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Vatican City

 

Emblem of the Papacy

c.60 AD Church of Rome established by St. Peter

14 Apr 754 Status Pontificius / Stato della Chiesa, temperal

Papal States for the Pope by the Donation of Pepin

28 Aug 846 Arabs sack Rome

13 Feb 962 Donation of Pepin confirmed by Holy Roman Emperor Otto I

24 Jul 1177 Treaty of Venice recognised the Papal power

over the city of Rome

09 Mar 1309 - 17 Jan 1377 Papacy relocates to Avignon

20 May - 15 Dec 1347 Failed attempted to restore the Roman Republic

29 May - 1434 Roman Republic declared in rebelion

31 Dec 1494 - 28 Jan 1495 French occupation

10 Feb - 27 Nov 1798 French occupation

15 Feb 1798 - 30 Sep 1799 Roman Republic

27 Nov - 12 Dec 1798 Occupied by Naples

11 Jul - 28 Sep 1799 French re-occupation

30 Sep 1799 - 03 Jul 1800 Re-occupied by Naples

03 Jul 1800 Papal State restored

02 Feb 1808 - 17 May 1809 French occupation

17 May 1809 - 14 Mar 1814 Annexed by French Empire

22 Mar - 22 May 1815 Occupied by Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples

22 May - 07 Jun 1815 Austrian occupation

07 Jun 1815 Papal States re-restored

09 Feb - 04 Jul 1849 Roman Republic (in rebellion)

03 Jul - 03 Aug 1849 French occupation

03 Aug 1849 - 07 Aug 1870 Rome garrisoned by Imperial French troops

18 Mar 1860 Sardinia annexes Romagna

17 Dec 1860 Umbria and the Marche annexed by Sardinia

17 Mar 1861 Italian unification under Sardinia (without Lazio)

20 Sep 1870 Rome occupied by Italy

20 Sep 1870 - 11 Feb 1929 Captivus Vatican, the Pope called the "prisoner in

the Vatican"

09 Oct 1870 The remainder of the Papal State (Lazio) annexed by Italy

07 Jun 1929 Vatican City independent of Italy

22 Dec 1947 Italian republican constitution enshrines

the Lateran Treaty

 

Government: Ecclesiastical-Monarchy.

Capital: Vatican City.

Language: Latin.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

National Anthem: "Inno e Marcia Pontificale" (Hymn and Pontifical March).

National Emblem: Arms of the Holy See.

National Day: Election day of the Pope, 13 March (2013)

National Motto: Miserando Atque Eligendo (By Giving mercy and by choosing)

EU Accession: No.

Currency: Euro (Vatican Lira 1929-2001).

 

Popes (as 'Prisoners in the Vatican')

09 Oct 1870 - 07 Feb 1878 Pius IX ................................... 1792-1878

20 Feb 1878 - 20 Jul 1903 Leo XIII .................................. 1810-1903

04 Aug 1903 - 20 Aug 1914 Pius X .................................... 1835-1914

03 Sep 1914 - 22 Jan 1922 Benedictus XV ............................. 1854-1922

06 Feb 1922 - 07 Jun 1929 Pius XI ................................... 1857-1939

Sovereigns (Popes of the Roman Catholic Church)

07 Jun 1929 - 10 Feb 1939 Pius XI ................................... s.a

10 Feb - 02 Mar 1939 Gennaro Cardinal Granito

Pignatelli di Belmonte ................... 1851-1948

+ Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli ................ 1876-1958

02 Mar 1939 - 09 Oct 1958 Pius XII

09 Oct - 28 Oct 1958 Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent

Cardinal Tisserant (1st Time) ............ 1884-1972

+ Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi Masella ....... 1879-1970

(1st Time)

28 Oct 1958 - 03 Jun 1963 Ioannes XXIII ............................. 1881-1963

03 Jun - 21 Jun 1963 Eugène-Gabriel-Gervais-Laurent

Cardinal Tisserant (2nd Time)

+ Benedetto Cardinal Aloisi Masella (2nd Time)

21 Jun 1963 - 06 Aug 1978 Paulus VI ................................. 1897-1978

06 Aug - 26 Aug 1978 Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri (1st Time) .... 1893-1986

+ Jean Cardinal Villot (1st Time) ......... 1905-1979

26 Aug - 28 Sep 1978 Ioannes Paulus I .......................... 1912-1978

28 Sep - 16 Oct 1978 Carlo Cardinal Confalonieri (2nd Time)

+ Jean Cardinal Villot (2nd Time)

16 Oct 1978 - 02 Apr 2005 Ioannes Paulus II ......................... 1920-2005

02 Apr - 19 Apr 2005 Josef Cardinal Ratzinger .................. 1927-

+ Eduardo Cardinal Martínez Somalo

19 Apr 2005 - 28 Feb 2013 Benedictus XVI ............................ s.a

28 Feb - 13 Mar 2013 Angelo Cardinal Sodano .................... 1927-

+ Tarcisio Cardinal Bartone ............... 1934-

13 Mar 2013 - Franciscus I .............................. 1936-

 

Secretaries of State

19 Oct 1870 - 06 Nov 1876 Giacomo Cardinal Antonelli

18 Dec 1876 - 07 Feb 1878 Giovanni Cardinal Simeoni

05 Mar - 31 Jul 1878 Alessandro Cardinal Franchi

09 Aug 1878 - 16 Dec 1880 Lorenzo Cardinal Nina

16 Dec 1880 - 28 Feb 1887 Lodovico Cardinal Jacobini

01 Jun 1887 - 29 Jul 1903 Mariano Cardinal Rampolla,

marchese del Tindaro

01 Aug 1903 - 20 Aug 1914 Raffaele Cardinal Del Val

13 Oct 1914 - 09 Feb 1930 Pietro Cardinal Gasparri .................. 1852-1934

09 Feb 1930 - 10 Feb 1939 Eugenio Maria Giuseppe,

Cardinal Pacelli ......................... 1876-1958

10 Mar 1939 - 22 Aug 1944 Luigi Cardinal Maglione ................... 1877-1944

29 Nov 1952 - 30 Jul 1961 Domenico Tardini .......................... 1888-1961

14 Aug 1961 - 02 May 1969 Amleto Giovanni,

Cardinal Cicognani ....................... 1883-1973

02 May 1969 - 09 Mar 1979 Jean Marie Cardinal Villot ................ 1905-1979

30 Apr 1979 - 30 Nov 1990 Agostino Casaroli ......................... 1914-1998

01 Dec 1990 - 02 Apr 2005 Angelo Sodano (1st Time) .................. 1927-

02 Apr - 19 Apr 2005 Eduardo Martínez Cardinal Somalo

(acting)

21 Apr 2005 - 15 Sep 2006 Angelo Cardinal Sodano (2nd Time)

15 Sep 2006 - 15 Oct 2013 Tarcisio Pietro Evasio Cardinal Bertone ... 1934-

15 Oct 2013 - Pietro Parolin ............................ 1955-

 

 

Presidents of the Commission

20 Mar 1939 - 03 Aug 1961 Nicola Cardinal Canali .................... 1874-1961

12 Aug 1961 - 30 Apr 1969 Amleto Giovanni Cardinal Cicognani ........ s.a

14 Aug 1961 - 06 Nov 1968 Alberto Cardinal di Jorio ................. 1884-1979

(acting for Ciconani)

06 Nov 1968 - 30 Apr 1969 Sergio Guerri ............................. 1905-1992

(1st Time, acting for Ciconani)

02 May 1969 - 09 Mar 1979 Jean-Marie Cardinal Villot ................ s.a

09 Mar 1979 - 26 Sep 1981 Sergio Cardinal Guerri

(2nd Time, acting for Casaroli from 01 Jul 1979)

01 Jul 1979 - 08 Apr 1984 Agostino Cardinal Casaroli ................ s.a

08 Apr 1984 - 31 Oct 1990 Sebastiano Cardinal Baggio ................ 1913-1993

01 Nov 1990 - 14 Oct 1997 Rosalio José Cardinal Castillo Lara ....... 1922-2007

14 Oct 1997 - 15 Sep 2006 Edmund Kasimir Cardinal Szoka ............. 1927-2014

15 Sep 2006 - 30 Sep 2011 Giovanni Cardinal Lajolo .................. 1935-

01 Oct 2011 - Giuseppe Cardinal Bertello ................ 1942-

 

 

Governor of the State of the Vatican City

07 Jun 1929 - 21 Mar 1952 Camillo, marchese Serafini ................ 1864-1952

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