Italy

Capital: Rome.

Government: Autocracy.

Language: Latin, Greek.

Religion: Roman Religion (Christianity after 380) Paganism, Judaism.

National Anthem: None.

National Motto: SPQR (Senatus Populusque Romanus).

Currency: Aureus (Gold), Denarius (Silva), Sestertius (Bronze), As (Copper).

 

Emperors

   Oct 49 - 15 Mar 44 Iulius I Ceaser .................................................. 102-44

15 Mar 44 -        42 Marcus Antonius ................................................... 83-30

       42 -    Jan 27 Circeo

16 Jan 27 BC - 19 Aug AD 14 Iulio-Claudia, Gaius Lulius Octavianus ...................... 63-19

18 Sep 14 - 16 Mar 37 Iulio-Claudia, Tiberius I Claudius Nero ........................... 42-37

18 Mar 37 - 24 Jan 41 Iulio-Claudia, Gaius Julius "Caligula" ............................ 12-41

26 Jan 41 - 13 Oct 54 Iulio-Claudia, Tiberius II Claudius Caesur Augustus Germanicus .... 10-51

13 Oct 54 - 11 Jun 68 Iulio-Claudia, Nero Claudius Augustus Germanicus .................. 37-68

(Year of the four Emperors)

11 Jun 68 - 15 Jan 69 Galba

15 Jan    - 16 Apr 69 Otho

17 Apr    - 20 Dec 69 Vitellius

01 Jul 69 - 24 Jun 79 Flavius, Vespasian Augustus .......................................  9-79

                      (in opposition to Vitellius to 20 Dec 69)

Emperors

24 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81 Flavius, Titus Vespasianus Augustus ............................... 39-81

14 Sep 81 - 18 Sep 96 Flavius, Domitianus Augustus ...................................... 51-96

(Five Good Emperors)

18 Sep 96 - 27 Jan 98 Antonin, Marcus Cocceius Nerva .................................... 30-98

28 Jan 98 - 07 Aug 117 Antonin, Traianus Divi Nervae fili Augustus ...................... 53-117

11 Aug 117 - 10 Jul 138 Antonin, Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus ...................... 76-138

10 Jul 138 - 07 Mar 161 Antonin, Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionilus Arrius Antionius Pius .. 86-161

07 Mar 161 - 17 Mar 180 Antonin, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus .................... 121-180

07 Mar 161 -    Mar 169 Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus ...................... 130-169

                        (co-Emperor with Marcus Aurelius)

Emperors

17 Mar 180 - 31 Dec 192 Marcus Aurelius Commodus I Antoninus ........................... 161-192

01 Jan     - 28 Mar 193 Publius Helvius Pertinax I ..................................... 126-193

28 Mar     - 01 Jun 193 Marcus Didius Salvius Julianus I Severus ....................... 133-193

09 Apr 193 - 04 Feb 211 Severan, Lucius Septimius Severus .............................. 146-211

       198 - 08 Apr 217 Severan, Caracalla

                        (co-Emperor to 211)

       209 - 26 Dec 211 Severan, Geta

                        (co-Emperor)

11 Apr 217 - 08 Jun 218 Severan, Macrinus

   May 217 - 08 Jun 218 Severan, Diadumenian

                        (Junior Emperor)

08 Jun 218 - 11 Mar 222 Severan, Elagabus

01 Oct 208 - 18 Mar 235 Severan, Alexander Serverus

20 Mar 235 -    Apr 238 Maximinus I

22 Mar     - 12 Ape 238 Gordian I

                        (co Emperor with Gordian II,

                         in opposition to Maximinus I)

22 Mar     - 12 Apr 238 Gordian II

22 Mar     - 29 Jul 238 Pupienus Maximus

                        (co-Emperor with Balbinus)

22 Apr     - 29 Jul 238 Balbinus

                        (co-Emperor)

22 Apr 238 - 11 Feb 244 Gordian III

                        (co-Emperor with Balbinus to 29 Jul 238)

11 Feb 244 -    Oct 249 Phillip I "The Arab"

   Oct 249 -    Jun 251 Decius

   Jan     -    Jun 251 Herennius Etruscus

                        (co-Emperor with Decius)

   Jun     -    Nov 251 Hostilian

   Jun 251 -    Aug 253 Trebonianus Gallus

                        (in opposition to Hostilian)

   Nov 251 -    Aug 253 Volusianus

                        (co-Emperor with Trebonianus Gallus

   Aug     -    Oct 253 Aemilianus

   Oct 253 -        260 Valerian

   Oct 253 -    Sep 268 Gallienus

                        (co-Emperor with Valerian to 260)

   Sep 268 -    Jan 270 Claudius Gothicus

   Jan     -    Sep 270 Quintillus

   Sep 270 -    Sep 275 Aurelian

25 Sep 275 -    Jun 276 Tacitus

   Jun     -    Sep 276 Florianus

                        (Western Emperor)

   Sep 276 -    Oct 282 Probus

   Oct 282 -    Aug 283 Carus

   Aug 283 -        284 Numerian

   Aug 283 -        285 Carinus

                        (co-Emperor with Numerian)

20 Nov 284 - 01 May 305 Diocletian, Diocletian

                        (Senior co-Emperor to 286)

01 Apr 286 - 01 May 305 Diocletian, Maximianus I

                        (Senior co-Emperor for the West)

01 May 305 -    May 311 Diocletian, Galerius I

                        (Junior co-Emperor)

01 May 305 - 25 Jul 306 Diocletian, Constantius I

                        (Junior co-Emperor)

25 Jul 306 -    Apr 307 Diocletian, Severus II

                        (Senior Emperor, opposed by Constantine I)

25 Jul 306 - 22 May 337 Diocletian, Constantine I

                        (Senior Emperor in West from 307)

28 Oct 306 - 28 Oct 312 Diocletian, Maxentius I

                        (In opposition to Constantine I and Severus II)

11 Nov 308 - 18 Sep 324 Diocletian, Licinius

                        (Western Emperor, Eastern Emperor from 311)

01 May 311 -    Aug 313 Diocletian, Maxinimus Daia II

                        (co-Senior Emperor)

   Dec 316 - 01 Mar 317 Diocletian, Valence I

                        (co-Emperor; executed 317)

   Jul     - 18 Sep 324 Diocletian, Martinianus I

                        (Western co-Emperor with Licinius; executed 325)

22 May 337 -        340 Diocletian, Constantine II

                        (co-Emperor with Constantius II & Constans)

22 May 337 - 03 Nov 361 Diocletian, Constantius II

                        (co-Emperor to 350)

22 May 337 -        350 Diocletian, Constans I

                        (co-Emperor)

   Feb 361 - 26 Jun 363 Diocletian, Julian IV

                        (Western Emperor 355-60; sole Emperor from 361)

26 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 Diocletian, Jovian

26 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375 Valentinian I

28 Mar 364 - 09 Aug 378 Valens II

                        (co-Eastern Emperor)

04 Aug 367 - 25 Aug 383 Gratian

                        (co-Emperor to 375)

17 Nov 375 - 15 May 392 Valentinian II

01 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395 Theodosius I

   Jan 383 - 01 May 408 Arcadius

                        (Junior Emperor for the East to 395)

23 Jan 393 - 15 Aug 423 Honorius

                        (Junior Emperor for the West to 395)

01 May 408 - 28 Jul 450 Theodosius II

                        (Eastern Emperor)

08 Feb     - 02 Sep 421 Constantius III

                        (co-Emperor for the West)

27 Aug 423 -    May 425 Joannes

                        (Senior civil servant under Honorius)

23 Oct 425 - 16 Mar 455 Valentinian III ........................ 419-455

                        (Western Emperor in opposition to Joannes)

   Aug 450 -    Jan 457 Marcian

                        (Nominated successor, Eastern Emperor)

17 Mar     - 31 May 455 Petronius Maximus ...................... 396-455

09 Jul 455 - 17 Oct 456 Avitius ................................ 380-457

17 Oct 456 - 01 Apr 457 Vacant

01 Apr 457 - 02 Aug 461 Majorian ............................... 420-461

19 Nov 461 - 15 Aug 465 Libius Severus ......................... 420-465

15 Aug 465 - 12 Apr 467 Vacant

12 Apr 467 - 11 Jul 471 Anthemius .............................. 420-472

11 Jul     - 02 Nov 472 Olybrius

02 Nov 472 - 03 Mar 473 Vacant

03 Mar 473 -    Jun 474 Glycerius .............................. 420-480

   Jun 474 - 22 Jun 480 Julius Nepos ........................... 430-480

                        (Ruling in Dalmatia only from 28 Aug 475)

31 Oct 475 - 04 Sep 476 Romulus Augustulus ..................... 461-507?

Kingdom of Italy (Medieval)







Monarchs

04 Sep 476 - 02 Feb 493 Odoacer of Germany, King of Italy

- Ostrogothic Kingdom of Italy -

02 Feb 493 - 30 Aug 526 Theodoric "The Great"

30 Aug 526 - 02 Oct 534 Athalaric

02 Oct 534 - 536        Theodatus

536 - 540               Vitiges

540 - 541               Ilibad

541                     Eraric

541                     Baduila

       541 - 01 Jul 552 Totila

01 Jul 552 -    Oct 553 Teias

- Kingdom of the Lombards -

       568 - 28 Jun 572 Gausian, Alboin

28 Jun 572 - 574        Clefi

       584 - 05 Sep 590 Autari

05 Sep 590 - 591        Theodelinda

591 - 616               Agilulfo

616 - 626               Bavarian, Adaloaldo

626 - 636               Arioald

636 - 652               Rotari

652 - 653               Rodoald

653 - 661               Bavarian, Ariberto I

661 - 662               Bavarian, Godepet

662 - 671               Beneventan, Grimaldo

671                     Beneventan, Garibald

671 - 688               Bavarian, Pertarito 

688 - 689               Alachis

688 - 700               Cuniperto

700 - 701               Luitperto

701                     Raginperto

701                     Rotharit

701 - 712               Ariberto II

712 - 744               Luitprando

744 - 749               Rachis

       749 -    Dec 756 Astolfo

   Dec 756 -    Jun 774 Desidiro

- Frankish Kingdom of Italy -

774 - 781               Carolingia, Carlomagno

       781 - 08 Jul 810 Carolingia, Pipino

08 Jul 810 - 17 Apr 818 Carlolingia, Benardo

17 Apr 818 - 23 Sep 855 Carolingian, Lotaro I

15 Jun 844 - 12 Aug 875 Carolingian, Ludovico II "The Younger"

12 Aug 875 - 06 Oct 877 Carolingian, Carlo II "The Bald"

06 Oct 877 -        879 Carolingian, Carlomano of Bavaria

       879 - 26 Dec 887 Carolingian, Carlo III "The Fat"

26 Dec 887 -    Feb 889 Friuli, Berengario I (1st Time)

                        (continues in opposition)

   Feb 889 - 12 Dec 894 Spoleto, Guido da Spoleto

   May 891 - 15 Oct 898 Spoleto, Lamberto

22 Feb 896 - 08 Dec 899 Carolingian, Anolfo

                        (in opposition)

22 Feb     - 896        Carolingian, Ratold

                        (sub-King in Milan)

900 - 905               Carolingian, Ludovico III "The Blind"

       905 - 22 Apr 924 Friuli, Berengario I (2nd Time)

       922 - 09 Jun 926 Burgundy, Ruldofo

                        (in opposition to 924)

09 Jun 926 - 10 Apr 948 Burgundy, Ugo di Arles

10 Apr 948 - 22 Nov 950 Burgundy, Lotaro II di Arles

22 Nov 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Berengario II

15 Dec 950 - 963        d'Ivrea, Adalberto

                        (co-Monarch)

- Kingdom of Italy within the Holy Roman Empire -

02 Jul 964 - 07 May 973 Carolingia, Oddone I

07 May 973 - 07 Dec 983 Carolingia, Oddone II

07 Dec 983 - 23 Jan 1002 Carolingia, Oddone III

23 Jan 1002 - 1014       d'Ivrea, Arduino

       1014 - 16 Jan 1556 The Monarchs of the Holy Roman Empire*



Note: The style "King of Italy" ceased to be used by the Holy Roman Empire after

1556, though the empire continued to claim sovereignty over Northern Italy until

1806. The next holder of the title was Napoleon I of France.

Cisalpine Republic

Capital: Milan.

Language: Italian.

Religian: Roman Catholic.

Currency: Lira.


Directors

09 May 1796 - 29 Jun 1797 .....

Directors

29 Jun 1797 - 31 Aug 1798 First Directory

                          - Duca Giovanni Galeazzo Serbelloni

                            (to 13 Nov 1797)

                          - Giovanni Battista Savoldi

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Pietro Moscati

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                            (from 16 Apr 1798)

                          - Giovanni Paradisi

                          - Carlo Testi

                          - Giovanni Costabili Containi

01 Sep      - 14 Dec 1798 Second Directory

                          - Girolamo Adelasio

                          - Antonio Sabbati

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                          - Giuseppe Luosi

                          - Antonio Smancini

                          - Fedele Sopransi

                          - Vincenzo Brunetti

14 Dec 1798 - 29 Apr 1799 Third Directory

                          - Girolamo Adelasio

                          - Marco Alessandri

                          - Ferdinando Marescalchi

                          - Jacopo Lamberti

                          - Fedele Vertemate Franchi

                          - Giuseppe Luosi

                          - Fedele Sopransi

   Sep 1800 - 26 Jan 1802 Executive Committee of the

                          Extraordinary Government Commission

                          - Giovanni Battista Sommariva

                          - Francesco Ajmi Visconti

                          - Sigismund Ruga

President

26 Jan 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Napoleon Bonaparte .............................. 1769-1821

Vice-President

26 Jan 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Conte Francesco Melzo d'Eril .................... 1757-1816

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

26 Jun 1802 - 18 Mar 1805 Repubblica Italiana (Italian Republic)

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Regno d'Italia (Kingdom of Italy)


King

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Bonaparte, Napoléon I ........................... s.a

Viceroy for the Kingdom of Italy

05 Jun 1805 - 11 Apr 1814 Eugène Rose de Beauharnais ...................... 1781-1824


Grand Chancellor

18 Mar 1805 - 21 Apr 1814 Francesco Melzo d'Eril, duca di Lodi ............ s.a

Kingdom of Italy

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Rome (Turin 1861-64, Florence 1864-70, Brindisi 1943-45)

Language: Italian, German, Albanian, Croatian, Slovene, Greek.

Religion: Roman Catholic.

National Anthem: "Marcia Reale d'Ordinanza" (Royal March of Ordinance).

National Emblem: Olive branch and Oak branch.

National Day: Unification Day, 17 March (1861).

National Motto: FERT.

Currency: Lira.



Kings

17 Mar 1861 - 09 Jan 1878 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele II .................... 1820-1878

                          (King of Sardinia and Savoy)

09 Jan 1878 - 29 Jul 1900 Savoia, Umberto I ............................... 1844-1900

                          (Umberto IV di Savoia)

29 Jul 1900 - 09 May 1946 Savoia, Vittorio Emanuele III ................... 1869-1947

                          (relinquished all Royal powers Apr 1944)

05 Jun 1944 - 09 May 1946 Umberto Nicola Tammaso Giovanni Maria,

                           principe di Piedmonte .......................... 1904-1983

                          (Lieutenant General of the Realm)

09 May      - 18 Jun 1946 Savoia, Umberto II .............................. s.a

                          (in exile in Portugal from 10 Jun 1946, styled 'Conde di Sarre')



Prime Ministers

17 Mar      - 06 Jun 1861 Camillo Paolo Filipo Benso,

                           conte di Cavour, di Isobella e di Leri ......... 1810-1861

06 Jun 1861 - 04 Mar 1862 Bettino Ricasoli,

                           Baron Ricasoli (1st Time) ...................... 1809-1880

04 Mar      - 09 Dec 1862 Urbano Rattazzi (1st Time) ...................... 1808-1873

09 Dec 1862 - 24 Mar 1863 Luigi Carlo Farini .............................. 1812-1866

24 Mar 1863 - 23 Sep 1864 Marco Minghetti (1st Time) ...................... 1818-1886

23 Sep 1864 - 17 Jun 1866 Alfonso Ferrero La Marmora ...................... 1804-1878

17 Jun 1866 - 11 Apr 1867 Bettino Ricasoli,

                           Baron Ricasoli (2nd Time)

11 Apr      - 27 Oct 1867 Urbano Rattazzi (2nd Time)

27 Oct 1867 - 12 Dec 1869 Federico Luigi, conde Menabrea,

                           Marchese di Valdora ............................ 1809-1896

12 Dec 1869 - 10 Aug 1873 Domenico Giovanni Giuseppe Maria Lanza .......... 1810-1885

10 Aug 1873 - 25 Mar 1876 Marco Minghetti (2nd Time)

25 Mar 1876 - 23 Mar 1878 Agostino Depris (1st Time) ...................... 1813-1887

23 Mar      - 18 Dec 1878 Benedetto Cairoli (1st Time) .................... 1825-1889

18 Dec 1878 - 12 Jul 1879 Agostino Depris (2nd Time)

12 Jul 1879 - 28 May 1881 Benedetto Cairoli (2nd Time)

28 May 1881 - 29 Jul 1887 Agostino Depris (3rd Time)

08 Aug 1887 - 09 Feb 1891 Francesco Crispi (1st Time) ..................... 1819-1901

09 Feb 1891 - 15 May 1892 Antonio Starabba,

                           Marchese di Rudini ............................. 1839-1908

15 May 1892 - 10 Dec 1893 Giovanni Giolitti (1st Time) .................... 1842-1928

10 Dec 1893 - 10 Mar 1896 Francesco Crispi (2nd Time)

10 Mar 1896 - 29 Jun 1898 Antonio Starabba,

                           Marchese di Rudini (2nd Time)

29 Jun 1898 - 24 Jun 1900 Luigi Pelloux ................................... 1839-1924

24 Jun 1900 - 15 Feb 1901 Giuseppe Saracco ................................ 1821-1907

15 Feb 1901 - 03 Nov 1903 Giuseppe Zanardelli ............................. 1826-1903

03 Nov 1903 - 27 Mar 1905 Giovanni Giolitti (2nd Time)

03 Nov      - 27 Mar 1905 Tommaso Tittoni ................................. 1855-1931

27 Mar 1905 - 08 Feb 1906 Alessandro Fortis ............................... 1842-1909

08 Feb      - 29 May 1906 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,

                           Baron Sonnino (1st Time) ....................... 1847-1922

29 May 1906 - 10 Dec 1909 Giovanni Giolitti (3rd Time)

10 Dec 1909 - 30 Mar 1910 Sidney Constantino Sonnino,

                           Baron Sonnino (2nd Time)

30 Mar 1910 - 27 Mar 1911 Luigi Luzzatti .................................. 1841-1827

27 Mar 1911 - 21 Mar 1914 Giovanni Giolitti (4th Time)

21 Mar 1914 - 19 Jun 1916 Antonio Salandra ................................ 1853-1909

19 Jun 1916 - 30 Oct 1917 Paolo Boselli ................................... 1838-1932

30 Oct 1917 - 23 Jun 1919 Vittorio Emanuele Orlando ....................... 1860-1952

23 Jun 1919 - 16 Jun 1920 Francesco Saverio Vincenzo de Paola Nitti ....... 1868-1953

16 Jun 1920 - 04 Jul 1921 Giovanni Giolitti (5th Time)

04 Jul 1921 - 25 Feb 1922 Ivanoe Bonomi (1st Time) ........................ 1873-1951

25 Feb      - 31 Oct 1922 Luigi Facta ..................................... 1861-1930

31 Oct 1922 - 25 Jul 1943 Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini ................ 1883-1945 PNF

                          ("Il Duce" ["The Leader"] from 24 Dec 1925)

25 Jul 1943 - 09 Jun 1944 Pietro Badoglio, Duca di Addis Abeba,

                           Marchese del Sabotino .......................... 1871-1956

09 Jun 1944 - 25 Jun 1945 Ivanoe Bonomi

                          (2nd Time; President of the Committee of National Liberation)

25 Jun      - 10 Dec 1945 Ferruccio Parri ................................. 1890-1981

10 Dec 1945 - 18 Jun 1946 Alcide Amedeo Francesco De Gasperi .............. 1881-1954 DC




Heads of the Allied Military Government

10 Jul 1943 - 08 Jan 1944 Dwight David Eisenhower ......................... 1890-1969 (U.S)

08 Jan      - 12 Dec 1944 Sir Henry Maitland Wilson ....................... 1881-1964 (U.K)

12 Dec 1944 - 29 Sep 1945 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ 1891-1969 (U.K)

29 Sep      -    Oct 1945 Joseph Taggart McNarney ......................... 1893-1972 (U.S)

   Oct 1945 - 1947        Sir William Duthie Morgan ....................... 1891-1977 (U.K)

            - 31 Jan 1947 John Clifford Hodges Lee ........................ 1887-1958 (U.S)

Chief commissioners of the Allied Control Commission

10 Nov 1943 - 16 Jan 1944 Kenyon A. Joyce ................................. 1879-1960 (U.S)

16 Jan      -    Jun 1944 Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane ....................... 1889-1953 (U.K)

   Jun 1944 - 31 Jan 1947 Ellery W. Stone ................................. 1894-1981 (U.S)

Military Governors of the Occupied Territories

10 Jul 1943 - 11 Dec 1944 Sir Harold Alexander ............................ s.a       (U.K)

11 Dec 1944 - 17 Sep 1947 Mark Wayne Clark ................................ 1896-1984 (U.S)



PNF=Partito Nazionale Fascista (National Fascist Party, Italian Fascism, Italian Nationalism,

Mussolini personalist 1921-1943).


Style of the Italian Monarch: Per Grazia di Dio e per volontà della Nazione Re d'Italia

("By the Grace of God and by the Will of the Nation King of Italy, King of Sardinia,

Duke of Savoy"). Lat: Rex Italiae. Other Members of the House of Savoy were styled: Prince

of Piedmonte and Naples, Prince of Carignano, Duke of Aosta, Duke of Chablis, Duke of Apulia,

Duke of Montferrat, Duke of Genoa, Count of Turin, Count of Villafranca.


Orders: Ordine Supremo della Santissima Annunziata (Supreme Order of the Most Holy                        Annunciation).

        Ordine dei Santi Maurizio e Lazzaro (Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus).

        Ordine della Corona d'Italia (Order of the Crown of Italy).

        Ordine dell'Aquila romana (Order of the Roman Eagle).