China

Zhonggou

Legendary Empire

c. 2200 - 1800 BC         Kingdom of Xia

1800 - 1722 BC            Kingdom of Shang

1016 - 249 BC             Kingdom of Zhou

304 - 439 BC              Era of Waring States

475 - 207 BC              Chinese Empire unified under Kingdom of Qin

207 - 202                 Han-Chu contention, Era of the Eighteen Kingdoms

28 Feb 202 BC             Han State

10 Dec 220 - 10 Jul 420   Era of disunity "Era of the Three Kingdoms"

10 Jul 420 - 10 Feb 589   Divided into Northern and Southern dynasties

12 May 907 - 979          Era of the "Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms"

04 Feb 960                Great Song State

09 Feb 1234               Mongol invasion begins

20 Mar 1270 - 20 Jan 1368 Yuan (Mongol) dynasty under Mongolian Empire

28 Jan 1368               Great Ming Empire (Da Ming [Ta Ming])

01 Oct 1644               Great Qing (Ta Ch'ing [Manchu]) Empire

   Dec 1850 - 18 Nov 1864 Taiping rebellion

28 May 1858               Russia annexes the Left-bank of the Amur river

14 Nov 1860               Russia annexes Right-bank of the Amur river

02 Jul 1895 - 25 Oct 1945 Taiwan annexed by Japan

02 Nov 1899 - 07 Sep 1901 Boxer rebellion

10 Oct 1911 - 12 Feb 1912 Xinhai Revolution

03 Dec 1911               Zhonghua Minguo (Republic of China)

12 Feb 1912               Abdication of the Xuantong Emperor

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Empire of China

22 Mar 1916               Republic of China (restored)

01 Jul      - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of the Great Qing Empire

12 Jul 1917               Republic of China (re-restored)

19 Feb 1920 - 03 Feb 1921 Mongolia reincorporated into China

10 Sep 1931 - 15 Aug 1945 Manchuria occupied by Japan

01 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Sovet Republic of China declared in Kiangsi

18 Feb 1932               Independence of Manchukuo (Japanese puppet state)

07 Jul 1937 - 15 Aug 1945 Japanese occupation of coastal provinces

17 Aug 1945 - 03 May 1946 Manchuria under Soviet occupation

01 Oct 1949               Zhonghua renmin gongheguo (People's Republic of China)

20 Oct 1949               Kashgaria (East Turkistan) re-incorporated into China

02 Dec 1949               Inner Mongolia re-integrated into China

07 Oct 1950               Tibet occupied by China (annexed 1951)

01 Jul 1997               Re-integration of Hong Kong

20 Dec 1999               Re-integration Macao


 


Note: This record uses the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system for standard Chinese used

in mainland China since 1958 and in western sources from 1980. Before these dates

romanization of standard Chinese had used the Wade-Giles system which became standard

in the nineteenth century. The Republic of China (Taiwan) continued to use Wade-Giles

until 2008, when it was officially replayced by Pinyin, though use of Wade-Giles

continues. Wade-Giles is still generally used for Chinese names in countries with large Chinese populations such as Singapore and Malaysia.


Pinyin pronounciations are as follows: b = p, d = t, g = k, j = ch, q = ch, x = sh,

                                      zh = j, z = ds, c = ts. i after z,c,s and zh,

                                       sh, r and x is pronounced as a continuation

                                       of the consonant with a z or as 'ur'.

                                       e.g Cixi: Tsur-shzz-ee.

Chinese Empire




Note: The Chinese emperors (huangdi) had four names. Ming, the personal or birth name which was never used directly or in reference to the emperor. Miaohao (Miao-hao), the temple name that was used postumosly. Shihao (Shih-hao), the posthumos name often combined with the temple name; and Niaohao (Nien-hao) - the era name. The emperor was always known by his era name, and refered to even after his death (except in earlier dynasties which used the temple name). The era name started as the emperor's own motto and could be changed semi-regually during the reign. The Ming dynasty emperors discontinued this practice and only one name was used for the entire reign. The Qing dynasty emperors followed the Manchu convention of not using one's personal and family name together, which was in complete contravention of Chinese tradition and considered a taboo when referring to the emperor.


Emperors (Legerndary)

- Three August Ones and Five Emperors -

You Chao (Da Chao)

Suiren (Sui-jen) "Fire Maker"

Fuxi (Fu Hsi [Pao-hsi]) "The Ox-tamer"

Yan Di Jiang Xen Nuwa (Yan Ti Ch'iang Hsen Nu-wa)

2698 - 2598 Huangdi Gongsun Xuan Yuan "Yellow Emperor"

Ji Shaohao Ji Tian

Di Ku Ji (Goa Xin [Koa-hsin)

Di Zhi (Ji Koa Hsin)

Yao Qi (Tang Tao)

Yao Yu (Di Xun [Ti Hsun])

Kingdom of Xia (Hsia)

2150-2106 Si Yu Di "The Great"

2106-2077 Si Qu

2077-2048 Si Tai Kang

2048-2036 Si Zhong Kong

2036-2008 Si Xiang

1968-1946 Shao Kang

1946-1929 Zhu 

1929-1885 Huai

1885-1867 Mang

1867-1851 Xie

1851-1792 Bu Jiang

1792-1771 Jiong

1771-1750 Jin

1750-1719 Kong

1719-1708 Gao

1708-1689 Fa

1689-1658 Jie

Kingdom of Shang

1658-1626 Tang

1629-1627 Wai Bong

Zhong Ren

Tai Jin

Wo Dong

Tai Gong

Xiao Zhin

Yong Zho

Tai Wu

Zhong Dong

Wai Ren

He Den Jin

Zo Yo

Wo Jin

Zo Dong

Nan Gong

Yang Jin

Pan Gong

Xiao Xan

Xiao Yu

Wo Dong

Zo Gong

1251-1250 Zu Zhin

1250-1191 Lon Xon

1191-1147 Gong Dong

1147-1112 Wu Yu

1112-1101 Tai Dong

1101-1076 Di Yo

1075-1046 Di Xan

Kingdom of Zhou

1046-1043 Ji Fa

          shi: Zhou Xiaowuwang

1043-1021 Ji Song

          shi: Zho Chengwang

1021-996 Ji Zhao

         shi: Zhou Kangwang

996-977 Ji Xia

        shi: Zhou Zhaowang

977-922 Ji Man

        shi: Zhou Muwang

922-900 Ji Yihu

        shi: Zhou Gongwang

900-892 Ji Jian

        shi: Zhou Yiwang I

892-885 Ji Pifang

        shi: Zhou Xiowang

885-878 Ji Xie

        shi: Zhou Yiwang II

877-841 Ji Li

        shi: Zhou Liwang

827-782 Ji Jang

        shi: Zhou Xuanwang

782-770 Ji Gongsheng

        shi: Zhou Youwang

770-720 Ji Yijiu

        shi: Zhou Pingwang

720-697 Ji Lin

        shi: Zhou Huanwang

697-681 Ji Tuo

        shi: Zhou Zhuanwang

681-676 Ji Huqi

        shi: Zhou Xiwang

676-652 Ji Xi

        shi: Zhou Huiwang I

652-619 Ji Lang

        shi: Zhou Xianwang

619-613 Ji Renchen

        shi: Zhou Qingwang

613-607 Ji Ban

        shi: Zhou Kuangwang

606-586 Ji Yu

        shi: Zhou Dingwang

586-572 Ji Yi

        shi: Zhou Jianwang

572-544 Ji Xiexin

        shi: Zhou Lingwang

544-521 Ji Gi

        shi: Zhou Jingwang I

521-519 Ji Meng

        shi: Zhou Daowang

519-476 Ji Gai

        shi: Zhou Jingwang II

476-469 Ji Ren

        shi: Zhou Yuanwang

469-441 Ji Jie

        shi: Zhou Zhendingwang

441     Ji Quji

        shi: Zhou Aiwang

441     Ji Shu

        shi: Zhou Siwang

440-426 Ji Wei

        shi: Zhou Kaowang

426-402 Ji Wu

        shi: Zhou Weiliewang

402-376 Ji Jiao

        shi: Zhou Anwang

376-369 Ji Xi

        shi: Zhou Liewang

369-321 Ji Bian

        shi: Zhou Xianwang

321-315 Ji Ding

        shi: Zhou Shenjingwang

315-256 Ji Yan

        shi: Zhou Nanwang

256-249 Ji Jie

        shi: Zhou Huiwang II

Kingdom of Qin, Qin Dynasty

       302 -        250 Ying Ze

                        shi: Zhaoxiang

       250 -        249 Ying Zhu

                        shi: Xiaowen

       249 -        247 Ying Zichu

                        shi: Zhuangxiang

07 May 247 - 10 Sep 210 Ying Zheng

                        shi: Qin Shihuangdi (The First Emperor)

10 Sep 210 -    Oct 207 Ying Huhai

                        shi: Er Shi Huangdi

       Oct -    Dec 207 Ying Ziying

Chu Dynasty

   Dec 207 -    Jan 205 Min Xin

                        shi: Yi / nianhao: Huai Il

Western Han Dyansty

28 Feb 202 - 01 Jun 195 Liu Bang

                        shi: Gaozu

01 Jun 195 -    Oct 188 Liu Ying

                        shi: Xiaohui

   Oct 188 -        184 Liu Gong

                        shi: Qiansho

       184 -    Oct 180 Liu Hong

                        shi: Houshaodi

   Oct 180 -    Jul 157 Liu Heng

                        miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Xiaowen

                        nianhao: Houyuan

   Jul 157 - 09 Mar 141 Liu Qi

                        miaohao: ? / shi: Jingdi

                        nianhao: Qianyuan

09 Mar 141 - 29 Mar 87 Liu Che

                       miaohao: Shizong / shi: Wudi

                       nianhao: 12 in total

30 Mar 87 - 74        Liu Fuling

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Zhaodi

                      nianhao: Yuanping

74 - 49               Liu Bingyi

                      miaohao: Zhongzhong/ shi: Xuan

                      nianhao: 8 in total

49 - 33               Liu Yi

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoyuan

                      nianhao: Yongguang

33 - 07               Liu Ao

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaocheng

                      nianhao: 7 in total

07 - 00               Liu Xin

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoai

                      nianhao: Jianping

00 - 05               Liu Kan

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoping

                      nianhao: Yuanshi

       05 - 10 Jan 09 Liu Ying

                      miaohao: ? / shi: Ruzi

                      nianhao: Jushe

Xin (Hsin) Dynasty

10 Jan 09 - 06 Oct 23 Wang Mang ................................. 45-23

                      nianhao: Shijianguo 9-13, Tianfeng 14-19, Dihuang 20-23

Easten Han Dynasty

07 Oct 23 - 24 Aug 25 Liu Xuan

                      miaohao: ?/ shi:

                      nianhao: Gengshi

25 Aug 25 - 29 Mar 57 Liu Xiu

                      miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Guangwu

                      nianhao: Jianwu

30 Mar 57 - 75        Liu Yang

                      miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Ming Di

                      nianhao: Yongping

75 - 88               Liu Da

                      miaohao: Suzong/ shi: Xiaozhang

                      nianhao: 3 in total

       88 -    Aug 105 Liu Zhao

                       miaohao: Muzong/ shi: Xiaohe

                       nianhao: Yongyuan

   Aug 105 -    Sep 106 Liu Long

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoshang

                        nianhao: Yanping

   Sep 106 - 125        Liu Hu

                        miaohao: Gongzong/ shi: Xiaoan

                        nianhao: 5 in total

125                     Liu Yi (Marquess of Beixiang)

                        nianhao: Yanguang

125 - 145               Liu Bao

                        miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Xiaoshun

                        nianhao: 5 in total

145 - 146               Liu Bing

                        shi: Xiaochong/ nianhao: Yongxi

146 - 147               Liu Zuan

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaozhi

                        nianhao: Benchu

147 - 168               Liu Zhi

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaohuan

                        nianhao: 7 in total

       168 - 13 May 189 Liu Hong

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoling

                        nianhao: 4 in total

15 May     - 28 Sep 189 Liu Bian

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Hongnong

                        nianhao: Zhaoning

28 Sep 190 - 10 Dec 220 Liu Xie

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoxian

                        nianhao: 5 in total

Kingdom of Han

       221 - 10 Jun 223 Liu Bei

                        miaohao: Xuande/ shi: Zhaolie

                        nianhao: Zhangwu

22 Jun 223 - 263        Liu Shan

                        miaohao: Gongsi/ shi: Xiaohuai

                        nianhao:4 in total

Kingdom of Wei

10 Dec 220 - 29 Jun 226 Cao Pi

                        miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Wen Di

                        nianhao: Huangchu

30 Jun 226 - 22 Jan 239 Cao Rui

                        miaohao: Liezu/ shi: Ming Di

                        nianhao: 3 in total

23 Jan 239 - 254        Cao Fang

                        miaohao: Lanqing/ shi: Qi Wang

                        nianhao: Zhengshi 240-49, Jiaping 249-54

254 - 260               Cao Mao

                        miaohao: Yanshi/ shi: Gaoguixiang Gong

                        nianhao: Zhengyuan 254-56, Ganlu 256-60

260 - 265               Cao Huan

                        miaohao: Jingming/ shi: Yuan Di

                        nianhao: Jingyuan 260-64, Xianxi 264-65

Kingdom of Wu

222 - 252               Sun Quan

                        miaohao: Zhongmou/ shi: Dongwudadi

                        nianhao: 6 in total

252 - 258               Sun Liang

                        miaohao: Fei Di/ shi: Kuaiji Wang

                        nianhao: 3 in total

       258 - 03 Sep 264 Sun Xia

                        miaohao: Zilie/ shi: Jing Di

                        nianhao: Yongan

04 Sep 264 -    Mar 280 Sun Hao

                        miaohao: Yuanzong/ shi:None

                        nianhao: 8 in total

Jin Dynasty

- Western Jin -

08 Feb 266 - 17 May 290 Sima Yan I

                        miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Wu

                        nianhao:4 in total

17 May 290 - 08 Jan 307 Sima Lun

                        miaohao: Hui Di/ shi: Xiaohui

                        nianhao: 11 in total

08 Jan 307 -    Aug 311 Sima Chi

                        miaohao: Huai Di/ shi: Xiaohuai

                        nianhao: Yongjia

   Aug 311 -    Oct 316 Sima Ye

                        miaohao: Min Di/ shi: Xiaomin

                        nianhao: Jianxing

- Eastern Jin -

   Feb 317 - 03 Jan 323 Sima Rui

                        miaohao: Zhongzong/ shi: Yuan

                        nianhao: Jianwu 317-18, Taixing 318-21, Yongchang 322-23

03 Jan 323 - 18 Oct 325 Sima Shao

                        miaohao: Suzu/ shi: Ming

                        nianhao: Taining

19 Oct 325 - 26 Jul 342 Sima Yan II

                        miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Cheng

                        nianhao: Xianhe 326-34, Xiankang 335-42

27 Jul 342 - 17 Nov 344 Sima Yue

                        shi: Kang Di/ nianhao: Jianyuan

18 Nov 344 - 10 Jul 361 Sima Dan

                        miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Mu Di

                        nianhao: Yonghe 345-57, Shengping, 357-61

11 Jul 361 - 30 Mar 365 Sima Pi

                        shi: Ai Di

                        nianhao: Longhe 362-63. Xingning 363-35

31 Mar 365 - 06 Jan 372 Sima Yi

                        miaohao: Fei Di/ shi: ?

                        nianhao: Taihe

07 Jan     - 12 Sep 372 Sima Yu

                        miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Jianwen

                        nianhao: Xianan

13 Sep 372 - 05 Nov 396 Sima Yao

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaowu

                        nianhao: Ningkang 372-76, Taiyuan 376-96

06 Nov 396 - 28 Jan 419 Sima Dezong

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: An Di

                        nianhao: Longan 397-401, Yuanxing 402-04, Yixi 404-19

30 Jan 419 - 10 Jul 420 Sima Dewen

                        miaohao: ?/ shi: Gong Di

                        nianhao: Yuanxi

Sui Dynasty

04 Mar 581 - 13 Aug 604 Yang Jian

                        miaohao: Gaozu/shi: Wen Di

                        nianhao: Kaihuang

21 Aug 604 - 11 Apr 618 Yang Guang (Duke of Xi)

                        miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Yang Di

                        nianhao: Daye

18 Dec 617 - 12 Jun 618 Yang You

                        shi: Yang Di/nianhao: Daye

22 Jun 618 - 23 May 619 Yang Tong

                        shi: Gong/nianhao: Huangtai

                        (Emperor in rebellion, Duke of Lu)

Tang Dynasty

18 Jun 618 - 04 Sep 626 Li Yuan

                        miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Shenyao

                        nianhao: Wude

04 Sep 626 - 10 Jul 649 Li Shimin

                        miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Wen Huangdi

                        nianhao: Zhenguan

15 Jul 649 - 27 Dec 683 Li Zhinu

                        miaohao: Gaozong/ shi: Tianhuang

                        nianhao:15 in total

03 Jan     - 26 Feb 684 Li Xian (1st Time)

                        miaohao: Zhongzong/ shi: Xiaohe

                        nianhao: Sisheng

27 Feb 684 - 08 Oct 690 Li Dan (1st Time)

                        miaohao: Ruizong/ shi: Shengzhen

                        nianhao: 5 in total

Zhou Dynasty

18 Oct 690 - 22 Feb 705 Empress Wu Zhao

                        miaohao: Wu Ze Tian/ shi: Zetian

                        nianhao: 12 in total

Tang Dynasty

23 Feb 705 - 03 Jul 710 Li Xian (2nd Time)

                        nianhao: Shenlong 705-07, Jinglong 707-10

08 Jul     - 23 Jul 710 Li Chongmao

                        miaohao: Shang Di/ shi: Shang

                        nianhao: Tanglong

24 Jul 710 - 31 Aug 712 Li Dan (2nd Time)

                        nianhao: Jingyun

08 Sep 712 - 13 Aug 756 Li Longji

                        miaohao: Wuanzong/ shi: Ming

                        nianhao: Xiantian 712-13, Kaiyuan 713-41, Tianbao 742-56

13 Aug 756 - 16 May 762 Li Heng

                        miaohao: Suzong/ shi: Wenming

                        nianhao: 4 in total

18 May 762 - 23 May 779 Li Yu

                        miaohao: Daizong/ shi: Ruiwen Xiaowu

                        nianhao: Guangdi 763-64, Yontai 765-66, Dali 766-79

12 Jun 779 - 25 Feb 805 Li Gua

                        miaohao: Dezong/ shi: Shenwu Xiaowen

                        nianhao: Jianzhong 780-83, Xingyuan 784, Zhengyuan 785-805

28 Feb     - 31 Aug 805 Li Song

                        miaohao: Shunzong/ shi: Zhide

                        nianhao: Shunzong

05 Sep 805 - 14 Feb 820 Li Chun

                        miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Zhangwu

                        nianhao: Yuanhe

20 Feb 820 - 25 Feb 824 Li Heng

                        miaohao: Muzong/ shi: Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao

                        nianhao: Changqing

29 Feb 824 - 09 Jan 827 Li Zhan

                        miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Zhaomin

                        nianhao: Baoli

13 Jan 827 - 10 Feb 840 Li Ang

                        miaohao: Wenzong/ shi: Zhaoxian

                        nianhao: Dahe

20 Feb 840 - 22 Apr 846 Li Yan

                        miaohao: Wuzong/ shi: Zedao Zhaosui Xiao

                        nianhao: Huichang

25 Apr 846 - 07 Sep 859 Li Chen

                        miaohao: Wuanzong/ shi: Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Daizhong

13 Sep 859 - 15 Aug 873 Li Cui

                        miaohao: Yi Zong/nianhao: Xiantong

16 Aug 873 - 20 Apr 888 Li Xuan

                        miaohao: Xi Zong/nianhao: Xiantong

20 Apr 888 - 22 Sep 904 Li Ye

                        miaohao: Zhaozong/nianhao: Tanyou

26 Sep 904 - 12 May 907 Li Zhu

                        miaohao: Ai Di/nianhao: Longji

Liang Dynasty

01 Jun 907 - 18 Jul 912 Zhu Wen

                        miaohao: Taizu/ shi: Xianwu

                        nianhao: Kaiping

21 Jul 912 - 27 Mar 913 Zhu Youngui

                        nianhao: Qianghua

28 Mar 913 - 18 Nov 923 Zhu Zhen

                        shi: Modi/nianhao: Zhenming

Later Tang Dynasty

13 May 923 - 25 May 926 Li Cunxu

                        miaohao: Zhunag Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Tongguang

03 Jun 926 - 15 Dec 933 Li Siyuan

                        miaohao: Ming Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Changxing

17 Dec 933 - 20 May 934 Li Conghou

                        shi: Min Di/nianhao: Yingshun

21 May 934 - 11 Jan 937 Li Congke

                        shi: Mo Di/nianhao: Qingtai

Later Jin Dynasty

28 Nov 936 - 28 Jul 942 Shi Jingtang

                        miaohao: Gao Zu I/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Tainfu

942 - 947               Shi Chonggui

                        shi: Chu Di/nianhao: Kaiyun

Later Han Dynasty

10 Mar 947 - 10 Mar 948 Liu Zhiyuan

                        miaohao: Gao Zu II/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Qianyou

14 Mar 948 - 02 Jan 951 Liu Chengyou

                        shi: Yin Di/nianhao: Qianyou

Zhou Dynasty

13 Feb 951 - 22 Feb 954 Guo Wei

                        miaohao: Tai Zu/nianhao: Xiande

26 Feb 954 - 27 Jul 959 Chai Rong

                        miaohao: Shi Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Xiande

27 Jul 959 - 03 Feb 960 Chai Zongxun

                        shi: Gong Di/nianhao: Xiande

Song Dynasty

04 Feb 960 - 14 Nov 976 Zhao Kuangyin

                        miaohao: Taizu/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Jianlong, Qiande, Kaibao

15 Nov 976 - 08 May 997 Zhao Kuangyi

                        miaohao: Taizong/ shi:Never used in short form

                        nianhao: Taipingxingguo

23 Dec 997 - 23 Mar 1022 Zhao Heng

                         miaohao: Zhenzong/ shi:Never used in short form

                         nianhao: Xianping

24 Mar 1022 - 30 Apr 1063 Zhao Zhen

                          miaohao: Renzong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Tiansheng 1023-1032, Jiayou 1056-63

02 May 1063 - 25 Jan 1067 Zhao Shu

                          miaohao: Yingzong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Zhiping

26 Jan 1067 - 01 Apr 1085 Zhao Xu I

                          miaohao: Shenzong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Xining 1068-77, Yuanfeng 1078-85

02 Apr 1085 - 23 Feb 1100 Zhao Xu II

                          miaohao: Zhezong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Yuanyou 1086-1094, Yuanfu 1098-1100

24 Feb 1100 - 18 Jan 1126 Zhao Ji

                          miaohao: Huizong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Jianzhongjingguo 1101-02, Xuanhe 1119-25

19 Jan 1126 - 09 Jan 1127 Zhao Huan

                          miaohao: Qinzong/ shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Jingkong

- Western Xia Dynasty -

10 Nov 1038 - 19 Jan 1048 Li Yuanhao

                          miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Wuliedi

                          nianhao: Tianshoulifayanzuo

1047 - 1067               Li Liangzuo

                          miaohao: Yizong/ shi: Zhaoyingdi

                          nianhao: Gonghua

1067 - 1086               Li Bingchang

                          miaohao: Huizong/ shi: Kangjingdi

                          nianhao: Tiananliding

1086 - 1139               Li Qianshun

                          miaohao: Chongzong/ shi: Shengwendi

                          nianhao: Dade

1139 - 1193               Li Renxiao

                          miaohao: Renzong/ shi: Shengzhendi

                          nianhao: Qianyou

1193 - 1206               Li Chunyou

                          miaohao: Huanzong/ shi: Zhaojianji

                          nianhao: Tianqing

       1206 - 05 Aug 1211 Li Anquan

                          miaohao: Xiangzong/ shi: Jingwudi

                          nianhao: Huangjian

12 Aug 1211 - 1223        Li Zunxu

                          miaohao: Shenzong/ shi: Yingwendi

                          nianhao: Guangding

1223 - 1226               Li Dewang

                          miaohao: Xianzong/nianhao: Qianding

1226 - 1227               Li Xian

                          miaohao: Mozhu/nianhao: Baoyi


Dai Ön Ulus Yüan (Birjigin) Dynasty

20 Mar 1279 - 18 Feb 1294 Khubilai Khan ........................................... 1215-1264

                          miaohao: Shizu / shi: (Never used in short form)

                          nianhao: Zhiyuan

18 Feb 1294 - 02 Feb 1307 Temür Öljeytü Khan ...................................... 1265-1307

                          miaohao: Chengzong / shi: Qin Ming Guang Xiao Huangdi

                          nianhao: Yuanzhen

02 Feb 1307 - 27 Jan 1311 Külüg qayan ............................................. 1281-1311

                          miaohao: Wuzong / shi: (Never used in short form)

                          nianhao: Zhida

07 Apr 1311 - 01 Mar 1320 Ayurbarwada Buyantu ..................................... 1285-1320

                          miaohao: Renzong / shi: (Never used in short form)

                          nianhao: Huangqing 1312-13, Yanyou 1314-20

19 Apr 1320 - 04 Sep 1323 Shidibala Geegen ........................................ 1302-1323

                          miaohao: Yingzong / shi: (Never used in short form)

                          nianhao: Zhizhi

04 Oct 1323 - 15 Aug 1328 Yesün Temür ............................................. 1293-1328

                          miaohao: Jinzong / shi: Taiding Di

                          nianhao: Taiding

15 Aug      - 14 Nov 1328 Arigabag ................................................ 1320-1328

                          shi: Tianshun Di / nianhao: Tianshun

16 Oct 1328 - 27 Feb 1329 Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (1st Time) .......................... 1304-1332

                          miaohao: Wenzong / shi: Shengming Yuan Xiao Huangdi

                          nianhao: Tianli 1328-29, Zhishun 1329-32

27 Feb      - 30 Aug 1329 Qutuytu qayan ........................................... 1300-1329

                          miaohao: Mingzong / shi: (Never used in short form)

                          nianhao: Tienli

08 Sep 1329 - 02 Sep 1332 Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (2nd Time)

                          nianhao: Zhishun

02 Sep      - 14 Dec 1332 Irinchinbal Khan ........................................ 1326-1332

                          miaohao: Ningzong / shi: Never used in short form

                          nianhao: Zhinshun

19 Jul 1333 - 20 Jan 1368 Toghan-Temür ............................................ 1320-1370

                          miaohao: Huizong / shi: Shundi

                          nianhao: Yuantong 1333-35, Zhiyuan 1335-40, Zhizheng 1340-68

Ming Dynasty

28 Jan 1368 - 24 Jun 1398 Zhu Yuanzhang (Chu Yüan-chang) .......................... 1328-1378

                          miaohao: Gaodi (Kao-ti)/ shi: Taizu (T'ai-tzu)

                          nianhao: Hongwu (Hong-wu)

30 Jun 1398 - 13 Jul 1402 Zhu Yunwen (Chu Yun-wen) ................................ 1377-1402

                          miaohao: Huizong (Hui-tsong)/ shi: Rangdi (Rung-ti)

                          nianhao: Jianwen (Ch'ian-wen)

17 Jul 1402 - 12 Aug 1424 Zhu Di (Chu-ti) ......................................... 1360-1424

                          miaohao: Wendi (Wen-ti)/ shi: Chengzu (Cheng-tsu)

                          nianhao: Yongle (Yong-lee)

07 Sep 1424 - 29 May 1425 Zhu Gaochi (Chu Kao-chi) ................................ 1378-1425

                          miaohao: Zhaodi (Chao-ti)/ shi: Renzong (Ren-tsong)

                          nianhao: Hongxi (Hong-hsi)

27 Jun 1425 - 31 Jan 1435 Zhu Zhanji (Chu Chan-chi) ............................... 1399-1435

                          miaohao: Zhangdi (Chang-ti)/shi: Xuanzong (Hsu'an-tsong)

                          nianhao: Xuande (Hsü'an-teh)

07 Feb 1435 - 01 Sep 1449 Zhu Qizhen (Chu Ch'i-chen) (1st Time) ................... 1427-1464

                          miaohao: Ruidi (Ru'i-ti)/ shi: Yingzong (Ying-tsong)

                          nianhao: Zhengtong (Cheng-tong)

22 Sep 1449 - 11 Feb 1457 Zhu Qiyu (Chu Ch'i-yü) .................................. 1428-1457

                          miaohao: Jingdi (Ching-ti)/ shi: Daizong (T'ai-tsong)

                          nianhao: Jingtai (Ching-tai)

11 Feb 1457 - 23 Feb 1464 Zhu Qizhen (Chu Ch'i-chen) (2nd Time)

                          nianhao: Tianshun (Tian-shun)

28 Feb 1464 - 09 Sep 1487 Zhu Jianshen (Chu Ch'ian-shen) .......................... 1447-1487

                          miaohao: Chundi (Chün-ti)/ shi: Xianzong (Hsi'a-tsong)

                          nianhao: Chenghua (Cheng-hua)

22 Sep 1487 - 08 Jun 1505 Zhu Youtang (Chu Yu-tung) ............................... 1470-1505

                          miaohao: Jingdi (Ching-ti)/ shi: Xiaozong (Hsi'ao-tsong)

                          nianhao: Hongzhi (Hong-chi)

19 Jun 1505 - 20 Apr 1521 Zhu Houzhao (Chu How-chao) .............................. 1491-1521

                          miaohao: Yidi (Yi-ti)/ shi: Wuzong (Wu-tsong)

                          nianhao: Zhengde (Ch'eng-te)

27 May 1521 - 23 Jan 1567 Zhu Houcong (Chu How-kong) .............................. 1507-1567

                          miaohao: Sudi (Soo-ti)/ shi: Shizong (Shi-tsong)

                          nianhao: Jiajing (Ch'ia-ching)

04 Feb 1567 - 05 Jul 1572 Zhu Zhaihou (Chu Ch'ai-hou) ............................. 1537-1572

                          miaohao: Zhuangdi (Chuang-ti)/ shi: Muzong (Mu-tsong)

                          nianhao: Longqing (Long-ch'ing)

19 Jul 1572 - 18 Aug 1620 Zhu Yijun (Chu I-chün) .................................. 1563-1620

                          miaohao: Xian huangdi/ shi: Shenzong (Shen-tsung)

                          nianhao: Wanli (Wan-li)

28 Aug      - 26 Sep 1620 Zhu Changlu (Chu Chang-leu) ............................. 1582-1620

                          miaohao: Guangzong (Kuang-tsung)/shi: Zhen huangdi

                          nianhao: Tiachang (T'ai-ch'ang)

01 Oct 1620 - 30 Sep 1627 Zhu Youjiao (Chu Yu-chiao) .............................. 1605-1627

                          miaohao: Shih Tsu/ shi: Zhang huangdi

                          nianhao: Tianqi (T'ien-ch'i)

02 Oct 1627 - 25 Apr 1644 Zhu Youjian (Chu Yu-chien) .............................. 1611-1644

                          miaohao: Sizong (Szu-tsung)/ shi: Zhe huangti

                          nianhao: Chongzhen (Ch'ung-chen)

Great Qing (Ch'ing) Empire

Qing Empire flag 1889-1911, 1917

Government: Absolute Monarchy.

Capital: Peking.

Language: Guanhua Chinese, Manchu.

Religion: Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism, Buddhism, Islam.

National Anthem: "Gong Jin'ou" ("Cup of Solid Gold") (1911).

National Day: Emperors Birthday, 07 February (1906).

National Emblem: Chinese Dragon.

Currency: Silver Tael.


Qing (Ch'ing [Aisin-Gioro]) Dynasty

01 Oct 1644 - 05 Feb 1661 Fulin (Fu-lin) .......................................... 1638-1661

                          miaohao: Shizu (Shih-tsu)/ shi: Zhang huangdi (Chang huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Shunzhi (Shun-chih)

07 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722 Xuanye (Hsüan-yeh) ...................................... 1654-1722

                          miaohao: Shengzu (Sheng Tsu)/ shi: Ren huangdi (Jen huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Kangxi (K'ang-hsi)

27 Dec 1722 - 08 Oct 1735 Yinzhen (Yin-chen) ...................................... 1678-1735

                          miaohao: Shizong (Shi Tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi (Hsien huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Yongzheng (Yung-cheng)

18 Oct 1735 - 09 Feb 1796 Hongli (Hung-li) ........................................ 1711-1799

                          (as Taishang Huang [Empeor Emeritus] to 07 Feb 1799)

                          miaohao: Gaozong (Kao Tsung)/ shi: Chun huangdi (Ch'un huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Qianlong (Ch'ien-lung)

09 Feb 1796 - 02 Sep 1820 Yongyan (Yung-yen) ...................................... 1760-1820

                          miaohao: Renzong (Jen Tsung)/ shi: Rui huangdi (Jui huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Jiaqing (Ch'ia-ching)

03 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850 Minning (Min-ning) ...................................... 1782-1850

                          miaohao: Xuanzong (Hsüang-tsung)/ shi: Cheng huangdi (Ch'eng huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Daoguang (Tao-kuang)

09 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861 Yizhu (I Chu) ........................................... 1831-1861

                          miaohao: Wenzong (Wen-tsung)/ shi: Xian huangdi (Hsien huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Xianfeng (Hsien-feng)

22 Aug 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Regents

                        - Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u-hsi) ......................... 1835-1908

                          (1st Time)

                        - Empress Dowager Ci'an (Ts'u-an) ......................... 1837-1881

                        - I-hin (Yixin), Prince Gong (Kong) ....................... 1833-1898

11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Zaichun (Tsai-ch'un) .................................... 1856-1875

                          miaohao: Muzong (Mu-tsung)/ shi: Yi hiangdi (I huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Tongzhi (T'ung-chih)

12 Jan 1875 - 04 Mar 1889 Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u-hsi)

                          (Regent, 2nd Time)

14 Nov 1875 - 14 Nov 1908 Zaitian (Tsai-t'ien) .................................... 1871-1908

                          miaohao: Dezong (Te-tsung)/ shi: Jing huangdi (Ching huang-ti)

                          nianhao: Guangxu (Kuang-hsü)

21 Aug 1900 - 15 Nov 1908 Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz'u-hsi)

                          (Regent (de facto), 3rd Time)

15 Nov 1908 - 06 Dec 1911 Zaifeng (Tsai-feng), Prince Chun ........................ 1882-1951

                          (Regent)

02 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912 Puyi (P'u-i) (1st Time) ................................. 1906-1967

                          miaohao: Gongzong (Kong-tsung)/ shi: Mindi (Mo-tai)

                          nianhao: Xuangtong (Hsüan-t'ung)

06 Dec 1911 - 12 Feb 1912 Empress Longyu (Lung-yü) Xiaoding ....................... 1868-1913

                          (holder of the Imperial seal, acting)

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shi-k'ai) ............................. 1859-1916

                          nianhao: Hongxian (Hung-hsien)

                          (Non-dynastic Emperor)

01 Jul      - 12 Jul 1917 Puyi (2nd Time)

                          (Emperor within the Forbidden City to 1924)


 

Premiers (serving jointly)

06 Jan 1900 - 21 Jun 1907 Wang Wenshao (Wang Wenshow) ............................. 1830-1908

31 Jan 1902 - 18 Sep 1909 Sun Jianai (Son ch'ian-ai) .............................. 1827-1909

   Oct 1903 - 16 Oct 1904 Jiangxin (Ch'iang Hsin) ................................. 18..-1908

09 Nov 1905 - 28 Oct 1906 Yu Te (Yüde) ............................................ 18..-1906

10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911 Shi Xu (Shi Hsü) ........................................ 1852-1921

10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911 Natong (Na Dong) ........................................ 1856-1925

10 Aug 1907 - 18 Sep 1909 Zhang Zhidong (Chang Chi-T'ong).......................... 1837-1909

06 Nov 1909 - 01 Sep 1910 Lu Zhuanlin (Lu Chuan-lin) .............................. 1836-1910

01 Sep 1910 - 08 May 1911 Lu Runyang (Lu Run-yang) ................................ 1841-1913

01 Sep 1910 - 08 May 1911 Xu Shichang (Hsü Shi-chang) ............................. 1858-1939

Prime Ministers

09 May      - 01 Nov 1911 Yukiang (I-k'uang), Prince Qing ......................... 1839-1917

01 Nov 1911 - 20 Jan 1912 Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai) ............................ s.a

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Lu Zhengxiang (Lu Cheng-hsiang) ......................... 1871-1949

01 Jul      - 12 Jul 1917 Duke Zhang Xun (Chang Hsün) ............................. 1854-1923

                          (de facto)


Imperial Style: Huangdi, Bixia Da Qing Chao, Tianzi, Wansui "His Imperial Majesty

the Emperor of the Great Qing Dynasty, Son of Heaven, Lord of Ten Thousand Years".

Taiping (T'ai-p'ing)

11 Jan 1851               Taiping tianguo (Heavenly Realm of Great Peace),

                          a major anti-Qing rebellious polity in Jiangxi, Zhejiang,

                          southern Anhui and eastern Hubei

25 Oct 1864               Kingdom extinguished by Qing forces

   Aug 1871               Rebellion finally extinguished


Capital: Tianjing (Tienking).

Language: Hakka Chinese.

Religion: Bai Shangdi Hui (God Worshipping Society).

Currency: Shengbao.


Kings

11 Jan 1851 - 01 Jun 1864 Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch'üan) ......... 1814-1864

                          nianhao: Yuannian

01 Jun      - 25 Oct 1864 Hong Tianguifu (Hong T'ien-kuei-fu) ..... 1848-1864

Republic of China (Warlord Era)

10 Oct 1911               Republican revolution

01 Jan 1912               Republic of China

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Great Empire of China

01 Jul      - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of Qing Empire

12 Jul 1917 - 02 Jun 1928 Warlord era

08 Dec 1949 -             Defeated Nationalist government establishes itself in Taiwan


   

Grand Marshal

30 Nov 1911 - 01 Jan 1912 Li Yuanhung (Li Yüan-hung) ............. 1864-1928

Presidents

01 Jan      - 10 Mar 1912 Sun Zhongshan* (Sun Yat-sen) ........... 1866-1925

                          (provisional)

10 Mar 1912 - 06 Jun 1916 Yuan Shikai (Yüan Shih-k'ai) ........... s.a

                          (provisional to 10 Oct 1913,

                           Emperor 22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916)

06 Jun 1916 - 01 Jul 1917 Li Yuanhong (Li Yüan-hung) (1st Time) .. s.a

17 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918 Duke Feng Guozhang (Feng Kuo-chang) .... 1859-1919

10 Oct 1918 - 02 Jun 1922 Xu Shichiang (Hsü Shih-ch'ang) ......... 1855-1939

02 Jun      - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi (Chow Tzu-ch'i) .............. 1871-1923

                          (acting)

11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923 Li Yuanhong (2nd Time)

13 Jun      - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng ......................... 1879-1928

09 Jun      - 10 Oct 1923 Gao Lingwei (Kao Ling-wei) ............. 1868-1943

10 Oct 1923 - 02 Nov 1924 Cao Kun (Ts'ao K'un) ................... 1862-1938

02 Nov      - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu ............................... 1880-1936

24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926 Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui) ............. 1865-1936

20 Apr      - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide (Hu Wei-te) ................... 1863-1933

13 May      - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (Yen Hui-Ch'ing) ........... 1877-1950

22 Jun      - 01 Oct 1926 Du Xigui (Tu Hsi-Kuei) ................. 1874-1933

01 Oct 1926 - 17 Jun 1927 Gu Weijan (Koo Wei-chün) ............... 1887-1985

18 Jun 1927 - 02 Jun 1928 Zhang Zuolin (Chang Tso-lin) ........... 1873-1928

 

Premiers

20 Jan      - 10 Mar 1912 Yuan Shikai ............................ s.a

13 Mar      - 27 Jun 1912 Tang Shaoyi ............................ 1860-1938

29 Jun      - 25 Sep 1912 Lu Zhengxiang (Lou Tseng-tsiang) ....... 1871-1949

25 Sep 1912 - 01 May 1913 Zhao Bingjun ........................... 1859-1914

01 May      - 31 Jul 1913 Duan Qirui (Tuan Ch'i-jui) ............. s.a

                          (acting)

31 Jul 1913 - 12 Feb 1914 Xiong Xiling (Hsiung Hsi-ling) ......... 1870-1941

12 Feb      - 30 Apr 1914 Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i) ............... 1867-1931

                          (acting)

01 May 1914 - 22 Dec 1915 Xu Shichang (Hsü Shih-ch'ang) (1st Time) s.a

                          (acting)

22 Mar      - 23 Apr 1916 Xu Shichang (2nd Time)

23 Apr 1916 - 23 May 1917 Duan Qirui (Tung Ch'i-jui) (2nd Time)

23 May      - 28 May 1917 Wu Tingfang (Wu Cai) ................... 1842-1922

28 May      - 02 Jun 1917 Li Jingxi (Li Ching-hsi) (1st Time) .... 1859-1925

02 Jun      - 12 Jun 1917 Xu Shichang ............................ s.a

12 Jun      - 24 Jun 1917 Jiang Chaozong (Chiang Chao-tsung) ..... 1861-1943

24 Jun      - 01 Jul 1917 Li Jingxi (2nd time)

14 Jul      - 30 Nov 1917 Duan Qirui (2nd time)

30 Nov 1917 - 23 Mar 1918 Weng Shizhen (Weng Shih-chen) .......... 1861-1930

23 Mar      - 10 Oct 1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time)

10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919 Qian Nengxun (Ch'iang Neng-hsü) ........ 1869-1924

13 Jun      - 24 Sep 1919 Gong Xinzhan (Kung Hsin-chan) .......... 1869-1943

24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Jin Yunpeng (Chin Yün-p'eng) (1st Time)  1877-1951

                          (acting to 5 Nov 1919)

14 May      - 09 Aug 1920 Sa Zhenbing (Sa Chen-ping) ............. 1859-1952

09 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Jin Yunpeng (2nd Time)

                          (acting)

18 Dec      - 24 Dec 1921 Yan Huiqing (Yen Hui-ch'ing) (1st time)  s.a

24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922 Liang Shiyi (Liang Shih-i) ............. 1869-1933

25 Jan      - 08 Apr 1922 Yan Huiqing (2nd Time)

                          (acting)

08 Apr      - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi (Chou Tzu-ch'i) .............. s.a

                          (acting)

11 Jun      - 05 Aug 1922 Yan Huiqing (3rd time)

05 Aug      - 29 Nov 1922 Wang Chonghui (Wang Ch'ung-hui) ........ 1881-1958

29 Nov      - 11 Dec 1922 Wang Daxie ............................. 1859-1929

                          (acting)

11 Dec 1922 - 04 Jan 1923 Wang Zhengting (Wang Cheng-t'ing) ...... 1882-1961

04 Jan      - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng (Chang Shao-tseng) ...... s.a

09 Sep 1923 - 12 Jan 1924 Gao Lingwei (Kao Ling-wei).............. s.a

                          (acting)

12 Jan      - 04 Jun 1924 Sun Baoqi (Sun Pao-ch'i) ............... s.a

04 Jun      - 14 Sep 1924 Gu Weijun (Ku Wei-chün) (1st Time) ..... s.a

14 Sep      - 31 Oct 1924 Yan Huiqing (4th time)

02 Nov      - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu ............................... s.a

                          (acting)

26 Dec 1925 - 04 Mar 1926 Xu Shiying (Hsü Shih-yiang) ............ 1873-1964

04 Mar      - 20 Apr 1926 Jia Deyao (Chia Te-yao) ................ 1881-1940

20 Apr      - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide (Hu Wei-te) ................... s.a

                          (acting)

13 May      - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (5th time)

22 Jun      - 01 Oct 1926 Du Xigui (Tu Hsi-kuei) ................. s.a

                          (acting)

01 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gu Weijun (2nd Time)

                          (acting)

18 Jun 1927 - 02 Jun 1928 Pan Fu (P'an Fu) ....................... s.a


Note: The Republic of China (1912-1949) was an unstable era where the central

government did not excercise full authority over the country. During the revolution of 1911 the local warlords had seized control over the provinces

where they were based and ruled independently of the central government in Nanjing. In 1915 the former Qing statesman and warlord, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor of the Empire of China with the intention of starting his own ruling dynasty, however this proclamation was soon rescinded due to overwhelming domestic opposition and a lack of foreign support. The accession rites planned

for 01 January 1916 were never carried out leading most historians to dismiss Yuan's 'empire' as an insignificant event.


In July 1917 a Qing loyalist warlord - Zhang Xun (1854-1923), captured Beijing and briefly attempted to restore the imperial system. The 'Manchu restoration' was quickly quashed by government troops and was largly symbolic. The imperial household continued to maintain the imperial system withing the Forbiden City until they were expelled by another warlord Feng Yuxiang (1882-1948) in 1924.

During this period the Forbiden City was called the "little court" and continued to be financially subsidised by the republican government who continued to pay

homage to the former dynasty as if it were stll ruling.

Republic of China (Nationalist)

01 Jul 1925               Nationalist government established in Kwangchow

07 Feb 1928               Reset in Nanking

1937 - 1945               Partly occupied by Japan, Nationalist governments relocates

                           to Chungking in Southwest China

30 Mar 1940 - 16 Aug 1945 Pro-Japanese National Government set up in Nanking

08 Dec 1949 -             Defeated Nationalist government establishes itself in Taiwan


Presidents of the National Government

07 Feb      - 10 Dec 1928 Tan Yankai (T'an Y'en-k'ai) ............ 1880-1930 KMT

10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931 Jiang Zhongzheng (Chiang Kai-shek) ..... 1887-1975 KMT

                          (1st Time)

15 Dec 1931 - 01 Aug 1943 Lin Sen ................................ 1867-1943 KMT

30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944 Wang Zhaoming "Wang Jingwei" ........... 1883-1944

                          (Wang Chao-ming)

                          (in Japan from 03 Mar 1944)

01 Aug 1943 - 21 Jan 1949 Jiang Zhongzheng (2nd Time)

12 Nov 1944 - 16 Aug 1945 Chen Gongbo (Ch'en Kung-po) ............ 1892-1946

Presidents

21 Jan 1949 - 28 Feb 1950 Li Zongren (Li Tsung-jen) .............. 1890-1969 KMT

                          (In Taiwan from 08 Dec 1949)

01 Mar 1950 - 05 Apr 1975 Jiang Zhongzheng (3rd Time)

05 Apr 1975 - 20 May 1978 Yan Jiang (Yen Jiagan)  ................ 1905-1993 KMT

20 May 1978 - 13 Jan 1988 Jiang Jinggou (Chiang Ching-kuo) ....... 1910-1988 KMT

13 Jan 1988 - 20 May 2000 Li Denghui (Lee Teng-hui) .............. 1923-2020 KMT

20 May 2000 - 20 May 2008 Chen Shuiban (Chen Shui-bian) .......... 1950-     DP

20 May 2008 - 20 May 2016 Ma Yingjiu (Ma Ying-jeou) .............. 1950-     KMT

20 May 2016 -             Cai Yingwen (Tsai Ying-wen) ............ 1956-     DP

                          

 

 

Premiers

10 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930 Tan Yankai (T'an Yen-k'ai) ............. s.a 

22 Sep      - 04 Dec 1930 Song Ziwen (Sung Tzu-wen) .............. 1894-1971 KMT

04 Dec 1930 - 15 Dec 1931 Jiang Zhongzheng (Chiang Kai-shek) (1st Time)

15 Dec      - 28 Dec 1931 Chen Mingshu (Ch'en Ming-shu) .......... 1890-1965 KMT

28 Dec 1931 - 28 Jun 1932 Sun Ke (Sun K'o) ....................... 1895-1973 KMT

28 Jun 1932 - 07 Dec 1935 Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming)

07 Dec 1935 - 31 Dec 1937 Chiang Kai Shek (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1938 - 20 Nov 1939 Kong Xiangxi (Kung Hsiang-hsi) ......... 1880-1967 KMT

20 Nov 1939 - 31 May 1945 Chiang Kai Shek (3rd Time)

30 Mar 1940 - 10 Nov 1944 Wang Zhaoming "Wang Kingwei" ........... s.a

                          (in Nanking)

10 Nov      - 12 Nov 1944 Zhou Fohai (Chow Fi-hai) ............... 1897-1948

                          (acting)

12 Nov 1944 - 16 Aug 1945 Chen Gongbo (Ch'en Kong-po) ............ s.a

                          (in Nanking)

01 Jun 1945 - 28 Feb 1947 Song Ziwen (2nd Time)

01 Mar      - 18 Apr 1947 Chiang Kai Shek (4th Time)

18 Apr 1947 - 24 May 1948 Zhang Qun (Chang Ch'ün) ................ 1889-1990 KMT

24 May      - 26 Nov 1948 Weng Wenhao (Weng Wen-hao) ............. 1889-1971 KMT

26 Nov 1948 - 12 Mar 1949 Sun Fo (2nd Time)

12 Mar      - 03 Jun 1949 He Yingqin (Ho Ying-ch'in) ............. 1889-1987 KMT

03 Jun 1949 - 07 Mar 1950 Yan Xishan (Yen Hsi-shan) .............. 1883-1960 KMT

                          (In Taiwan from 08 Dec 1949)

07 Mar 1950 - 07 Jun 1954 Chen Cheng (Ch'en Ch'eng) (1st Time) ... 1898-1965 KMT

07 Jun 1954 - 30 Jun 1958 Yu Hongjun (Yu Hung-chün) .............. 1897-1960 KMT

01 Jul 1958 - 15 Dec 1963 Chen Cheng (2nd Time)

15 Dec 1963 - 29 May 1972 Yan Jiagan (Yen Chai-kan) .............. s.a       KMT

29 May 1972 - 20 May 1978 Jiang Jinggou (Chiang Ching-kuo) ....... s.a       KMT

30 May 1978 - 20 May 1984 Sun Yunxuan (Sun Yun-suan) ............. 1913-2006 KMT

20 May 1984 - 21 May 1989 Yu Guohua (Yu Kuo-hwa) ................. 1914-2000 KMT

21 May 1989 - 30 May 1990 Li Huan (Lee Huan) ..................... 1917-2010 KMT

30 May 1990 - 10 Feb 1993 Hao Baicun (Hau Pei-tsun) .............. 1919-2020 KMT

10 Feb 1993 - 31 Aug 1997 Lian Zhan (Lien Chan) .................. 1936-     KMT

01 Sep 1997 - 20 May 2000 Xiao Wang-chan (Siew Wan-chang) ........ 1939-     KMT

20 May      - 06 Oct 2000 Tang Fei ............................... 1932-     KMT

06 Oct 2000 - 31 Jan 2002 Zhang Junxiong (Chang Chun-hsiung) ..... 1938-     DP

                          (1st Time)

01 Feb 2002 - 31 Jan 2005 You Xikun (Yu Shyi-kun) ................ 1948-     DP

01 Feb 2005 - 25 Jan 2006 Xie Changting (Hsieh Chang-tang)........ 1946-     DP

25 Jan 2006 - 21 May 2007 Su Zhenchang (Su Tseng-chang) .......... 1947-     DP

                          (1st Time)

21 May 2007 - 20 May 2008 Zhang Junxiong (2nd Time)           

20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009 Liu Zhaoxuan (Liu Chao-shiuan) ......... 1943-     KMT

10 Sep 2009 - 06 Feb 2012 Wu Dunyi (Wu Den-yeh) .................. 1948-     KMT

06 Feb 2012 - 18 Feb 2013 Chen Chong (Chen Chung) ................ 1949-     KMT

18 Feb 2013 - 04 Dec 2014 Jiang Yihua (Jiang Yi-huah) ............ 1960-     KMT

04 Dec 2014 - 01 Feb 2016 Mao Zhiguo (Mao Chi-kuo) ............... 1948-     KMT

18 Jan      - 20 May 2016 Zhang Shanzheng (Chang San-cheng) ...... 1954-     KMT

                          (acting for Mao to 01 Feb 2016)

20 May 2016 - 07 Sep 2017 Lin Quan (Lin Chuan) ................... 1951-     DPP

08 Sep 2017 - 14 Jan 2019 Lai Chingdi (Lai Ching-te) ............. 1959-     DPP

14 Jan 2019 -             Su Zhenchang (2nd Time)




Though the Kuomintang eventually succeded in pacifying the various warlords, the republic never managed to establish absolute authority over China and continued to be faced by internal rebellions and foreign agression; culminating with Japanese invasion in 1937. After 1945 the Kuomintang gradually lost control over the mainland to the Communist insurgencey that had raged since the 1920s. The republican government relocated to the island of Taiwan in December 1949 where it has remained ever since continuing to claim sovereignty over the mainland. The republic continued to hold China's U.N seat until 1971 and maintained U.S recognition as the legitimate government of China until 1979.

People's Republic of China

01 Dec 1931 - 15 Nov 1934 Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi

01 Oct 1949 -             People's Republic of China

 

Government: People's Republic.

Capital: Beijing.

Language: Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan, Urgur, Mongolian, Manchu, Wu.

Religion: Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christian.

National Anthem: "Yijongjun Jinxingqu" (March of the volunteers).

National Emblem:

National Day: 1st October, founding of the P.R.C (1949).

National Motto: None.

Currency: Yuan.

 

 

Chairmen of the Communist Party

20 Mar 1943 - 09 Sep 1976 Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) ............... 1893-1976

07 Oct 1976 - 30 Jun 1981 Su Zhu Hua Guofeng (Hua Kuo-feng) ....... 1921-2008

General Secretaries of the Communist Party

       1956 -    Jun 1966 Deng Xiaoping (Teng Hsiao-p'ing) ........ 1904-1997

                          (De facto leader 1978 - 1992)

       1966 - 29 Feb 1980 Post abolished

29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987 Hu Yaobang .............................. 1915-1989

16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989 Zhao Ziyang ............................. 1919-2005

24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002 Jiang Zemin ............................. 1926-

15 Nov 2002 - 15 Nov 2012 Hu Jintao ............................... 1942-

15 Nov 2012 -             Xi Jinping .............................. 1953-


 

Presidents

01 Oct 1949 - 27 Apr 1959 Mao Zedong .............................. (s.a)

27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 Liu Shaoqi (Liu Shao-ch'i) .............. 1898-1969

31 Oct 1968 - 17 Jan 1975 Dong Biwu (Tung Pi-wu) .................. 1886-1975

31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972 Soong Qingling .......................... 1893-1981

                          (1st Time, co-president)

17 Feb 1975 - 06 Jul 1976 Zhu De (Chu Te) ......................... 1886-1976

06 Jul 1976 - 05 Mar 1978 Soong Qingling (2nd Time)

05 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983 Ye Jianying ............................. 1897-1986

16 May      - 28 May 1981 Soong Qingling

                          (3rd Time, Honorary President)

18 Jun 1983 - 08 Apr 1988 Li Xiannain ............................. 1909-1992

08 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993 Yang Xangkun ............................ 1907-1998

27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003 Jiang Zemin ............................. (s.a)

15 Mar 2003 - 14 Mar 2013 Hu Jintao ............................... (s.a)

14 Mar 2013 -             Xi Jinping .............................. (s.a)


 

Premiers

01 Oct 1949 - 08 Jan 1976 Zhou Enlai (Chou En-lai) ................ 1898-1976

08 Jan 1976 - 10 Sep 1980 Hua Su Zhu Guofeng ...................... (s.a)

10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987 Zhao Zuyang ............................. (s.a)

24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998 Li Peng ................................. 1928-

17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003 Zhu Rongji .............................. 1928-

16 Mar 2003 - 15 Mar 2013 Wen Jiabao .............................. 1942-

15 Mar 2013 -             Li Keqiang .............................. 1955-