Italy

Kingdom of Italy (Medieval)







Monarchs

04 Sep 476 - 02 Feb 493 Odoacer of Germany, King of Italy

- Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy -

02 Feb 493 - 30 Aug 526 Theodoric "The Great"

30 Aug 526 - 02 Oct 534 Athalaric

02 Oct 534 - 536        Theodatus

536 - 540               Vitiges

540 - 541               Ilibad

541                     Eraric

541                     Baduila

       541 - 01 Jul 552 Totila

01 Jul 552 -    Oct 553 Teias

- Kingdom of the Lombards -

       568 - 28 Jun 572 Gausian, Alboin

28 Jun 572 - 574        Clefi

       584 - 05 Sep 590 Autari

05 Sep 590 - 591        Theodelinda

591 - 616               Agilulfo

616 - 626               Bavarian, Adaloaldo

626 - 636               Arioald

636 - 652               Rotari

652 - 653               Rodoald

653 - 661               Bavarian, Ariberto I

661 - 662               Bavarian, Godepet

662 - 671               Beneventan, Grimaldo

671                     Beneventan, Garibald

671 - 688               Bavarian, Pertarito 

688 - 689               Alachis

688 - 700               Cuniperto

700 - 701               Luitperto

701                     Raginperto

701                     Rotharit

701 - 712               Ariberto II

712 - 744               Luitprando

744 - 749               Rachis

       749 -    Dec 756 Astolfo

   Dec 756 -    Jun 774 Desidiro

- Frankish Kingdom of Italy -

774 - 781               Carolingia, Carlomagno

       781 - 08 Jul 810 Carolingia, Pipino

08 Jul 810 - 17 Apr 818 Carlolingia, Benardo

17 Apr 818 - 23 Sep 855 Carolingian, Lotaro I

15 Jun 844 - 12 Aug 875 Carolingian, Ludovico II "The Younger"

12 Aug 875 - 06 Oct 877 Carolingian, Carlo II "The Bald"

06 Oct 877 -        879 Carolingian, Carlomano of Bavaria

       879 - 26 Dec 887 Carolingian, Carlo III "The Fat"

26 Dec 887 -    Feb 889 Friuli, Berengario I (1st Time)

                        (continues in opposition)

   Feb 889 - 12 Dec 894 Spoleto, Guido da Spoleto

   May 891 - 15 Oct 898 Spoleto, Lamberto

22 Feb 896 - 08 Dec 899 Carolingian, Anolfo

                        (in opposition)

22 Feb     - 896        Carolingian, Ratold

                        (sub-King in Milan)

900 - 905               Carolingian, Ludovico III "The Blind"

       905 - 22 Apr 924 Friuli, Berengario I (2nd Time)

       922 - 09 Jun 926 Burgundy, Ruldofo

                        (in opposition to 924)

09 Jun 926 - 10 Apr 948 Burgundy, Ugo di Arles

10 Apr 948 - 22 Nov 950 Burgundy, Lotaro II di Arles

22 Nov 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Berengario II

15 Dec 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Adalberto

                        (co-Monarch)

- Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire -

02 Jul 964 - 07 May 973 Carolingia, Oddone I

07 May 973 - 07 Dec 983 Carolingia, Oddone II

07 Dec 983 - 23 Jan 1002 Carolingia, Oddone III

23 Jan 1002 - 1014       d'Ivrea, Arduino

       1014 - 16 Jan 1556 The Monarchs of the Holy Roman Empire*



Note: The style "King of Italy" ceased to be used by the Holy Roman Empire after

1556, though the empire continued to claim sovereignty over Northern Italy until

1806. The next holder of the title was Napoleon I of France.

Cisalpine Republic

Capital: Milan.

Language: Italian.

Religian: Roman Catholic.

Currency: Lira.


Directors

09 May 1796 - 29 Jun 1797 .....

Directors

29 Jun 1797 - 31 Aug 1798 First Directory

                          - Duca Giovanni Galeazzo Serbelloni

                            (to 13 Nov 1797)

                          - Giovanni Battista Savoldi

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Pietro Moscati

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                            (from 16 Apr 1798)

                          - Giovanni Paradisi

                          - Carlo Testi

                          - Giovanni Costabili Containi

01 Sep      - 14 Dec 1798 Second Directory

                          - Girolamo Adelasio

                          - Antonio Sabbati

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                          - Giuseppe Luosi

                          - Antonio Smancini

                          - Fedele Sopransi

                          - Vincenzo Brunetti

14 Dec 1798 - 29 Apr 1799 Third Directory

                          - Girolamo Adelasio

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Ferdinando Marescalchi

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                          - Fedele Vertemate Franchi

                          - Giuseppe Luosi

                          - Fedele Sopransi

   Sep 1800 - 26 Jan 1802 Executive Committee of the

                          Extraordinary Government Commission

                          - Giovanni Battista Sommariva

                          - Francesco Ajmi Visconti

                          - Sigismund Ruga

President

26 Jan 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Napoleon Bonaparte .............................. 1769-1821

Vice-President

26 Jan 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Conte Francesco Melzo d'Eril .................... 1757-1816

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

26 Jun 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Repubblica Italiana (Italian Republic)

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Regno d'Italia (Kingdom of Italy)


King

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Bonaparte, Napoléon I ........................... s.a

Viceroy for the Kingdom of Italy

05 Jun 1805 - 11 Apr 1814 Eugène Rose de Beauharnais ...................... 1781-1824


Grand Chancellor

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Francesco Melzo d'Eril, duca di Lodi ............ s.a

Kingdom of Italy

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Rome (Turin 1861-64, Florence 1864-70, Brindisi 1943-45)

Language: Italian, German, Albanian, Croatian, Slovene, Greek.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

National Anthem: "Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza" (Royal March of Ordinance).

National Emblem: Olive branch and Oak branch.

National Day: Unification Day, 17 March (1861).

National Motto: FERT.

Currency: Lira.



Kings

17 Mar 1861 - 09 Jan 1878 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele II .................... 1820-1878

                          (King of Sardinia and Savoy)

09 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900 Savoia, Umberto I ............................... 1844-1900

                          (Umberto IV di Savoia)

29 Jul 1900 - 09 May 1946 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele III ................... 1869-1947

                          (relinquished all Royal powers Apr 1944)

05 Jun 1944 - 09 May 1946 Umberto Nicola Tammaso Giovanni Maria,

                           principe di Piedmonte .......................... 1904-1983

                          (Lieutenant General of the Realm)

09 May      - 18 Jun 1946 Savoia, Umberto II .............................. s.a

                          (in exile in Portugal from 10 Jun 1946, styled 'Conde di Sarre')



Prime Ministers

17 Mar      - 06 Jun 1861 Camillo Paolo Filipo Benso,

                           conte di Cavour, di Isobella e di Leri ......... 1810-1861

06 Jun 1861 - 04 Mar 1862 Bettino Ricasoli,

                           Baron Ricasoli (1st Time) ...................... 1809-1880

04 Mar      - 09 Dec 1862 Urbano Rattazzi (1st Time) ...................... 1808-1873

09 Dec 1862 - 24 Mar 1863 Luigi Carlo Farini .............................. 1812-1866

24 Mar 1863 - 23 Sep 1864 Marco Minghetti (1st Time) ...................... 1818-1886

23 Sep 1864 - 17 Jun 1866 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora ...................... 1804-1878

17 Jun 1866 - 11 Apr 1867 Bettino Ricasoli,

                           Baron Ricasoli (2nd Time)

11 Apr      - 27 Oct 1867 Urbano Rattazzi (2nd Time)

27 Oct 1867 - 12 Dec 1869 Federico Luigi, conde Menabrea,

                           Marchese di Valdora ............................ 1809-1896

12 Dec 1869 - 10 Aug 1873 Domenico Giovanni Giuseppe Maria Lanza .......... 1810-1885

10 Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1876 Marco Minghetti (2nd Time)

25 Mar 1876 - 23 Mar 1878 Agostino Depris (1st Time) ...................... 1813-1887

23 Mar      - 18 Dec 1878 Benedetto Cairoli (1st Time) .................... 1825-1889

18 Dec 1878 - 12 Jul 1879 Agostino Depris (2nd Time)

12 Jul 1879 - 28 May 1881 Benedetto Cairoli (2nd Time)

28 May 1881 - 29 Jul 1887 Agostino Depris (3rd Time)

08 Aug 1887 - 09 Feb 1891 Francesco Crispi (1st Time) ..................... 1819-1901

09 Feb 1891 - 15 May 1892 Antonio Starabba,

                           Marchese di Rudini ............................. 1839-1908

15 May 1892 - 10 Dec 1893 Giovanni Giolitti (1st Time) .................... 1842-1928

10 Dec 1893 - 10 Mar 1896 Francesco Crispi (2nd Time)

10 Mar 1896 - 29 Jun 1898 Antonio Starabba,

                           Marchese di Rudini (2nd Time)

29 Jun 1898 - 24 Jun 1900 Luigi Pelloux ................................... 1839-1924

24 Jun 1900 - 15 Feb 1901 Giuseppe Saracco ................................ 1821-1907

15 Feb 1901 - 03 Nov 1903 Giuseppe Zanardelli ............................. 1826-1903

03 Nov 1903 - 27 Mar 1905 Giovanni Giolitti (2nd Time)

03 Nov      - 27 Mar 1905 Tommaso Tittoni ................................. 1855-1931

27 Mar 1905 - 08 Feb 1906 Alessandro Fortis ............................... 1842-1909

08 Feb      - 29 May 1906 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,

                           Baron Sonnino (1st Time) ....................... 1847-1922

29 May 1906 - 10 Dec 1909 Giovanni Giolitti (3rd Time)

10 Dec 1909 - 30 Mar 1910 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,

                           Baron Sonnino (2nd Time)

30 Mar 1910 - 27 Mar 1911 Luigi Luzzatti .................................. 1841-1827

27 Mar 1911 - 21 Mar 1914 Giovanni Giolitti (4th Time)

21 Mar 1914 - 19 Jun 1916 Antonio Salandra ................................ 1853-1909

19 Jun 1916 - 30 Oct 1917 Paolo Boselli ................................... 1838-1932

30 Oct 1917 - 23 Jun 1919 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ....................... 1860-1952

23 Jun 1919 - 16 Jun 1920 Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paola Nitti ....... 1868-1953

16 Jun 1920 - 04 Jul 1921 Giovanni Giolitti (5th Time)

04 Jul 1921 - 25 Feb 1922 Ivanoe Bonomi (1st Time) ........................ 1873-1951

25 Feb      - 31 Oct 1922 Luigi Facta ..................................... 1861-1930

31 Oct 1922 - 25 Jul 1943 Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini ................ 1883-1945 PNF

                          ("Il Duce" ["The Leader"] from 24 Dec 1925)

25 Jul 1943 - 09 Jun 1944 Pietro Badoglio, Duca di Addis Abeba,

                           Marchese del Sabotino .......................... 1871-1956

09 Jun 1944 - 25 Jun 1945 Ivanoe Bonomi

                          (2nd Time; President of the Committee of National Liberation)

25 Jun      - 10 Dec 1945 Ferruccio Parri ................................. 1890-1981

10 Dec 1945 - 18 Jun 1946 Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi .............. 1881-1954 DC




Heads of the Allied Military Government

10 Jul 1943 - 08 Jan 1944 Dwight David Eisenhower ......................... 1890-1969 (U.S)

08 Jan      - 12 Dec 1944 Sir Henry Maitland Wilson ....................... 1881-1964 (U.K)

12 Dec 1944 - 29 Sep 1945 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ 1891-1969 (U.K)

29 Sep      -    Oct 1945 Joseph Taggart McNarney ......................... 1893-1972 (U.S)

   Oct 1945 - 1947        Sir William Duthie Morgan ....................... 1891-1977 (U.K)

            - 31 Jan 1947 John Clifford Hodges Lee ........................ 1887-1958 (U.S)

Chief commissioners of the Allied Control Commission

10 Nov 1943 - 16 Jan 1944 Kenyon A. Joyce ................................. 1879-1960 (U.S)

16 Jan      -    Jun 1944 Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane ....................... 1889-1953 (U.K)

   Jun 1944 - 31 Jan 1947 Ellery W. Stone ................................. 1894-1981 (U.S)

Military Governors of the Occupied Territories

10 Jul 1943 - 11 Dec 1944 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ s.a       (U.K)

11 Dec 1944 - 17 Sep 1947 Mark Wayne Clark ................................ 1896-1984 (U.S)



PNF=Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian Fascism, Italian Nationalism,

Mussolini personalist 1921-1943).


Style of the Italian Monarch: Per Grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia

("By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy, King of Sardinia,

Duke of Savoy"). Lat: Rex Italiae. Other Members of the House of Savoy were styled: Prince

of Piedmonte and Naples, Prince of Carignano, Duke of Aosta, Duke of Chablis, Duke of Apulia,

Duke of Montferrat, Duke of Genoa, Count of Turin, Count of Villafranca.


Orders: Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata (Supreme Order of the Most Holy                        Annunciation).

        Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro (Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus).

        Ordine della Corona d'Italia (Order of the Crown of Italy).

        Ordine dell'Aquila romana (Order of the Roman Eagle).