Turkey

Ancient Anatolia

Hittite Empire

2200-.... Pamba I

1700-.... Pithana

17..-.... Piyusti

17..-.... Anitta

17..-.... Pu-Sarruma

1680-1650 Labarna I

1650-1620 Labarna II

1620-1590 Mursili I

1590-1560 Hantili I

1560-1550 Zidanta I

1550-1530 Ammuna I

1530-1525 Huzziya I

1525-1500 Telepinu I

1500-1490 Alluwanna I

1490-1470 Tahurwaili I

1470-1460 Hantili II

1460-1450 Zidanta II

1450-1440 Huzziya II

1440-1430 Muwatalli I

1430-1400 Tudhaliya I

1400-1360 Arnuwanda I

1360-1340 Hattusili II

1340-1344 Tudhaliya II

1344      Tudhaliya III

1344-1322 Suppiluliuma

1322-1321 Arnuwanda II

1321-1295 Mursili II

1295-1272 Muwatalli II

1272-1267 Mursili III

1267-1237 Hattusili III

1237-1209 Tudhaliya IV

1209-1207 Arnuwanda III

1207-1178 Suppilulima II

Kingdom of Galatia

62-40 Deiotarus

62-44 Brogitarius

37-25 Amintas

Seljuq Sultanate of Rum

Sultans of Rum

1060-1177 Seljuq, Qutalmish I

1077-1086 Seljuq, Süleyman I ibn Qutulmishoglu

1086-1092 Seljuq, Ebu'l-Kasım

1092-1107 Seljuq, Kılıç Arslan I

1107-1116 Seljuq, Malikshah I

1116-1156 Seljuq, Rükneddin Mesut

1156-1192 Seljuq, Kılıç Arslan II

1192-1196 Seljuq, Ghiyath ad-Din Qaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslan (1st Time)

1196-1205 Seljuq, Rükneddin Süleyman II Shah

1204-1205 Seljuq, Izzeddin  Kılıç Arslan III

1205-1210 Seljuq, Ghiyath ad-Din Qaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslan (2nd Time)

       1210 - 07 Jan 1220 Seljuq, Izzeddin Qeyqavus I

07 Jan 1220 - 31 May 1237 Seljuq, Alaeddin Qeyqubad I

31 May 1237 - 1246        Seljuq, Gayaseddin Keyhüsrev II

1246-1257 Seljuq, Izzedin Qeyqavus II

1249-1257 Seljuq, Kılıç Arslan IV

1257-1259 Seljuq, Khosron II (2nd Time)

1259-1265 Seljuq, Kılıç Arslan IV

1265-1282 Seljuq, Gıyaseddin Qeyhüsrev III

1282-1284 Seljuq, Gıyaseddin Mesut II (1st Time)

1284      Seljuq, Alâeddin Qeykubad III (1st Time)

1293      Seljuq, Gıyaseddin Mesud II (2nd Time)

1293-1294 Seljuq, Alâeddin Qeykubad III (2nd Time)

1294-1301 Seljuq, Gıyaseddin Mesud II (3rd Time)

1301-1303 Seljuq, Alâeddin Qeykubad III (3rd Time)

1303-1307 Seljuq, Gıyaseddin Mesud II (4th Time)

1307      Seljuq, Masut III

Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish Republic)

Government: Republic

Capital: Ankara

Language: Turkish, Kurdish, Armenian, Greek, Arabic, Georgian.

Ethnic Groups: Turks 70-75%*, Kurds 18%, others 7% including: Tatars, Azeris, Yoruks, Armenians and Greeks.

Religion: Sunni Islam, Christianity.

National Anthem: "Istiklal Marsi" (Independence March).

National Emblem: None.

National Day: Republic day, 29th October (1923).

National Motto: Yurtta Baris, Dünyada Baris (Peace at home, Peace in the world).

Currency: Turkish Lira.


Speaker of the Grand National Assembly

24 Apr 1920 - 29 Oct 1923 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk .................. 1881-1938 CHP

Presidents

29 Oct 1923 - 10 Nov 1938 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk .................. s.a

11 Nov 1938 - 22 May 1950 Mustafa Ismet Inönü .................... 1884-1973 CHP

22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960 Mahmut Celal Bayar ..................... 1883-1986

28 May 1960 - 28 May 1966 Cemal Gürsel ........................... 1895-1966 Mil

28 May 1966 - 06 Apr 1973 Cevdet Sunay ........................... 1900-1982

06 May 1973 - 06 Apr 1980 Fahri Sabri Korutürk ................... 1903-1987

06 Apr      - 12 Sep 1980 Ihsan Sabri Çaglayangil ................ 1908-1993

12 Sep 1980 - 09 Nov 1989 Ahmet Kenan Evren ...................... 1917-2015 Mil

09 Nov 1989 - 17 Apr 1993 Halil Turgut Özal ...................... 1927-1993 AP

17 Apr      - 16 May 1993 Hüsamettin Cindoruk .................... 1933-     DYP

                          (acting)

16 May 1993 - 16 May 2000 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel ......... 1924-2015 DYP

16 May 2000 - 28 Aug 2007 Ahmet Necdet Sezer ..................... 1941-

28 Aug 2007 - 28 Aug 2014 Abdullah Gül ........................... 1950-     AKP

28 Aug 2014 -             Recep Tayyip Erdogan ................... 1954-     AKP

 

 

Prime Ministers

24 Jan 1921 - 12 Jul 1922 Fevzi Cakmak Pasha ..................... 1876-1950 CHP

                          (in opposition)

12 Jul 1922 - 14 Aug 1923 Hüseyin Raud Bey ....................... 1881-1964 CHP

                          (in opposition to 01 Nov 1922)

14 Aug      - 30 Oct 1923 Ali Fethi Okyar Bey (1st Time) ......... 1880-1943 CHP

30 Oct 1923 - 21 Nov 1924 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (1st Time)

21 Nov 1924 - 06 Mar 1925 Ali Fethi Okyar Bey (2nd Time)

06 Mar 1925 - 27 Sep 1937 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (2nd Time)

27 Sep 1937 - 25 Jan 1939 Mahmud Celal Bayar ..................... s.a

25 Jan 1939 - 08 Jul 1942 Refik Ibrahim Saydam ................... 1881-1942 CHP

08 Jul      - 09 Jul 1942 Ahmet Fikri Tüzer ...................... 1878-1942 CHP

09 Jul 1942 - 07 Aug 1946 Mehmet Sükrü Saracoglu ................. 1887-1953 CHP

07 Aug 1946 - 09 Sep 1947 Mehmet Recep Peker ..................... 1888-1950 CHP

09 Sep 1947 - 16 Jan 1949 Hasan Saka ............................. 1886-1960 CHP

16 Jan 1949 - 22 May 1950 Mehmet Semsettin Günaltay .............. 1883-1961 CHP

22 May 1950 - 27 May 1960 Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes ............. 1899-1961

28 May 1960 - 30 Oct 1961 Cemal Gürsel

30 Oct      - 20 Nov 1961 Fahri Özdilek .......................... 1898-1989

20 Nov 1961 - 21 Feb 1965 Mustafa Ismet Pasha (3rd Time)

21 Feb      - 27 Oct 1965 Ali Suat Hayri Ürgüplü ................. 1903-1981

27 Oct 1965 - 26 Mar 1971 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel (1st Time)

26 Mar 1971 - 17 Apr 1972 Ismail Nihat Erim ...................... 1912-1980

17 Apr 1972 - 15 Apr 1973 Ferit Sadi Melen ....................... 1906-1988

15 Apr 1973 - 25 Jan 1974 Mehmet Naim Talu ....................... 1919-1998

25 Jan      - 17 Nov 1974 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (1st Time) ....... 1925-2006 CHP

17 Nov 1974 - 31 Mar 1975 Mahmut Sadi Irmak ...................... 1904-1990

31 Mar 1975 - 21 Jun 1977 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel (2nd Time)

21 Jun      - 11 Jul 1977 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (2nd Time)

11 Jul 1977 - 05 Jan 1978 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel (3rd Time)

05 Jan 1978 - 12 Nov 1979 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (3rd Time)

12 Nov 1979 - 12 Sep 1980 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel (4th Time)

20 Sep 1980 - 13 Dec 1983 Saim Bülent Ülüsü ...................... 1923-2015

13 Dec 1983 - 31 Oct 1989 Halil Turgut Özal ...................... s.a       AP

01 Nov      - 09 Nov 1989 Ali Hüsrev Bozer ....................... 1925-2020 AP

09 Nov 1989 - 23 Jun 1991 Yildirim Akbulut ....................... 1935-2021 AP

23 Jun      - 20 Nov 1991 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (1st Time) .......... 1947-2020 AP

20 Nov 1991 - 25 Jun 1993 Sami Süleyman Gündogdu Demirel (5th Time)

16 May      - 25 Jun 1993 Erdal Inönü ............................ 1926-2007

25 Jun 1993 - 06 Mar 1996 Tansu Penbe Çiller ..................... 1946-     DYP

06 Mar      - 28 Jun 1996 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (2nd Time)

28 Jun 1996 - 30 Jun 1997 Necmettin Erbakan ...................... 1926-2011

30 Jun 1997 - 11 Jan 1999 Ahmet Mesut Yilmaz (3rd Time)

11 Jan 1999 - 18 Nov 2002 Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (4th Time)

18 Nov 2002 - 14 Mar 2003 Abdullah Gül ........................... s.a       AKP

14 Mar 2003 - 28 Aug 2014 Recep Tayyip Erdogan ................... s.a       AKP

28 Aug 2014 - 24 May 2016 Ahmet Davutoglu ........................ 1959-     AKP

24 May 2016 - 09 Jul 2018 Binali Yıldırım ........................ 1955-     AKP


 

AKP=Adalet ve Kalkinma Partisi (Justice and Development Party, Islamic Democracy, conservative)

AP=Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party, Turkish Nationalist, former DYP)

CHP=Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party, Kemalism, social democratic)

MHP=Miliyetçi Hareket Partisi (National Movement Party, Turkish Nationalist, Far-right)

Mil=Military.

 

 

 

*Note: This includes Albanian, Slavic, Circassian, Tatar, Ossetian, Abkhazian,

        Lak, Laz, Pomak, and Zaza Muslims expelled (or those who emigrated) from

         the former Ottoman territories and the f Russian Empire.

Kurdistan


1514                      Kurdish Principalities under Ottoman suzreignty

1870                      Principalities abolished

10 Aug 1920               Kurdish state promised in the Treaty of Sèvres,

                           but never implemented


Emires of Baban

1649-1670 Faki Ahmad

1670-1703 Baba Sulaiman

1721-1731 Khana Mohammad Pasha

1731-1742 Khalid Pasha

1742-1754 Salim Pasha

1754-1765 Sulaiman Pasha I

1765-1775 Mohammad Pasha II

1775-1777 Abdollah Pasha I

1777-1780 Ahmad Pasha I

1780-1782 Mahmoud Pasha I

1782-1803 Ibrahim Pasha

1803-1813 Abdorrahman Pasha

1813-1834 Mahmoud Pasha II

1834-1838 Sulaiman Pasha II

1838-1847 Ahmad Pasha II

1847-1849 Abdollah Pasha II

Emires of Soran

Kelos

Isa

Shah Ali Bey

Pir Budak bin Shah Ali Bey

Mir Saifeddin

Mir Hussain

Mir Saidi bin Shah Ali Bey

Emir Saifeddin bin Mir Hussain bin Pir Budak

Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey Mir Saidi

Budak Bey bin Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Sulaiman Bey bin Kuli Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Ali Bey bin Sulaiman Bey

Shkali Bey

17.. - 1816               Sulaiman Bey

1816 - 1825               Khanzad

1825 - 1836               Mohammed Pasha Mir Kor


President of the Republic of Ararat

28 Oct 1927 - 25 Jul 1931 Biroyê Heskê Teli ...................... 1931-

Military Leader

28 Oct 1927 -    Sep 1930 Ihsan Nuri Pasha ....................... 1893-1976

Presidents of the Kurdistan Parliament (in Brussels, Belgium, exile)

26 Mar      - 12 Apr 1995 Ismet Cheriff Vanly .................... 1934-

12 Apr 1995 - 26 Sep 1999 Yasha Kayar ............................ 1938-

President of the Kurdish National Congress (in London, UK, exile)

24 May 1999 -             Dr. Jawad Mella ........................ 1946-