II

1230-1225 Niqmaddu III

1225-1180 Ammurapi

1180-1170 Yaqurum II

Emires

865 - 880 Muhammad ibn Nusayr al-Namiri

880 - 890 Muhammad ibn Djundab

890 - 900 Abu Muhammad Abdullah al-Djunbulani

900 - 957 Abu Abdullah al-Hussein ibn Hamdan al-Khasibi

957 - 994 Muhammad ibn Ali al-Djilli

994 - 1035 Surur ibn al-Qasim al-Tabarani

Governors

03 Nov 1918 - 1919 .... Minault

1919 - 20 Sep 1920 .... de la Roche

20 Sep 1920 - 20 Sep 1921 Marie Joseph Émile Niéger .................... 1874-1951

20 Sep 1921 - 17 Nov 1922 Gaston Henri Gustave Billotte ................ 1875-1940

17 Nov - 31 Dec 1922 .... Desclaux

01 Jan 1923 - Sep 1925 Léon Henri Charles Cayla ..................... 1881-1965

01 Jan 1925 - 05 Dec 1936 Ernest Marie Hubert Schoeffler ............... 1877-1952

05 Dec 1936 - 01 Oct 1938 Eugène Paul Aimé Joseph Cahour ............... 1886-1954

01 Oct 1938 - 07 Dec 1939 Pierre Bart .................................. 1889-1964

07 Dec 1939 - 10 Dec 1940 François Malartre

10 Dec 1940 - 27 Oct 1941 Jean Janvier Vital Jourdan

27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey ........................ 1892-1964

25 Oct 1942 - 1945 .... des Essars

1945 .... Bonnot

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Aleppo

1800 BC - 1400 AD Kingdom of Yamkhand

1400 - 1200 To the Hittites

1200 - 900 To Aramaeanes

900 - 609 To Assyria

945 - 1260 Emirate of Aleppo

1260 To Egypt

1516 To Ottoman Empire

Oct 1918 - 30 Nov 1920 Part of Syria

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Aleppo

28 Jun 1922 To Syria thereafter

19 Jul 2012 - 22 Dec 2016 City and surrounding area under control of rebel,

Kurdish and Islamic State forces

2012 - 2017 City of Raqqa made capital of the Islamic State

2012 - Northern portion of the former state is administered by

the Kurdish Rojava autonomous government

Monarchs

1800 - .... Yarimlim I

.... - .... Hammurabi I

.... - .... Abbael I

.... - .... Yarimlim II

.... - .... Niqmiepu I

.... - .... Irkabtum

.... - .... Hammurabi I

.... - .... Yarimlim III

.... - .... Abbael II

.... - .... Ilimilimma I

1550 - .... Idrimi I

.... - .... Niqmiepu II

.... - .... Ilimilimma II

1300 - 1330 Telipinu

1330 - .... Talmi-Sharruma

120. - .... Rimisharina

Emires of Aleppo

945 - 09 Feb 967 Hamdanid, Saif ud-Dawlah Ali

09 Feb 967 - Dec 991 Hamdanid, S'ad ud-Dawlah Sharif

991 - 1002 Hamdanid,Sa'id ud-Dawlah Sa'id

1002 - 1004 Hamdanid, Abu'l-Hassan Ali II

1004 Hamdanid, Abu l-Ma'ali Sharif II

1004 - 1009 Fatmid, Abu Muhammad Lu'lu' al-Kabir

1009 - 1016 Fatmid, Murtada al-Dawla Mansur

1016 - 1017 Fatmid, Mubarak al-Dawla Fatah

1017 - 1023 Fatmid, Fatik Aziz al-Dawla

1023 - 1029 Mirdasid, Salih ibn Mirdas

1029 - 1037 Mirdasid, Shibl ud-Dawlah Nasr

1042 - 1057 Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (1st Time)

1060 - 1061 Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (1st Time)

1061 - 1062 Mirdasid, Mu'izz ud-Dawlah Tamal (2nd Time)

1062 Mirdasid, Abu Du'aba Atiya

1062 - 1075 Mirdasid, Rashid ud-Dawlah Mahmud (2nd Time)

1075 - 1076 Mirdasid, Djalal ud-Dawlah Nasr

1076 - 1079 Mirdasid, Abu'l-Fada'il Sabiq

1080 - 1085 Uqaylid, Sharaf al-Dawla Muslim

1085 Uqaylid, Ibrahim ibn Quraysh

1085 - 1086 Uqaylid, Al Sharif ibn al-Habibi

1086 - 1094 Seljuq, Qasim ad-Dawla Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hadjib

1094 - 1095 Seljuq, Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush

1095 - 10 Dec 1113 Seljuq, Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan

10 Dec 1113 - 1114 Seljuq, Tadj ad-Dawla Alp-Arslan al-Akhras

1114 - 1123 Seljuq, Sultan Shah ibn-Radwan

1117 Artuqid, Ghazi ibn-Artuq

1117 - 1118 Artuqid, Timurtash ibn-al-Ghazi (1st Time)

1118 - 1121 Artuqid, Suleyman I ibn-al-Ghazi

1121 - 1123 Artuqid, Suleyman II

1123 - 1124 Artuqid, Nur ad-Dawla Balaq

1124 - 1127 Artuqid, Aq Sunqur al-Bursuqi

1127 - 1128 Artuqid, Masul ibn-Aq Sunkur

1128 - 14 Sep 1146 Zengid, Zenghi I ibn Ak Sunkur Qasim el Awla

14 Sep 1146 - 15 May 1174 Zengid, Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud ibn Imad-ad-Din

15 Sep 1174 - 1181 Zengid, Isma'il as Salih

1182 - 1183 Zengid, Zenghi II Imad ud-Din

1183 - 1186 Ayyubid, al-Adil Muhammad Sayf Abu-Bakr ud-Din

1186 - 08 Oct 1216 Ayyubid, az-Zahir Ghazi Abu Mansur Ghiyath ud-Din

08 Oct 1216 - 1236 Ayyubid, al-Aziz Muhammad Ghiyath ud-Din

1236 - 1259 Ayyubid, al-Nasr II Yusuf Salah ad-Din

1259 - 1260 Ayyubid, al-Muazzam Turan Shah

Governors

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Kamil Pasha al-Qudsi ......................... 1845-1926

16 Aug 2012 - Muhammed Wahid Aqqad

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Damascus

1076 - 1521 Emirate of Damascus

1521 - 1918 Part of Ottoman Empire

1918 Made capital of Greater Syria

1920 French occupation

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 State of Damascus

28 Jun 1922 Incorporated into Syria

Monarchs

2500 BC Caananite, Uz ben Shem

c.1300 BC Caananite, Biryawaza

c.950 BC Aramaean, Rezon I

...-914 Aramaean, Tab-Rimmon I

914-880 Aramaean, Bar Haddad I

880-843 Aramaean, Bar Haddad II

843-804 Aramaean, Hazael I

804-796 Aramaean, Bar Haddad III

796-770 Aramaean, Tan-El I

740-732 Aramaean, Rezon II

978-983 Fatamid, Qassam at-Turab

Emires

1076 - 1079 Seljuk, Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi

1079 - 1095 Seljuk, Tadj ad-Dawla Abu Said Tutush I

1095 - 08 Jun 1104 Seljuk, Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq I

08 Jun - 1104 Seljuk, Tutush I

1104 Seljuk, Muhi ad-Din Baqtash

1104 - 12 Feb 1128 Burid, Saif-ul-Islam Zahir ud-Din Tughtigin

12 Feb 1128 - 06 Jun 1132 Burid, Taj ul-Muluk Buri

06 Jun 1132 - 1135 Burid, Shams ul-Muluk Ismail

1135 - 1139 Burid, Shihab ud-Din Mahmud

1139 - 1140 Burid, Djamal ud-Din Muhammad

1140 - 28 Aug 1149 Burid, Mi`id ad-Din Unur al-Atabeki

1140 - 1154 Burid, Mujir ud-Din `Abd al-Dawla Abu Sa`id Abaq

ibn Jamal ad-Din Muhammad

1154 - 15 May 1174 Zangid, Nur ad-Din Mahmud

15 May - 23 Nov 1174 Zangid, As-Salih Ismail al-Malik

27 Nov 1174 - 1186 Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub

1186 - 1196 Ayyubid, al-Afdal ibn Salah ad-Din

1196 - Aug 1218 Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Adil I Sayf al-Din Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub

Aug 1218 - 1227 Ayyubid, Sharaf ad-Din

1227 - 1229 Ayyubid, Salah ad-Din II

1229 - 27 Aug 1237 Ayyubid, Asharaf Musa Abu'l-Fath al-Muzaffar ad-Din

1237 - 1245 Ayyubid, Imad ad-Din al-Malik as-Salih Ismail

bin Saif ad-Din Ahmad

1250 - 1260 Ayyubid, al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf Salidin III

1275 - 1280 Mameluk, Sunkur al-Ashkar

1280 - 1290 Mameluk, Lajin al-Ashkar

1290 - 1294 Mameluk, Akush Beg

1294 - 1296 Mameluk, Izz ad-Din Ayback

1296 - 1297 Mameluk, Shuja ad-Din Adirlu

1297 - 1312 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Kipchak

1312 - 1340 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanqiz as-Nasiri

1340 - 1350 Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri

1350 - 1370 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Manjak

1370 - 1380 Mameluk, Tash Timur

1380 - 1393 Mameluk, Yilbugha al-Nasiri

1393 - 1399 Mameluk, Sayf ad-Din Tanibak

1399 - 1400 Mameluk, Sudun

1401 - 1441 Mameluk, Taghribirdi al-Zahiri

1470 - 1500 Mameluk, Kijmas

1500 - 1516 Mameluk, Ghazali Arab

1516 - 1517 Mameluk, Shihab ad-Din Ahmad

1517 - Feb 1521 Mameluk, Janbiridi al-Ghazali

Governor

01 Dec 1920 - 28 Jun 1922 Haqqi Bay al-Azm ............................. 1864-1955

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Jebel Druze (Souaida)

01 May 1921 - 1941 Autonomous State of Souaida

1927 Renamed Jebel Bruze

02 Dec 1936 Incorporated into Syria

Governors

01 May 1921 - 15 Sep 1923 Amir Salim Basha al-Atrash ................... 18..-1923

15 Sep 1923 - 06 Mar 1924 Trenga

06 Mar 1924 - 28 May 1925 Gabriel Marie Victor Carbillet ............... 1890-1941

28 May - Jul 1925 .... Raynaud

(acting)

Jul - Oct 1925 Thomas Martin

18 Jul 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Amir Sultan Basha al-Atrash .................. 1885-1982

(in rebellion)

14 Oct 1925 - 01 Jun 1927 Charles Andréa ............................... 1871-1954

1927 Marie Joseph Léon Augustin Henry ............. 1870-1942

1927 - 01 Feb 1932 Abel Jean Ernest Clément-Grancourt ........... 1873-1948

03 Feb 1932 - 28 Jan 1934 Claude Gabriel Rebaud Massiet ................ 1877-1947

1934 - 1935 Justin Antoine Devicq

05 Feb 1935 - 02 Dec 1936 Pierre Joseph François Tarrit ................ 1881-1965

02 Dec 1936 - 1937 Nasib al-Bakri ............................... 1888-1966

1937 - 17 Feb 1938 Bahig al-Hatib

17 Feb 1938 - 1939 Hasna Yahya al-Atrash ........................ 1905-1977

1937 - 1939 Paul Bouvier ................................. 1885-1972

1939 - 1942 Fernand-François Oliva-Roget ................. 1891-1949

27 Oct 1941 - 25 Oct 1942 Raoul Magrin-Vernerey

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