. Home .

Turkiye

200-1178 BC Hittite Empire

1178-550 Fragmented in to states

550-335 Part of the Persian Empire

335-306 Part of Empire of Macedon

306-145 Part of the Seleucid Empire

145 BC-395 AD Part of Roman Empire

395-1071 Part of Byzantine Empire

1071-1078 Seljuk Empire

1078-1307 Sultanate of Rum

1230 Sögüt Beylik of the Oghuz Turks within the Seljuk Empire

27 Jul 1299 Independence from the Seljuk Empire

Dec 1396 Bulgaria conquered by Osmanli forces

29 May 1453 With the fall of Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire (now only

consisting of Eastern Thrace) is abolished and succeeded by the

Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye; known in English as the Ottoman Empire

and Osman Empire in other languages.

1459 Serbia concquered by the Ottoman Empire

1477 Bosnia and Herzegovina incorporated into the Ottoman Empire

1514 Western Armenia incorporated into the Ottoman Empire

29 Aug 1541 - 26 Jan 1699 Hungary partitioned between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires

1571 Conquest of Cyprus

12 Sep 1683 Ottomans defeated at the Battle of Vienna

21 Jul 1774 By Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca, North Caucasus are ceded to the

Russian Empire; the Crimea is made independent

09 Jul 1805 De facto autonomoy of Egypt

26 Jul 1817 Serbian Principality is recognised as autonomous

25 Mar 1821 Independence of Greece (recognised in 1830)

01 Jul 1878 By Treaty of Berlin, Montenegro, Rumania and Serbia are fully

independent, Bosnia to be occupied by Austria-Hungary,

Bulgaria to be autonomous and Cyprus made a possession

of the British Empire

12 May 1881 Tunisia a French protectorate

02 Jul 1881 Thessaly is incorporated to Greece

05 Oct 1908 Bulgaria declares independence

06 Oct 1908 Bosnia and Herzegovina annexed by Austria-Hungary

18 Oct 1912 Libya ceded to Italy (occupied since 03 Oct 1911)

20 Oct 1912 Üsküp (Skopje) area annexed by Serbia

24 Nov 1912 Samos (under Ottoman suzraignty since 1832)

is incorporated into Greece

28 Nov 1912 Albania independent

30 May 1913 Crete (under Ottoman suzeraignty since 1898)

is incorporated into Greece

10 Aug 1913 Macedonia and Epirus are annexed by Greece

13 Feb 1914 Ageane Islands (except Rhodes and Dodecanese)

incorporated into Greece

05 Nov 1914 Cyprus annexed by Great Britain

18 Dec 1914 Egypt (occupied since 1882) is made a British protectorate

25 Sep 1918 Jordan occupied by Britain

26 Sep 1918 Palestine occupied by Britain (League of Nations mandate from 1922)

10 Jan 1919 Iraq fully occupied by Britain (League of Nations

mandate from 11 Nov 1920)

10 Aug 1920 By the Treaty of Serves, Lebanon and Syria ceded to France,

Cilicia occupied by France; Palestine, Iraq, and Jordan ceded to

Britain, Italy to occupy Antalya, Rhodes and the Dodecanese;

Eastern Thrace and Smyrna ceded to Greece; Hejaz and Armenia to be

independent; Kurdistan autonomous (never realised) and Zone of

Straites under Allied occupation

01 Nov 1922 Turkish State

24 Jul 1923 By Treaty of Laussane, all lands ceded to Greece in 1920 are

restored, allied administration in the Antalaya, Cilicia

and Zone of the Straits ends, Kurdistan and Western Armenia

are returned to Turkish rule

29 Oct 1923 - Turkish Republic

03 Mar 1924 Caliphate abolished

23 Jul 1939 Hatay annexed from Syria

20 Jul 1974 - Occupation of Northern Cyprus

Pre-Turkish Anatolia

Hittite Empire

2200-.... Pamba I

1700-.... Pithana

17..-.... Piyusti

17..-.... Anitta

17..-.... Pu-Sarruma

1680-1650 Labarna I

1650-1620 Labarna II

1620-1590 Mursili I

1590-1560 Hantili I

1560-1550 Zidanta I

1550-1530 Ammuna I

1530-1525 Huzziya I

1525-1500 Telepinu I

1500-1490 Alluwanna I

1490-1470 Tahurwaili I

1470-1460 Hantili II

1460-1450 Zidanta II

1450-1440 Huzziya II

1440-1430 Muwatalli I

1430-1400 Tudhaliya I

1400-1360 Arnuwanda I

1360-1340 Hattusili II

1340-1344 Tudhaliya II

1344      Tudhaliya III

1344-1322 Suppiluliuma

1322-1321 Arnuwanda II

1321-1295 Mursili II

1295-1272 Muwatalli II

1272-1267 Mursili III

1267-1237 Hattusili III

1237-1209 Tudhaliya IV

1209-1207 Arnuwanda III

1207-1178 Suppilulima II

Kingdom of Galatia

62-40 Deiotarus

62-44 Brogitarius

37-25 Amintas

Sultanate of Rum

1060-1177 Seljuk, Kutalmish I

1077-1086 Seljuk, Süleyman I

1092-1107 Seljuk, Arslan I

1107-1116 Seljuk, Malik I

1116-1156 Seljuk, Masut I

1156-1192 Seljuk, Kilij Arslan II

1192-1196 Seljuk, Khosron I

1196-1205 Seljuk, Süleyman II

1204-1205 Seljuk, Kilij Arslan II

1205-1210 Seljuk, Khosron I (2nd Time)

1210-1220 Seljuk, Kay Kawus I

1220-1237 Seljuk, Kay Qubadh I

1237-1246 Seljuk, Khosron II

1246-1257 Seljuk, Kay Kawus II

1249-1257 Seljuk, Kay Qabadh II

1257-1259 Seljuk, Khosron II (2nd Time)

1259-1265 Seljuk, Kilij Arslan IV

1265-1282 Seljuk, Kay Khodron III

1282-1284 Seljuk, Masut II (1st Time)

1284      Seljuk, Kay Qubadh III

1293      Seljuk, Masut II (2nd Time)

1294-1301 Seljuk, Masut II (3rd Time)

1303-1307 Seljuk, Masut II (4th Time)

1307      Seljuk, Masut III

__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye (Ottoman Empire)

Government: Constitutional Monarchy (from 1908).

Capital: Constantinople.

Language: Osmanli (Ottoman Turkish). (official).

Religion: Islam, Christianity, Judaism.

National Anthem: "Mahmudiya" (used 1808-39, 1918-22).

National Emblem: Tughra.

National Day:

National Motto: Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State).

Curruncy: Ottoman Lira (1844-1923).

 

Beys

11.. - 1227               Osmanli, Süleyman Shah

1227 - 1281               Osmanli, Ertugrul

1281 - 1326               Osmanli, Osman I Gazi .................. 1258-1326

1326 - 1359               Osmanli, Orhan Gazi .................... 1288-1361

Emirs

       1359 - 28 Jun 1389 Osmanli, Murad I Hüdavendîgâr .......... 1326-1389

28 Jun 1389 - 20 Jul 1402 Osmanli, Bayezid I Yildirim ............ 1347-1403

20 Jul 1402 - 26 May 1421 Osmanli, Mehmed I Çelebî ............... 1382-1421

(in Eastern Anatolia to 5 Jul 1413)

20 Jul 1402 - 17 Feb 1411 Süleyman ............................... 1377-1411

(in opposition in Rumelia)

1403 - 1405 Isa .................................... 13..-1406

(in Western Anatolia)

18 Feb 1411 - 05 Jul 1413 Musa ................................... 13..-1413

(in Rumelia)

26 May 1421 - 03 Feb 1451 Osmanli, Murad II Koca ................. 1404-1451

Padishahs (Emperors)

03 Feb 1451 - 03 May 1481 Osmanli, Mehmed II Fatîh ............... 1432-1481

03 May 1481 - 25 Apr 1512 Osmanli, Bayezid II Velî ............... 1446-1512 "the Saint"

25 Apr 1512 - 21 Sep 1520 Osmanli, Selim I Yavuz ................. 1467-1520

21 Sep 1520 - 06 Sep 1566 Osmanli, Süleyman I Muhtesme ........... 1494-1566 "the magnificent"

06 Sep 1566 - 12 Dec 1574 Osmanli, Selim II Sari ................. 1524-1574 "sarkosh"

12 Dec 1574 - 16 Jan 1595 Osmanli, Murad III ..................... 1546-1595

16 Jan 1595 - 22 Dec 1603 Osmanli, Mehmed III Adlî ............... 1566-1603 "the Just"

22 Dec 1603 - 22 Nov 1617 Osmanli, Ahmed I Bakhti ................ 1590-1617 "the Fortunate"

22 Nov 1617 - 26 Feb 1618 Osmanli, Mustafa I Delî (1st Time) ..... 1592-1639

26 Feb 1618 - 20 May 1622 Osmanli, Osman II Genç ................. 1603-1622 "the Young"

20 May 1622 - 10 Sep 1623 Osmanli, Mustafa I Delî (2nd Time)

10 Sep 1623 - 09 Feb 1640 Osmanli, Murad IV Ghazi ................ 1612-1640 "the Warrior"

09 Feb 1640 - 08 Aug 1648 Osmanli, Ibrahim I Delî ................ 1615-1648

08 Aug 1648 - 08 Nov 1687 Osmanli, Mehmed IV Avci ................ 1641-1692 "the Hunter"

08 Nov 1687 - 23 Jun 1691 Osmanli, Süleyman II Ghazi ............. 1644-1691

23 Jun 1691 - 06 Feb 1695 Osmanli, Ahmed II Khan Ghazi ........... 1642-1695

06 Feb 1695 - 22 Aug 1703 Osmanli, Mustafa II Ghazi .............. 1664-1703

22 Aug 1703 - 01 Oct 1730 Osmanli, Ahmed III Ghazi ............... 1673-1736

01 Oct 1730 - 14 Dec 1754 Osmanli, Mahmud I Kambur ............... 1696-1754

14 Dec 1754 - 30 Oct 1757 Osmanli, Osman III Sofu ................ 1696-1757 "the Devout"

30 Oct 1757 - 21 Jan 1774 Osmanli, Mustafa III Yenîlîkçi ......... 1717-1774

21 Jan 1774 - 07 Apr 1789 Osmanli, Abdülhamid I Islahatçi ........ 1725-1789

07 Apr 1789 - 29 May 1807 Osmanli, Selim III Bestekâr ............ 1761-1808

29 May 1807 - 28 Jul 1808 Osmanli, Mustafa IV .................... 1779-1808

28 Jul 1808 - 01 Jul 1839 Osmanli, Mahmud II Inkilâpçi ........... 1785-1839

01 Jul 1839 - 25 Jun 1861 Osmanli, Abdülmecid I Tanzîmatçi ....... 1823-1861

25 Jun 1861 - 30 May 1876 Osmanli, Abdülâziz Bahtsiz ............. 1830-1876

30 May      - 31 Aug 1876 Osmanli, Mehmed Murad V ................ 1840-1904

31 Aug 1876 - 27 Apr 1909 Osmanli, Abdülhamid II ................. 1842-1918

27 Apr 1909 - 03 Jul 1918 Osmanli, Mehmed V Reshâd ............... 1844-1918

03 Jul 1918 - 19 Nov 1922 Osmanli, Mehmed VI ..................... 1861-1926

(left the capital 19 Jun 1922,

as Caliph only from 4 Nov 1922)

24 Nov 1922 - 30 Oct 1923 Osmanli, Abdülmecid II Halîfe .......... 1868-1944

(as Caliph only continues to 03 Mar 1924)

 

 

Sadrazam (Grand Viziers)

1497 - 1498 Hersekzade Ahmad Pasha (1st Time) ...... 1459-1517

(Stjepan Vukcic Kosaca Hercegovic)

1501 - 1503 Hadim Ali Pasha

1503 - 1506 Hersekzade Ahmad Pasha (2nd Time)

1506 - 1511

1511 Hersekzade Ahmad Pasha (3rd Time)

1511 - 1512 Koca Mustafa Pasha

1512 - 28 Nov 1514 Hersekzade Ahmad Pasha (4th Time)

18 Dec 1514 - 08 Sep 1515 Dukakinzade Ahmad Pasha

08 Sep 1515 - 26 Apr 1516 Hersekzade Ahmad Pasha (5th Time)

26 Apr 1516 - 22 Jan 1517 Hadim Sinan Pasha Borovic .............. 14..-1517

22 Jan - 13 Sep 1517 Yunus Pasha

25 Jan 1518 - 27 Jun 1523 Piri Mehmed Pasha

27 Jun 1523 - 14 Mar 1536 Pargali "Frenk" Ibrahim Pasha .......... 1493-1536 "the Westerner"

14 Mar 1536 - 13 Jul 1539 Ayas Mehmed Pasha ...................... 1483-1539

13 Jul 1539 - Apr 1541 Damat Çelebi Lütfi Pasha ibn Abd al-Min 1488-1564

Apr 1541 - 28 Nov 1544 Hadim Suleiman Pasha

28 Nov 1544 - 06 Oct 1553 Kehle-i-ikbâl Rüstem Pasha Opukovic .... 1500-1561

(1st Time)

06 Oct 1553 - 29 Sep 1555 Kara Ahmed Pasha

29 Sep 1555 - 10 Jul 1561 Kehle-i-ikbâl Rüstem Pasha Opukovic

(2nd Time)

10 Jul 1561 - 28 Jun 1565 Semiz Ali Pasha

28 Jun 1565 - 11 Oct 1579 Sokollu Mehmed Pasha ................... 1506-1579

(Mehmed-Pasha Sokolovic)

12 Oct 1579 - 28 Apr 1580 Shemsi Ahmet Pasha ..................... 1492-1580

28 Apr - 07 Aug 1580 Vekil-i Saltanat Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 1500-1580

07 Aug 1580 - 06 Dec 1582 Koca Sinan Pasha (1st Time) ............ 1506-1596

24 Dec 1582 - 25 Jul 1584 Kanijeli Siyavush Pasha (1st Time)

25 Jul 1584 - 29 Oct 1585 Özdemiroglu Osman Pasha ................ 1527-1585

01 Nov 1585 - 14 Apr 1586 Hadim Mesih Pasha

14 Apr 1586 - 02 Apr 1589 Kanijeli Siyavush Pasha (2nd Time)

14 Apr 1589 - 01 Aug 1591 Koca Sinan Pasha (2nd Time)

01 Aug 1591 - 04 Apr 1592 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (1st Time)

04 Apr 1592 - 28 Jan 1593 Kanijeli Siyavush Pasha (3rd Time)

28 Jan 1593 - 16 Feb 1595 Koca Sinan Pasha (3rd Time)

16 Feb - 07 Jul 1595 Serdar Ferhad Pasha (2nd Time)

07 Jul - 19 Nov 1595 Koca Sinan Pasha (4th Time)

19 Nov - 28 Nov 1595 Tekeli Mehmed Pasha

01 Dec 1595 - 03 Apr 1596 Koca Sinan Pasha (5th Time)

04 Apr - 27 Oct 1596 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (1st Time) ......... 1517-1601

27 Oct - 05 Dec 1596 Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha ........... 1545-1605

05 Dec 1596 - 03 Nov 1597 Damat Ibrahim Pasha (2nd Time)

03 Nov 1597 - 09 Apr 1598 Hadim Hasan Pasha

09 Apr 1598 - 06 Jan 1599 Cerrah Mehmed Pasha

06 Jan 1599 - 10 Jul 1601 Damat Ibrahim Pasha

22 Jul 1601 - 04 Oct 1603 Yemishçi Hasan Pasha

04 Oct 1601 - 26 Jul 1604 Malkoç Yavuz Ali Pasha

05 Aug 1604 - 21 Jul 1606 Sokolluzade Lala Mehmed Pasha

21 Jul - 09 Dec 1606 Dervish Mehmet Pasha

11 Dec 1606 - 05 Aug 1611 Kuyucu Murad Pasha

05 Aug 1611 - 17 Oct 1614 Gümülcineli Damat Nasut Pasha

17 Oct 1614 - 17 Nov 1616 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (1st Time)

17 Nov 1616 - 18 Jan 1619 Damat Halil Pasha

18 Jan - 23 Dec 1619 Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha

(2nd Time)

23 Dec 1619 - 09 Mar 1621 Güzelce Ali Pasha

09 Mar - 17 Sep 1621 Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha

17 Sep 1621 - 20 May 1622 Dilaver Pasha

20 May - 13 Jun 1622 Kara Davud Pasha

13 Jun - 08 Aug 1622 Mere Hüseyin Pasha (1st Time)

08 Aug - 21 Sep 1622 Lefkeli Mehmed Pasha

21 Sep 1622 - 05 Feb 1623 Gürcü Mehmed Pasha

05 Feb - 30 Aug 1623 Mere Hüseyin Pasha

(2nd Time)

30 Aug 1623 - 03 Apr 1624 Kemankesh Kara Ali Pasha

03 Apr 1624 - 28 Jan 1625 Çerkes Mehmed Ali Pasha

08 Feb 1625 - 01 Dec 1626 Filibeli Hafiz Ahmed Pasha

(1st Time)

01 Dec 1626 - 06 Apr 1628 Damat Halil Pasha (2nd Time)

06 Apr 1628 - 25 Oct 1631 Gazi Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha

25 Oct 1631 - 10 Feb 1632 Filibeli Hafiz Ahmed Pasha

(2nd Time)

10 Feb - 18 May 1632 Topal Recep Pasha

18 May 1632 - 02 Feb 1637 Tabaniyassi Mehmed Pasha

02 Feb 1637 - 26 Aug 1638 Bayram Pasha

27 Aug - 23 Dec 1638 Tayyar Mehmed Pasha

23 Dec 1638 - 31 Jan 1644 Kemankes Kara Mustafa Pasha

31 Jan 1644 - 17 Dec 1645 Sultanzade Semiz Mehmed Pasha

17 Dec 1645 - 16 Sep 1647 Nevesinli Salih Pasha

21 Sep 1647 - 07 Aug 1648 Herzarpare Ahmed Pasha

07 Aug 1648 - 21 May 1649 Sofu Mehmed Pasha

21 May 1649 - 05 Aug 1651 Kara Dev Murad Pasha

05 Aug - 21 Aug 1651 Melek Ahmad Pasha

21 Aug - 27 Sep 1651 Abaza Siyavus Pasha

27 Sep 1651 - 20 Jun 1652 Gürcü Mehmed Pasha

20 Jun 1652 - 21 Mar 1653 Tarhoncu Ahmed Pasha

21 Mar 1653 - 28 Oct 1654 Koca Devish Mehmed Pasha

28 Oct 1654 - 11 May 1655 Ipsiri Mustafa Pasha

11 May - 19 Aug 1655 Kara Dev Murad Pasha

19 Aug 1655 - 28 Feb 1656 Ermeni Suleyman Pasha

28 Feb - 05 Mar 1656 Gazi Hüseyin Pasha

(Did not take office)

05 Mar - 25 Apr 1656 Abaza Siyavus Pasha

26 Apr - 15 Sep 1656 Boynuyarali Mehmed Pasha

15 Sep 1656 - 31 Oct 1661 Köprülü Mehmed Pasha ................... 1575-1661

31 Oct 1661 - 19 Oct 1676 Köprülü Fazli Ahmed Pasha

19 Oct 1676 - 25 Dec 1683 Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha

25 Dec 1683 - 18 Nov 1685 Kara Ibrahim Pasha

18 Nov 1685 - 18 Sep 1687 Sari Süleyman Pasha

18 Sep 1687 - 02 May 1688 Ayasli Ismail Pasha

30 May 1688 - 07 Nov 1689 Bekri Mustafa Pasha

07 Nov 1689 - 19 Aug 1691 Köprülü Fazil Mustafa Pasha

24 Aug 1691 - 21 Mar 1692 Arabaci Ali Pasha

21 Mar 1692 - 17 Mar 1693 Merfizonlu Haci Ali Pasha

17 Mar 1693 - Mar 1694 Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha

13 Mar 1694 - 22 Apr 1695 Sürmeli Ali Pasha

03 Mar 1695 - 11 Sep 1697 Elmas Mehmed Pasha

17 Sep 1697 - 04 Sep 1702 Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha

04 Sep 1702 - 24 Jan 1703 Daltaban Mustafa Pasha

24 Jan - 22 Aug 1703 Rami Mehmed Pasa

22 Aug - 17 Nov 1703 Kavanoz Nisanci Ahmed Pasha

17 Nov 1703 - 28 Sep 1704 Damad Hasan Pasha

28 Sep - 25 Dec 1704 Kalaylikoz Haci Ahmed Pasha

25 Dec 1704 - 03 May 1706 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (1st Time)

03 May 1706 - 16 Jun 1710 Damad Çorlulu Ali Pasha

16 Jun - 18 Aug 1710 Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha

18 Aug 1710 - 20 Nov 1711 Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (2nd Time)

20 Nov 1711 - 12 Nov 1712 Aga Yusuf Pasha

12 Nov 1712 - 06 Apr 1713 Silahdar Süleyman Pasha

06 Apr - 27 Apr 1713 Ibrahim Hoca Pasha

27 Apr 1713 - 05 Aug 1716 Sehid Damed Silhadar Ali Pasha

05 Aug 1716 - 26 Aug 1717 Haci Halil Pasha

26 Aug 1717 - 09 May 1718 Nisanci Mehmed Pasha

09 May 1718 - 01 Oct 1730 Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha

01 Oct 1730 - 22 Jan 1731 Damad Silhadar Mehmed Pasha

22 Jan - 10 Sep 1731 Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha

10 Sep 1731 - 12 Mar 1732 Topal Osman Pasha

12 Mar 1732 - 12 Jul 1735 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (1st Time)

12 Jul 1735 - 09 Jan 1736 Gürcü Ismail Pasha

09 Jan 1736 - 06 Aug 1737 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha

06 Aug - 19 Dec 1737 Muhsinzade Abdullah Çelebi

19 Dec 1737 - 22 Mar 1739 Yegen Mehmed Pasha

22 Mar 1739 - 23 Jun 1740 Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha

22 Jul 1740 - 21 Apr 1742 Nisanci Haci Ahmed Pasha

21 Apr - 23 Sep 1742 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (2nd Time)

23 Sep 1742 - 09 Aug 1746 Said Hasan Pasha

09 Aug 1746 - 24 Aug 1747 Tiryaki Haci Mehmed Pasha

24 Aug 1747 - 03 Jan 1750 Boynuegri Seyyid Abdullah Pasha

03 Jul 1750 - 01 Jul 1753 Divitdar Mehmed Pasha

01 Jul 1753 - 15 Feb 1755 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha

(1st Time)

15 Feb - 18 May 1755 Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (3rd Time)

18 May - 24 Aug 1755 Nalli Abdullah Pasha

24 Aug - 25 Oct 1755 Nisaci Biyikli Ali Pasha

25 Oct 1755 - 01 Apr 1756 Mehmed Said Pasha

01 Apr 1756 - 11 Jan 1757 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha

(2nd Time)

11 Jan 1757 - 08 Apr 1763 Koca Mehmed Ragib Pasha

08 Apr - 01 Nov 1763 Hamza Hamid Pasha

01 Nov 1763 - 28 Mar 1765 Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha

(3rd Time)

28 Mar 1765 - 07 Aug 1768 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (1st Time)

07 Aug - 20 Oct 1768 Silahdar Mahir Hamza Pasha

20 Oct 1768 - 12 Aug 1769 Yaglikçizade Nisani Mehmed Emin Pasha

12 Aug - 12 Dec 1769 Moldovanci Ali Pasha

12 Dec 1769 - 25 Dec 1770 Ivazzade Halil Pasha

25 Dec 1770 - 11 Dec 1771 Silahdar Mehmed Pasha .................. 1710-1771

11 Dec 1711 - 04 Aug 1774 Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (2nd Time)

04 Aug 1774 - 06 Jul 1775 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (1st Time) .......... 1732-1783

06 Jul 1775 - 05 Dec 1777 Dervis Mehmed Pasha .................... 1730-1777

05 Dec 1777 - 01 Sep 1778 Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha ...... 1716-1784

01 Sep 1778 - 21 Aug 1779 Kalafat Mehmed Pasha ................... 17..-1792

21 Aug 1779 - 20 Feb 1781 Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha ........... 1735-1781

20 Feb 1781 - 25 Aug 1782 Izzet Mehmed Pasha (2nd Time)

25 Aug - 31 Dec 1782 Yegen Haci Mehmed Pasha ................ 1726-1786

01 Jan 1783 - 31 Mar 1785 Halil Hamid Pasha ...................... 1736-1785

31 Mar 1785 - 24 Jan 1786 Sahin Ali Pasha ........................ 17..-1789

24 Jan 1786 - 28 May 1789 Koca Yusuf Pasha (1st Time) ............ 1730-1800

28 May - 03 Dec 1789 Kethuda Çerkes Hasan Pasha

03 Dec 1789 - 30 Mar 1790 Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha ............. 1713-1790

30 Mar 1790 - 15 Feb 1791 Rusçuklu Cezayirli Hasan Serif Pasha ... 17..-1791

15 Feb 1791 - 04 May 1792 Koca Yusuf Pasha (2nd Time)

04 May 1792 - 19 Oct 1794 Damad Melek Mehmed Pasha ............... 1720-1802

19 Oct 1794 - 30 Aug 1798 Izzet Mehmed Pasha ..................... 1743-1812

30 Aug 1798 - 24 Apr 1805 Yusuf Zitaüddin Pasha (1st Time) ....... 17..-1819

24 Apr 1805 - 14 Nov 1806 Hafiz Ismail Pasha ..................... 1758-1807

14 Nov 1806 - 18 Jun 1807 Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha .................... 1747-1817

18 Jun 1808 - 28 Jul 1808 Çelebi Mustafa Pasha ................... 17..-1810

28 Jul - 15 Nov 1808 Alemdar Musrafa Pasha .................. 1775-1808

15 Nov 1808 - 01 Jan 1809 Menis Pasha ............................ 17..-1809

01 Jan 1809 - 10 Apr 1811 Yusuf Ziyadüddin Pasha (2nd Time)

10 Apr 1811 - 05 Sep 1812 Laz Ahmad Pasha ........................ 17..-1819

05 Sep 1812 - 01 Apr 1815 Hursid Ahmed Pasha ..................... 17..-1812

01 Apr 1815 - 05 Jan 1818 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (1st Time) ...... 1780-1859

05 Jan 1818 - 05 Jan 1820 Dervis Mehmed Pasha .................... 1765-1837

05 Jan 1820 - 26 Mar 1821 Seyyid Ali Pasha ....................... 1756-1826

28 Mar - 30 Apr 1821 Benderli Ali Pasha ..................... 17..-1821

30 Apr 1821 - 10 Nov 1822 Haci Salih Pasha ....................... 17..-1823

10 Nov 1822 - 10 Mar 1823 Hamdullah Abdullah Pasha ............... 17..-1823

10 Mar - 13 Dec 1823 Silahdar Ali Pasha ..................... 17..-1829

13 Dec 1823 - 14 Sep 1824 Mehmed Said Galip Pasha ................ 1763-1829

14 Sep 1824 - 24 Oct 1828 Benderli Selim Sirri Pasha ............. 1771-1831

24 Oct 1828 - 28 Jan 1829 Izzet Mehmet Pasha (1st Time)

28 Jan 1829 - 18 Feb 1833 Resid Mehmed Pasha ..................... 1780-1836

18 Feb 1833 - 02 Jul 1839 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (2nd Time)

02 Jul 1839 - 08 Jun 1840 Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha .................... 1769-1855

08 Jun 1840 - 04 Dec 1841 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (3rd Time)

04 Dec 1841 - 30 Aug 1842 Izzet Mehmet Pasha (2nd Time)

30 Aug 1842 - 28 Sep 1846 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (4th Time)

28 Sep 1846 - 29 Apr 1848 Mustafa Resid Pasha (1st Time) ......... 1800-1858

29 Apr - 12 Aug 1848 Ibrahim Sarim Pasha .................... 1801-1853

12 Aug 1848 - 26 Jan 1852 Mustafa Resid Pasha (2nd Time)

26 Jan - 05 Mar 1852 Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (5th Time)

05 Mar - 06 Aug 1852 Mustafa Resid Pasha (3rd Time)

06 Aug - 03 Oct 1852 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (1st Time) ....... 1815-1871

03 Oct 1852 - 14 May 1853 Damad Mehmed Ali Pasha ................. 1813-1868

14 May 1853 - 29 May 1854 Mustafa Naili Pasha (1st Time) ......... 1798-1871

29 May - 23 Nov 1854 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (1st Time) ....... 1813-1865

23 Nov 1854 - 02 May 1855 Mustafa Resid Pasha (4th Time)

02 May 1855 - 01 Nov 1856 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (2nd Time)

01 Nov 1856 - 06 Aug 1857 Mustafa Resid Pasha (5th Time)

06 Aug - 22 Oct 1857 Mustafa Naili Pasha (2nd Time)

22 Oct 1857 - 07 Jan 1858 Mustafa Resid Pasha (6th Time)

07 Jan 1858 - 18 Oct 1859 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (3rd Time)

18 Oct - 24 Dec 1859 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (2nd Time)

24 Dec 1859 - 28 May 1860 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (1st Time) . 1811-1882

28 May 1860 - 06 Aug 1861 Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (3rd Time)

06 Aug - 22 Nov 1861 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (4th Time)

22 Nov 1861 - 05 Jan 1863 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (1st Time) 1815-1869

05 Jan - 01 Jul 1863 Yusuf Kamil Pasha ...................... 1808-1876

01 Jul 1863 - 05 Jun 1866 Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (2nd Time)

05 Jun 1866 - 11 Feb 1867 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (2nd Time)

11 Feb 1867 - 07 Sep 1871 Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (5th Time)

07 Sep 1871 - 31 Jul 1872 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (1st Time) .......... 1818-1883

01 Aug - 19 Oct 1872 Midhat Pasha (1st Time) ................ 1822-1884

19 Oct 1872 - 15 Mar 1873 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (3rd Time)

15 Mar - 15 Apr 1873 Mehmed Esad Pasha (1st Time) ........... 1828-1875

15 Apr 1873 - 15 Feb 1874 Sirvanizade Mehmed Rüstü Pasha ......... 1828-1874

15 Feb 1874 - 26 Apr 1875 Hüseyin Avni Pasha ..................... 1820-1876

26 Apr - 12 May 1875 Mehmed Esad Pasha (2nd Time)

26 Aug 1875 - 12 May 1876 Mahmud Nedim Pasha (2nd Time)

12 May - 19 Dec 1876 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (4th Time)

19 Dec 1876 - 05 Feb 1877 Midhat Pasha (2nd Time)

05 Feb 1877 - 11 Jan 1878 Tunuslu Ibrahim Edhem Pasha ............ 1818-1893

Chief Ministers

11 Jan - 04 Feb 1878 Ahmed Hamdi Pasha ...................... 1826-1885

04 Feb - 18 Apr 1878 Ahmed Vefik Pasha (1st Time) ........... 1823-1891

18 Apr - 28 May 1878 Mehmed Sadik Pasha ..................... 1825-1901

28 May - 04 Jun 1878 Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (5th Time)

04 Jun - 04 Dec 1878 Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha ............... 1814-1883

04 Dec 1878 - 29 Jul 1879 Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha ................ 1821-1890

29 Jul - 18 Oct 1879 Ahmet Arifi Pasha ...................... 1830-1895

18 Oct 1879 - 09 Jun 1880 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (1st Time) ..... 1838-1914

09 Jun - 12 Sep 1880 Mehmed Kadri Pasha ..................... 1832-1884

12 Sep 1880 - 02 May 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (2nd Time)

02 May - 12 Jul 1882 Abdurrahman Nureddin Pasha ............. 1833-1912

12 Jul - 01 Dec 1882 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd Time)

01 Dec - 31 Dec 1882 Ahmed Vefik Pasha (2nd Time)

Grand Viziers

01 Jan 1883 - 25 Sep 1885 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (4th Time)

25 Sep 1885 - 04 Sep 1891 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (1st Time) . 1832-1913

04 Sep 1891 - 08 Jun 1895 Ahmed Cevad Pasha ...................... 1851-1900

08 Jun - 02 Oct 1895 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (5th Time)

02 Oct - 07 Nov 1895 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (2nd Time)

07 Nov 1895 - 09 Nov 1901 Halil Rifat Pasha ...................... 1820-1901

09 Nov 1901 - 14 Jan 1903 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (3rd Time)

14 Jan 1903 - 22 Jul 1908 Mehmed Ferid Pasha ..................... 1852-1914

22 Jul - 05 Aug 1908 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (6th Time)

05 Aug 1908 - 14 Feb 1909 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (3rd Time)

14 Feb - 14 Apr 1909 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (1st Time) ......... 1855-1922

14 Apr - 05 May 1909 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (1st Time) .......... 1845-1936

05 May 1909 - 12 Jan 1910 Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha (2nd Time)

12 Jan 1910 - 30 Sep 1911 Ibrahim Hakki Pasha .................... 1863-1918

30 Sep 1911 - 22 Jul 1912 Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (7th Time)

22 Jul - 29 Oct 1912 Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha ................ 1839-1918

29 Oct 1912 - 23 Jan 1913 Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (4th Time)

23 Jan - 11 Jun 1913 Mahmud Sevket Pasha .................... 1856-1913

11 Jun 1913 - 04 Feb 1917 Said Halim Pasha ....................... 1865-1921

04 Feb 1917 - 14 Oct 1918 Mehmed Talat Pasha ..................... 1874-1921

14 Oct - 11 Nov 1918 Ahmed Izzet Pasha ...................... 1864-1937

11 Nov 1918 - 04 Mar 1919 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (2nd Time)

04 Mar - 02 Oct 1919 Damad Adil Ferid Pasha (1st Time) ...... 1854-1923

02 Oct 1919 - 08 Mar 1920 Ali Riza Pasha ......................... 1859-1932

08 Mar - 05 Apr 1920 Hulusi Salih Pasha ..................... 1864-1939

05 Apr - 21 Oct 1920 Damad Adil Ferid Pasha (2nd Time)

21 Oct 1920 - 31 Oct 1922 Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (3rd Time)

 

Note: The title of Sultan (meaning "authority" in Arabic) was only used to

refere to the ruler in western sources. Within the empire, "Sultan" refered to

the entire imperial family and in particular to male members, who used it as

a style before their given names. The Ottoman ruler used the style Padishah

(Persian for Master-King), which is normally translated as "Emperor" in English.

 

The English name "Ottoman Empire" is an Anglicisation of the Greek Othoman,

which is derived from the Arabic name Uthman. In Turkish the name Uthman is

translated as Osman or Usman. The state was named after Osman I who founded

the empire. In Ottoman Turkish the empire was called Osmanli Develt (Osman State).

 

____________________________________________________________________________

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish Republic)

Government: Republic

Capital: Ankara

Language: Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, Arabic, Georgian.

Ethnic Groups: Turks 70-75%*, Kurds 18%, others 7% including: Tatars, Azeris, Yoruks, Armenians and Greeks.

Religion: Sunni Islam, Christianity.

National Anthem: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March).

National Emblem: None.

National Day: Republic day, 29th October (1923).

National Motto: Yurtta Baris, Dünyada Baris (Peace at home, Peace in the world).

Currency: Turkish Lira.

Presidents

30 Oct 1923 - 10 Nov 1938 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk .................. 1881-1938 CHP

11 Nov 1938 - 22 May 1950 Mustafa Ismet Inönü .................... 1884-1973 CHP

22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960 Mahmut Celal Bayar ..................... 1883-1986

28 May 1960 - 28 May 1966 Cemal Gürsel ........................... 1895-1966 Mil

28 May 1966 - 06 Apr 1973 Cevdet Sunay ........................... 1900-1982

06 May 1973 - 06 Apr 1980 Fahri Sabri Korutürk ................... 1903-1987

06 Apr - 12 Sep 1980 Ihsan Sabri Çaglayangil ................ 1908-1993

12 Sep 1980 - 09 Nov 1989 Ahmet Kenan Evren ...................... 1917-2015 Mil

09 Nov 1989 - 17 Apr 1993 Halil Turgut Özal ...................... 1927-1993 AP

17 Apr - 16 May 1993 Hüsamettin Cindoruk .................... 1933- DYP

(acting)

16 May 1993 - 16 May 2000 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel ......... 1924-2015 DYP

16 May 2000 - 28 Aug 2007 Ahmet Necdet Sezer ..................... 1941-

28 Aug 2007 - 28 Aug 2014 Abdullah Gül ........................... 1950- AKP

28 Aug 2014 - Recep Tayyip Erdogan ................... 1954- AKP

Prime Ministers

24 Jan 1921 - 12 Jul 1922 Fevzi Cakmak Pasha ..................... 1876-1950 CHP

(in opposition)

12 Jul 1922 - 14 Aug 1923 Hüseyin Raud Bey ....................... 1881-1964 CHP

(in opposition to 01 Nov 1922)

14 Aug - 30 Oct 1923 Ali Fethi Okyar Bey .................... 1880-1943 CHP

(1st Time)

30 Oct 1923 - 21 Nov 1924 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (1st Time)

21 Nov 1924 - 06 Mar 1925 Ali Fethi Okyar Bey (2nd Time)

06 Mar 1925 - 27 Sep 1937 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (2nd Time)

27 Sep 1937 - 25 Jan 1939 Mahmud Celal Bayar ..................... s.a

25 Jan 1939 - 08 Jul 1942 Refik Ibrahim Saydam ................... 1881-1942 CHP

08 Jul - 09 Jul 1942 Ahmet Fikri Tüzer ...................... 1878-1942 CHP

09 Jul 1942 - 07 Aug 1946 Mehmet Sükrü Saracoglu ................. 1887-1953 CHP

07 Aug 1946 - 09 Sep 1947 Mehmet Recep Peker ..................... 1888-1950 CHP

09 Sep 1947 - 16 Jan 1949 Hasan Saka ............................. 1886-1960 CHP

16 Jan 1949 - 22 May 1950 Mehmet Semsettin Günaltay .............. 1883-1961 CHP

22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960 Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes ............. 1899-1961

28 May 1960 - 30 Oct 1961 Cemal Gürsel

30 Oct - 20 Nov 1961 Fahri Özdilek .......................... 1898-1989

20 Nov 1961 - 21 Feb 1965 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (3rd Time)

21 Feb - 27 Oct 1965 Ali Suat Hayri Ürgüplü ................. 1903-1981

27 Oct 1965 - 26 Mar 1971 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel

(1st Time)

26 Mar 1971 - 17 Apr 1972 Ismail Nihat Erim ...................... 1912-1980

17 Apr 1972 - 15 Apr 1973 Ferit Sadi Melen ....................... 1906-1988

15 Apr 1973 - 25 Jan 1974 Mehmet Naim Talu ....................... 1919-1998

25 Jan - 17 Nov 1974 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit .................. 1925-2006 CHP

(1st Time)

17 Nov 1974 - 31 Mar 1975 Mahmut Sadi Irmak ...................... 1904-1990

31 Mar 1975 - 21 Jun 1977 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel

(2nd Time)

21 Jun - 11 Jul 1977 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (2nd Time)

11 Jul 1977 - 05 Jan 1978 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel

(3rd Time)

05 Jan 1978 - 12 Nov 1979 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (3rd Time)

12 Nov 1979 - 12 Sep 1980 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel

(4th Time)

20 Sep 1980 - 13 Dec 1983 Saim Bülent Ülüsü ...................... 1923-2015

13 Dec 1983 - 31 Oct 1989 Halil Turgut Özal ...................... s.a AP

01 Nov - 09 Nov 1989 Ali Hüsrev Bozer ....................... 1925- AP

09 Nov 1989 - 23 Jun 1991 Yildirim Akbulut ....................... 1935- AP

23 Jun - 20 Nov 1991 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (1st Time) .......... 1947- AP

20 Nov 1991 - 25 Jun 1993 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel

(5th Time)

16 May - 25 Jun 1993 Erdal Inönü ............................ 1926-2007

25 Jun 1993 - 06 Mar 1996 Tansu Penbe Çiller ..................... 1946- DYP

06 Mar - 28 Jun 1996 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (2nd Time)

28 Jun 1996 - 30 Jun 1997 Necmettin Erbakan ...................... 1926-2011

30 Jun 1997 - 11 Jan 1999 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (3rd Time)

11 Jan 1999 - 18 Nov 2002 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (4th Time)

18 Nov 2002 - 14 Mar 2003 Abdullah Güll .......................... s.a AKP

14 Mar 2003 - 28 Aug 2014 Recep Tayyip Erdogan ................... s.a AKP

28 Aug 2014 - 24 May 2016 Ahmet Davutoglu ........................ 1959- AKP

24 May 2016 - Binali Yıldırım ........................ 1955- AKP

 

 

AKP=Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi (Justice and Development Party, Islamic Democracy, conservative)

AP=Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party, Turkish Nationalist, former DYP)

CHP=Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party, Kemalism, social democratic)

MHP=Miliyetçi Hareket Partisi (National Movement Party, Turkish Nationalist, Far-right)

Mil=Military.

*Note: This includes Albanian, Slavic, Circassian, Tatar, Ossetian, Abkhazian,

Lak, Laz, Pomak, and Zaza Muslims expelled (or those who emigrated) from

the former Ottoman territories and the Russian Empire.

___________________________________________________________________________

Kurdistan

 

1514                      Kurdish Principalities under Ottoman suzreignty

1870                      Principalities abolished

10 Aug 1920               Kurdish state promised in the Treaty of Sèvres,

                           but never implemented

 

Emires of Baban

1649-1670 Faki Ahmad

1670-1703 Baba Sulaiman

1721-1731 Khana Mohammad Pasha

1731-1742 Khalid Pasha

1742-1754 Salim Pasha

1754-1765 Sulaiman Pasha I

1765-1775 Mohammad Pasha II

1775-1777 Abdollah Pasha I

1777-1780 Ahmad Pasha I

1780-1782 Mahmoud Pasha I

1782-1803 Ibrahim Pasha

1803-1813 Abdorrahman Pasha

1813-1834 Mahmoud Pasha II

1834-1838 Sulaiman Pasha II

1838-1847 Ahmad Pasha II

1847-1849 Abdollah Pasha II

Emires of Soran

Kelos

Isa

Shah Ali Bey

Pir Budak bin Shah Ali Bey

Mir Saifeddin

Mir Hussain

Mir Saidi bin Shah Ali Bey

Emir Saifeddin bin Mir Hussain bin Pir Budak

Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey Mir Saidi

Budak Bey bin Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Sulaiman Bey bin Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Ali Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Shkali Bey

17.. - 1816               Sulaiman Bey

1816 - 1825               Khanzad

1825 - 1836               Mohammed Pasha Mir Kor

 

President of the Republic of Ararat

28 Oct 1927 - 25 Jul 1931 Biroyê Heskê Teli ...................... 1931-

Military Leader

28 Oct 1927 -    Sep 1930 Ihsan Nuri Pasha ....................... 1893-1976

Presidents of the Kurdistan Parliament (in Brussels, Belgium, exile)

26 Mar      - 12 Apr 1995 Ismet Cheriff Vanly .................... 1934-

12 Apr 1995 - 26 Sep 1999 Yasha Kayar ............................ 1938-

President of the Kurdish National Congress (in London, UK, exile)

24 May 1999 -             Dr. Jawad Mella ........................ 1946-

____________________________________________________________________________

©2015

©2005