German States to 1945

Hessen (Hessia)

31 Mar 1567               Division into four lines, conventionally styled Hesse-Kassel,

                           Hesse-Marburg, Hesse-Rheinfels and Hesse-Darmstadt

13 Aug 1806               Grossherzogtum Hessen (Grand Duchy of Hessen)

                          (informally styled Hessen-Darmstardt to 1866)

03 Sep 1866               Mainz, Worms and Hesse-Homburg ceded to Prussia

02 Mar 1919 - 05 May 1933 Volksstaates Hessen (People's State of Hesse)

19 Sep 1945               Merged with Kurhessen and Nassau as Gross Hessen (Greater Hessen)

04 Dec 1946               State of Hessen


Capital: Darmstadt.

Religion: Lutheran, Roman Catholic.

Anthem: "Hessenlied"

Motto: Gott, Ehre, Vaterland (God, Honour, Fatherland).

 

Grand Dukes

13 Aug 1806 - 06 Apr 1830 Reginar, Ludwig I ............................ 1753-1830

06 Apr 1830 - 16 Jun 1848 Reginar, Ludwig II ........................... 1777-1848

16 Jun 1848 - 13 Jun 1877 Reginar, Ludwig III .......................... 1806-1877

13 Jun 1877 - 13 Mar 1892 Reginar, Ludwig IV ........................... 1837-1892

13 Mar 1892 - 09 Nov 1918 Reginar, Ernst Ludwig ........................ 1868-1937

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 25 Mar 1945 Jakob Sprenger ............................... 1884-1945 NSDAP

 

Chairmen of the Council of State

01 Aug 1819 - 14 Feb 1829 Karl Ludwig Wilhelm von Grolman .............. 1775-1829

15 Feb 1829 - 05 Mar 1848 Karl Wilhelm Heinrich,

                           Freiherr Du Bos du Thil ..................... 1777-1859

05 Mar      -    Jun 1848 Heinrich Wilhelm August

                           Freiherr von Gagern ......................... 1799-1880

   Jun      -    Jul 1848 Carl Wilhelm Zimmermann ...................... 1781-1856

16 Jul 1848 - 01 Jun 1850 Heinrich Carl Jaup ........................... 1781-1860

01 Jun 1850 - 06 Apr 1871 Reinhard Karl Friedrich

                           Freiherr von Dalwigk zu Lichtenfels ......... 1802-1880

06 Apr 1871 - 13 Sep 1872 Friedrich Friedrich von Lindelof ............. 1794-1882

13 Sep 1872 -    May 1876 Karl Wilhelm Hofmann ......................... 1827-1910

   May 1876 -    May 1884 Philip Gustav August Julius Rinck

                           Freiherr von Starck ......................... 1825-1910

   May 1884 - 1898        Jakob Finger ................................. 1825-1904

       1898 - 29 Jan 1906 Carl Friedrich Bernhard Rothe ................ 1840-1906

04 Feb 1906 - 11 Nov 1918 Christian Wilhelm Karl von Ewald ............. 1852-1932

State-Presidents

11 Nov 1918 - 02 Mar 1928 Karl Ulrich .................................. 1853-1933 SPD

02 Mar 1928 - 13 Mar 1933 Bernhard Adelung ............................. 1876-1943 SPD

13 Mar      -    May 1933 Heinrich Josef Philipp Müller ................ 1896-1945 NSDAP

   May      - 23 Sep 1933 Ferdinand Werner ............................. 1876-1961 NSDAP

23 Sep 1933 - 01 Mar 1935 Philipp Wilhelm Jung ......................... 1884-1965 NSDAP

01 Mar 1935 - 25 Mar 1945 Jakob Sprenger ............................... s.a

25 Mar      - 14 Apr 1945 Heinrich Reiner .............................. 1892-1946

                          (acting)

14 Apr      - 16 Oct 1945 Ludwig Bergsträsser .......................... 1883-1960 SPD

                          (acting)

Hesse-Homburg

1680 - 1708               Hesse-Homburg under Hesse-Darmstadt

1806                      Under suzerainty of Hesse-Darmstadt

1815                      Sovereignty restored

24 Mar 1866               Incorporated into Hesse-Darmstadt

03 Sep 1866               Ceded to Prussia


Landgrafen

       1815 - 20 Jan 1820 Limburg, Friedrich V ......................... 1748-1820

20 Jan 1820 - 02 Apr 1829 Limburg, Friedrich VI ........................ 1769-1829

02 Apr 1829 - 19 Jan 1839 Limburg, Ludwig .............................. 1770-1839

19 Jan 1839 - 15 Dec 1846 Limburg, Philipp ............................. 1779-1846

15 Dec 1846 - 08 Sep 1848 Limburg, Gustav .............................. 1781-1848

08 Sep 1848 - 24 Mar 1866 Limburg, Ferdinand ........................... 1783-1866


Prussian Civil Commissioner

04 Aug 1866 - 01 Oct 1867 Constantin Karl Alexander Wilhelm von Briesen  1821-1877

Hesse-Kassel

31 Mar 1567               Landgrafschaft von Hesse-Kassel

15 May 1803               Kurfürstentum Hessen, continued to use this

                          style after 1806 abolition of the empire

28 Aug 1807 - 30 Oct 1813 Incorporated into the Kingdom of Westphalia

20 Sep 1866               Incorporated into Prussia



Kurfürst und Landgraf

15 May 1803 - 28 Aug 1807 Limburg, Wilhelm I (1st Time) ................ 1743-1821

Landgrafen

30 Oct 1813 - 27 Feb 1821 Limburg, Wilhelm I (2nd Time)

27 Feb 1821 - 20 Nov 1847 Limburg, Wilhelm II .......................... 1777-1847

20 Nov 1847 - 20 Sep 1866 Limburg, Friedrich Wilhelm I ................. 1802-1875

Lippe

1130                      Herrschaft Lippe (Lordship of Lippe)

1530                      Graftschaft Lippe (County of Lippe)

1616                      Divided into four lines: Lippe-Detmold, Lippe-Brake,

                           Lippe-Schwalenberg and Lippe-Alverdissen

1749                      Lippe-Detmold is the last remaining line

16 Dec 1789               Fürstentum Lippe (Principality of Lippe)

12 Nov 1918               Freistaat Lippe (Free State of Lippe)

21 Jan 1947               Incorporated into Nordrhein-Westfalen

 

 

Princes

16 Dec 1789 - 04 Apr 1802 Haholt, Leopold I ............................ 1767-1802

04 Apr 1802 - 01 Jan 1851 Haholt, Leopold II ........................... 1800-1851

04 Apr 1802 - 03 Jul 1820 Pauline Fürstin von Anhalt-Bernberg .......... 1769-1820

                          (regent for Leopold II)

01 Jan 1851 - 08 Dec 1875 Haholt, Leopold III .......................... 1821-1875

08 Dec 1875 - 20 Mar 1895 Haholt, Gunther Friedrich Woldemar ........... 1824-1895

20 Mar 1895 - 13 Jan 1905 Haholt, Karl Alexander ....................... 1831-1905

22 Jun 1895 - 10 Jul 1897 Prinz Adolf zu Schaumburg-Lippe .............. 1859-1916

                          (Prince-regent)

10 Jul 1897 - 26 Sep 1904 Ernst Graf zur Lippe-Biesterfeld ............. 1842-1904

                          (Regent for Alexander)

13 Jan 1905 - 12 Nov 1918 Haholt, Leopold IV ........................... 1871-1949

                          (regent 26 Sep 1904 - 25 Oct 1905)

Reichsstatthalter

16 May 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer ................... 1891-1945 NSDAP

 

 

Chairmen of the State Presidium

13 Feb 1919 - 17 Dec 1920 Clemens Backer ............................... 1869-1961

17 Dec 1920 - 08 Jun 1921 Heinrich Hermann Drake ....................... 1881-1970

08 Jun      - 14 Jun 1921 Wilhelm Meier

14 Jun 1921 - 07 Feb 1933 Heinrich Hermann Drake (2nd Time)

Ministers of State

07 Feb      - 22 May 1933 Ernst Krappe ................................. 1891-1977 NSDAP

22 May 1933 - 1936        Hans Joachim Riecke .......................... 1899-1987 NSDAP

       1936 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer

       1936 - 03 Apr 1945 Adolf Wedderwille ............................ 1895-1947 NSDAP

                          (acting for Meyer)

09 May 1945 - 21 Jan 1947 Heinrich Hermann Drake (3rd Time)

Lübeck

1181 - 1189               Free Imperial City

1189 - 1192               Part of Saxony

1192 - 1217               Part of Holstein

1217 - 1226               Danish rule

1226 - 1806               Free City

1358 - 1669               Member of the Hanseatic league

1806 - 1813               French occupation

1813 - 1937               Free Hanseatic city of Lübeck

31 Mar 1937               End of Free City status, incorporated into Prussia

       1945               Part of Schleswig-Holstein



Reichsstatthalter

26 May 1933 - 31 Mar 1937 Friedrich Hildebrandt ...................... 1898-1948 NSDAP

 

Presiding Mayors

01 Jan 1849 - 31 Dec 1850 Heinrich Brehmer (1st Time)

01 Jan 1851 - 31 Dec 1852 Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl (1st Time)

01 Jan 1853 - 31 Dec 1854 Bernhard Heinrich Frister (1st Time)

01 Jan 1855 - 31 Dec 1856 Karl Ludwig Röck (1st Time)

01 Jan 1857 - 31 Dec 1858 Johann Joachim Friedrich Torkuhl (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1859 - 31 Dec 1860 Karl Ludwig Röck (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1861 - 31 Dec 1862 Heinrich Brehmer (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1863 - 31 Dec 1864 Karl Ludwig Röck (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1865 - 31 Dec 1866 Heinrich Brehmer (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1867 - 31 Dec 1868 Karl Ludwig Röck (4th Time)

01 Jan 1869 - 31 Dec 1870 Theodor Curtius (1st Time)

01 Jan 1871 - 31 Dec 1872 Heinrich Theodor Behn (1st Time)

01 Jan 1873 - 31 Dec 1874 Theodor Curtius (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1875 - 31 Dec 1876 Heinrich Theodor Behn (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1877 - 31 Dec 1878 Theodor Curtius (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1879 - 31 Dec 1880 Heinrich Theodor Behn (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1881 - 31 Dec 1882 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (1st Time)

01 Jan 1883 - 31 Dec 1884 Heinrich Theodor Behn (4th Time)

01 Jan 1885 - 31 Dec 1886 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1887 - 31 Dec 1888 Heinrich Theodor Behn (5th Time)

01 Jan 1889 - 31 Dec 1890 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1891 - 31 Dec 1892 Heinrich Theodor Behn (6th Time)

01 Jan 1893 - 31 Dec 1894 Arthur Gustav Kulenkamp (4th Time)

01 Jan 1895 - 31 Dec 1896 Heinrich Theodor Behn (7th Time)

01 Jan 1897 - 31 Dec 1898 Wilhelm Brehmer (1st Time)

01 Jan 1899 - 31 Dec 1900 Heinrich Klug (1st Time)

01 Jan 1901 - 31 Dec 1902 Wilhelm Brehmer (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1903 - 31 Dec 1904 Heinrich Klug (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1905 - 31 Dec 1906 Johann Georg Eschenburg (1st Time)

01 Jan 1907 - 13 Oct 1908 Ernst Christian Johannes Schön

01 Jan 1909 - 31 Dec 1910 Johann Georg Eschenburg (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1911 - 31 Dec 1912 Johann Hermann Eschenburg (1st Time)

01 Jan 1913 - 31 Dec 1914 Johann Georg Eschenburg  (3rd Time)

01 Jan 1915 - 31 Dec 1916 Johann Hermann Eschenburg (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1919 Emil Ferdinand Fehling ........................ 1847-1927

01 Jan 1920 - 1926        Johann Martin Andreas Neumann ................. 1865-1928

       1926 - 26 May 1933 Paul B. Heinrich Löwigt ....................... 1873-1934

Oberbürgermeister

26 May 1933 - 05 May 1945 Otto Heinrich Drechsler ....................... 1895-1945 NSDAP

Mecklenburg-Schwerin

14 Jun 1815               Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Elevated to a Grand Duchy

14 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1933 Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

01 Jan 1934               United with Mecklenburg-Strelitz as

                           Mecklenburg (see under Gaue)



Grand Dukes

14 Jun 1815 - 01 Feb 1837 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz I

01 Feb 1837 - 07 Mar 1842 Pribislaw, Paul Friedrich .................... 1800-1842

07 Mar 1842 - 15 Apr 1883 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz II ................ 1823-1883

15 Apr 1883 - 10 Apr 1897 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz III ............... 1851-1897

10 Apr 1897 - 09 Apr 1901 Johann Albrecht, Herzeg von Mecklenburg ...... 1857-1920

                          (regent)

10 Apr 1897 - 14 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz IV ................ 1882-1945

Reichsstatthalter

26 May      - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt ........................ 1898-1948 NSDAP

 

 

Prime Ministers

14 May 1783 - 17 May 1784 Carl Friedrich Graf von Bassewitz

17 May 1784 - 26 Jan 1800 Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf Cölpin ......... 1720-1800

26 Jan 1800 - 24 Nov 1808 Bernhard Friedrich Graf von Bassewitz ........ 1756-1816

24 Nov 1808 - 12 Apr 1836 August Georg Freiherr

                           von Brandenstein ............................ 1755-1836

       1836 - 25 Apr 1837 Leopold Engelke von Plessen .................. 1769-1837

1837 - 1840               Christian Friedrich Krüger

1840 - 1850               Ludwig von Lützow ............................ 1793-1872

12 Apr 1850 - 1858        Hans Adolf Karl Graf von Bülow

29 May 1858 - 1869        Jasper Joachim Bernhard Wilhelm von Oertzen .. 1801-1874

       1869 - 15 Dec 1885 Henning Carl Friedrich Graf

                           von Bassewitz ............................... 1814-1885

   Jan 1886 - 1901        Alexander Friedrich Wilhelm von Bülow

1901 - 1914               Karl Heinrich Ludwig Graf

                           von Bassewitz-Levetzow ...................... 1855-1921

       1914 - 09 Nov 1918 Adolf Ferdinand Helmut August

                           Wilhelm Langfeld ............................ 1857-1935

Ministers of State

09 Sep 1918 - 28 Jul 1920 Hugo Wendorff ................................ 1864-1945

28 Jul 1920 - 14 Jan 1921 Hermann Reincke-Bloch ........................ 1867-1928

14 Jan 1921 - 18 Mar 1924 Johannes Stelling ............................ 1877-1933

18 Mar 1924 - 08 Jul 1926 Joachim Freiherr von Brandenstein ............ 1864-1941

08 Jul 1926 - 10 Jul 1929 Paul Schroder ................................ 1875-1932

10 Jul 1929 - 13 Jul 1932 Karl Eschenburg .............................. 1877-1943

13 Jul 1932 - 10 Aug 1933 Walter Granzow ............................... 1887-1952

10 Aug      - 31 Dec 1933 Hans Egon Engell ............................. 1897-1974 NSDAP

Mecklenburg-Strelitz

28 Jun 1815               Elevated to a Grand Duchy

14 Nov 1918 - 31 Dec 1933 Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz

01 Jan 1934               United with Mecklenburg-Schwerin as

                           Mecklenburg (see under Gaue)

 


Grand Dukes

28 Jun 1815 - 06 Nov 1816 Pribislaw, Karl II Ludwig Friedrich

06 Nov 1816 - 06 Sep 1860 Pribislaw, Georg Wilhelm ..................... 1779-1860

06 Sep 1860 - 30 May 1904 Pribislaw, Friedrich Wilhelm ................. 1819-1904

30 May 1904 - 11 Jun 1914 Pribislaw, Adolf Friedrich V ................. 1848-1914

11 Jun 1914 - 23 Feb 1918 Pribislaw, Adolf Friedrich VI ................ 1882-1918

23 Feb      - 14 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Carl Michael*,

                           Herzog von Mecklenburg ...................... 1863-1934

27 Feb      - 14 Nov 1918 Pribislaw, Friedrich Franz IV,

                           von Mecklenburg-Schwerin .................... 1882-1945

                          (Regent)

Reichsstatthalter

26 May      - 31 Dec 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt ........................ s.a

 

Ministers

1760 - 1769               Christian Arnold von Zesterfleth

       1769 -    Apr 1784 Stephan Werner von Dewitz auf Cöpin

   Apr 1784 - 1794        .....

1794 - 1800               Otto Ulrich von Dewitz ....................... 1747-1808

1800 - 1827               Karl Wilhelm Friedrich David von Pentz ....... 1776-1827

1827 - 1836               August Otto Ernest Freiherr

                           von Ortzen auf Klokow ....................... 1777-1837

1837 - 1848               Otto Ludwig Christian

                           von Dewitz auf Sallnow ...................... 1780-1864

1848 - 1850               Vacant

1850 - 1862               Wilhelm von Bernstorff

01 Nov 1862 - 1868        Bernhard Ernst von Bülow ..................... 1815-1879

1868 - 1872               Wilhelm Karl Konrad Freiherr

                           von Hammerstein-Loxten ...................... 1843-1905

1872 - 1885               Andreas von Piper ............................ 1805-1880

1885 - 1907               Friedrich Wilhelm Otto Ulrich

                           Karl Helmut von Dewitz ...................... 1843-1928

       1907 - 10 Nov 1918 Heinrich Bossart ............................. 1857-1930

Ministers of State

11 Nov 1918 - 07 Jan 1919 Peter Franz Stubmann ......................... 1876-1942

07 Jan      - 13 Oct 1919 Hans Krüger .................................. 1884-1933

13 Oct 1919 - 02 Aug 1923 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

                           Freiherr von Reibnitz (1st Time) ............ 1877-1937

02 Aug 1923 - 13 Mar 1928 Karl Schwabe ................................. 1877-1938

13 Mar 1928 - 12 Apr 1929 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

                           Freiherr von Reibnitz (2nd Time)

12 Apr      - 16 Apr 1929 Kurt Häntzschel .............................. 1889-1941

                          (Reichskommissar)

16 Apr 1929 - 04 Dec 1931 Kurt Gustav Hans Otto

                           Freiherr von Reibnitz (3rd Time)

04 Dec 1931 - 27 May 1933 Heinrich Wilhelm Ferdinand von Ferdinand ..... 1888-1942

27 May      - 31 Dec 1933 Fritz Stichtenoth ............................ 1895-1935 NSDAP


Note: Duke Cark Michael of Mecklenburg was the designated heir to Mecklenburg-Strelitz,

but had fought for Russia during WWI and wished to renounce his rights. The issue of

succession was not resolved before the November revolution leaving the Grand Duke of

Mecklenburg-Schwerin as regent.

Nassau

30 Aug 1806               Duchy of Nassau

18 Jul 1866               Occupied by Prussia

20 Dec 1866               Annexed by Prussia

 

Dukes

30 Aug 1806 - 24 Mar 1816 von Nassau, Friedrich August ................. 1738-1816

30 Aug 1806 - 09 Jan 1816 von Nassau, Friedrich Wilhelm ................ 1768-1816

                          (co-ruler)

09 Jan 1816 - 20 Aug 1839 von Nassau, Wilhelm I ........................ 1792-1839

20 Aug 1839 - 01 Oct 1866 von Nassau, Adolf V .......................... 1817-1905

                          (in exile from 14 Jul 1866)

 

Ministers of State

30 Aug 1806 - 1811        Hans Christoph Ernst Freiherr von Gagern ..... 1766-1852

30 Aug 1806 - 22 Jan 1834 Ernst Franz Ludwig Freiherr Marschall

                           von Bieberstein (jointly to 1811) ........... 1770-1834

1834 - 1842               Karl Wilderich Graf von Walderdorff .......... 1799-1862

1842 - 1843               Friedrich George Karl Anton

                           Freiherr von Bock-Hermsdorff ................ 1798-1866

1843 - 1848               Ernst August Freiherr von Dugern

       1828 - 02 Jan 1849 Jacob Ludwig Philipp Franz August Hergenhahn . 1804-1874

11 Jun 1849 - 07 Feb 1852 Friedrich Gerhard Freiherr von Winzingerode .. 1799-1870

07 Feb 1852 - 31 Jul 1866 August Ludwig Prinz zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-

                           Berleburg ................................... 1788-1874

01 Aug      - 22 Dec 1866 Jacob Ludwig Philipp Franz August Hergenhahn (2nd Time)

Oldenburg

1148                      County of Oldenburg

29 Dec 1774               Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg

   Nov 1806 - 08 Jan 1807 Occupied by Holland

10 Dec 1810 - 30 Nov 1813 Annexed by France

01 Dec 1813               Duchy of Holstein-Oldenburg restored

28 May 1829               Elevated to a Grand Duchy

11 Nov 1918 - 09 Dec 1946 Freistaat Oldenburg

09 Dec 1946               Part of Niedersachsen

 

Dukes

10 Dec 1810 - 02 Jul 1813 Oldenburg, Wilhelm (2nd Time)

02 Jul 1823 - 21 May 1829 Oldenburg, Peter I ............................ 1755-1829

Grand Dukes

21 May 1829 - 27 Feb 1853 Oldenburg, August ............................. 1783-1853

27 Feb 1853 - 13 Jun 1900 Oldenburg, Peter II ........................... 1827-1900

13 Jun 1900 - 11 Nov 1918 Oldenburg, Friedrich August II ................ 1852-1931

Reichsstatthalter für Oldenburg und Bremen

05 May 1933 - 15 May 1942 Carl George Röver ............................. 1889-1942 NSDAP

15 May 1942 - 23 May 1945 Paul Wegener .................................. 1908-1993 NSDAP

 

 

Chairmen of the State Ministeries

12 Oct 1814 - 30 Jun 1842 Karl Ludwig Friedrich Josef

                           Freiherr von Brandenstein .................... 1760-1847

01 Jul 1842 - 09 Sep 1843 Günther Heinrich Freiherr von Berg ............ 1765-1843

09 Sep 1843 - 01 Aug 1848 Wilhelm Ernst Freiherr

                           von Beaulieu-Marconnay ....................... 1786-1859

01 Aug 1848 - 13 Aug 1849 Johann Heinrich Jakob Schlifer ................ 1760-1867

13 Aug 1849 - 01 May 1851 Christian Diedrich von Buttel ................. 1801-1878

01 May 1851 - 23 Jun 1874 Peter Friedrich Ludwig

                           Freiherr von Rössing ......................... 1805-1874

23 Jun 1874 - 01 Oct 1876 Karl Heinrich Ernst von Berg .................. 1810-1894

01 Oct 1876 - 14 Mar 1890 Friedrich Andreas Ruhstrat .................... 1818-1896

14 Mar 1890 - 19 Aug 1900 Gerhard Friedrich Günther Jansen .............. 1831-1914

19 Aug 1900 - 17 Aug 1908 Wilhelm Friedrich Willich ..................... 1846-1917

17 Aug 1908 - 03 Jan 1916 Friedrich Julius Heinrich Ruhstray ............ 1854-1916

03 Jan 1916 - 06 Nov 1918 Franz Friedrich Paul Ruhstrat ................. 1859-1935

President of the Directory

14 Nov 1918 - 21 Jun 1919 Bernhard Kuhnt ................................ 1877-1946

Minister-presidents

21 Jun 1919 - 17 Apr 1923 Theodor Johann Tantzen (1st Time) ............. 1877-1947

17 Apr 1923 - 13 Jul 1930 Eugen von Finck ............................... 1860-1930

14 Dec 1930 - 16 Jun 1932 Friedrich Kassebohm ........................... 1872-1951

16 Jun 1932 - 06 May 1933 Carl George Röver ............................. s.a

06 May 1933 - 23 May 1945 Georg Karl Joel ............................... 1898-1981 NSDAP

16 May 1945 - 09 Dec 1946 Theodor Johann Tantzen (2nd Time)

Preussen (Prussia)

20 May 965                Founding of Nordmark

11 Jun 1157               Mark Brandenburg

       1230               Preußen part of the Teutonic Order

09 Sep 1309               East Prussia the seat of the Grand Master

06 Mar 1454               Prussia in personal union with Poland

19 Oct 1466 - 19 Sep 1657 Prussia a Polish fief

09 Apr 1525               Herzogtum von Preußen (Duchy of Prussia)

18 Jul 1618               In Personal union with Brandenburg (Brandenburg-Prussia)

18 Jan 1701               Konigreich von Preußen (Kingdom of Prussia)

22 Jan 1758 -    Sep 1762 East Prussia occupied by Russia, annexed 24 Jan 1758

05 Aug 1772               West Prussia annexed

   Dec 1812 -    Jan 1813 East Prussia cccupied by France

01 Jul 1867 - 31 Dec 1870 Chair of the North German Confederation

01 Jan 1871               Part of German Empire

09 Nov 1918               Freistaat von Preußen (Free State of Prussia)

13 Mar      - 17 Mar 1920 Failed 'Kapp Putsch' against the Prussian government

20 Jul 1932               End of the Prussian central government

30 Jan 1935               Free State de facto abolished

20 Jan 1945               East Prussia under Soviet occupation

09 May 1945               Prussia divided by the Allied occupation of Germany

02 Aug 1945               Prussian territory east of the Order-Neisse Line ceded to

                           Poland and the U.S.S.R by the Potsdam Confrence

25 Feb 1947               Prussia dissolved, areas west of the Oder and Niese rivers

                           and annexed in to Poland and USSR.

 

Capital: Berlin.

Languages: German, Polish, Lithuanian.

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Jewish.

National Anthem: "Preußenlied" ("Song of Prussia")

National Motto: Gott Mit Uns (God with us).

National Emblem: Black Eagel.

Currency: Reichsmark.

 


Reichskomissaren

20 Jul      - 03 Dec 1932 Franz Josef Hermann Michael Maria von Papen ... 1879-1969

03 Dec 1932 - 28 Jan 1933 Kurt von Schleicher ........................... 1882-1934

Reichsstatthalter

25 Apr 1933 - 30 Jan 1935 Adolf Hitler .................................. 1889-1945 NSDAP

30 Jan 1935 - 22 Apr 1945 Hermanm Wilhelm Göring ........................ 1893-1946 NSDAP



Minister-Presidents

09 Nov      - 11 Nov 1918 Friedrich Ebert ............................... 1871-1925 SPD

11 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1920 Paul Hirsch ................................... 1868-1940 SPD

13 Mar      - 17 Mar 1920 Wolfgang Kapp ................................. 1858-1922

                          (in rebellion)

27 Mar 1920 - 21 Apr 1921 Otto Braun (1st Time) ......................... 1872-1955 SPD

21 Apr      - 05 Nov 1921 Adam Stegerwald ............................... 1874-1945

05 Nov 1921 - 18 Feb 1925 Otto Braum (2nd Time)

18 Feb      - 06 Apr 1925 Wilhelm Marx .................................. 1863-1946

06 Apr 1925 - 10 Apr 1933 Otto Braun (3rd Time)

10 Apr 1933 - 22 Apr 1945 Hermanm Wilhelm Göring ........................ s.a

22 Apr 1945 - 25 Feb 1947 Vacant


Sachsen

25 Dec 1356               Herzogtum Sachsen (Duchy of Saxony)

11 Dec 1806               Königreich Sachsen (Kingdom of Sachsen)

13 Nov 1918               Freistaat Sachsen (Free State of Saxony)

   Nov 1918 - 14 Mar 1919 Saxon Soviet (in rebellion)

       1945               Schwartzenberg Free State proclaimed

                           by Anti-Nazi resistance for three weeks in

                            unoccupied Western Saxony


Capital: Dresden.

Language: German, Sorbian.

Religion: Evangelical Lutheran, Roman Catholic, Jewish.

Anthem: "Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen! (Praise your happiness, blessed Saxony!)

Emblem: Crancelin on Sable and Or.

Motto: Providentiae Memor.

Currency to 1873: Saxon Thaler.


 

Monarchs

20 Dec 1806 - 05 May 1827 Wettin, Friedrich August I

05 May 1827 - 06 Jun 1836 Wettin, Anton ............................ 1755-1836

06 Jun 1836 - 09 Aug 1854 Wettin, Friedrich August II .............. 1797-1854

09 Aug 1854 - 29 Oct 1873 Wettin, Johann ........................... 1801-1873

29 Oct 1873 - 19 Jun 1902 Wettin, Albrecht V ....................... 1828-1902

19 Jun 1902 - 15 Oct 1904 Wettin, Georg Friedrich August ........... 1832-1904

15 Oct 1904 - 13 Nov 1918 Wettin, Friedrich August II .............. 1865-1932

Reichsstatthalter

05 May 1933 - 07 May 1945 Martin Mutschmann ........................ 1879-1947 NSDAP

 

 

Minister-Presidents

01 Dec 1831 -    Sep 1843 Bernard August, Freiherr

                           von Lindenau

   Sep 1843 - 13 Mar 1848 Julius Traugott Jakob

                           von Könneritz

16 Mar 1848 - 24 Feb 1849 Alexander Karl Hermann Braun ............. 1807-1868

24 Feb      - 02 May 1849 Gustav Friedrich Held .................... 1804-1857

02 May 1849 - 28 May 1858 Ferdinand von Zschinski .................. 1797-1858

28 Oct 1858 - 15 Aug 1866 Ferdinand, Freiherr von Friesen .......... 1809-1886

15 Aug 1866 - 01 Oct 1871 Johann Paul, Freiherr

                           von Falkenstein ......................... 1801-1882

01 Oct 1871 - 01 Nov 1876 Richard, Reichsfreiherr

                           von Friesen ............................. 1808-1884

01 Nov 1876 - 25 Mar 1891 Georg Friedrich Alfred,

                           Graf von Fabrice ........................ 1818-1891

25 Mar      - 23 Dec 1891 Karl Friedrich Wilhelm

                           von Gerber .............................. 1823-1891

24 Dec 1891 - 12 Feb 1895 Julius Hans von Thümmel .................. 1824-1895

12 Feb 1895 - 15 Jun 1901 Heinrich Rudolf

                           von Metzsch-Reichenbach ................. 1836-1927

30 Apr 1906 - 01 Dec 1910 Conrad Wilhelm von Ruger ................. 1837-1916

01 Dec 1910 - 26 Jul 1912 Viktor Alexander von Otto ................ 1852-1912

26 Jul 1912 - 21 May 1914 Max Clemens Lothar, Freiherr

                           von Hausen .............................. 1846-1922

21 May 1914 - 26 Oct 1918 Heinrich Gustav Beck ..................... 1857-1933

26 Oct      - 13 Nov 1918 Karl Rudolf Heinz ........................ 1865-1928

15 Nov 1918 - 21 Jan 1919 Robert Richard Lipinski .................. 1867-1936

14 Mar 1919 - 04 May 1920 Georg Grandauer .......................... 1866-1946

04 May 1920 - 21 May 1923 Johann Wilhelm Buck ...................... 1869-1945

21 Mar      - 29 Oct 1923 Erich Zeigner ............................ 1886-1949

29 Oct      - 31 Oct 1923 Karl Rudolf Heinze (2nd Time)

01 Nov 1923 - 04 Jan 1924 Alfred Karl Fellisch ..................... 1884-1973

04 Jan 1924 - 25 Jun 1929 Max Wilhelm August Heidt ................. 1872-1933

25 Jun 1929 - 06 May 1930 Wilhelm Robert Ferdinand Bünger .......... 1870-1937

06 May 1930 - 10 May 1933 Karl Alfred Walter Schieck ............... 1874-1946

10 May 1933 - 28 Feb 1935 Manfred Freiherr von Killingen ........... 1886-1944 NSDAP

28 Feb 1935 - 07 May 1945 Martin Mutschmann ........................ s.a


Royal Style: König von Sachsen (King of Saxony). Lat: Rex Saxoniae.


Orders: Orden der Rautenkrone (Order of the Rue Crown).

        Militär-St. Heinrichs-Orden (Military Order of St. Henry).

        Albrechts-Orden (Albert Order).

        Zivilverdienstorden (Saxon Order of Merit).

        Sidonien-Orden (Order of Sidonia).

        Maria-Anna-Orden (Order of Mary Anne).

Sachs-Lauenburg

1806 - 1810               Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg occupied by France

13 Dec 1810 - 1813        Annexed by France

09 Jun 1815 (hours)       Annexed by Prussia

09 Jun 1815               Incorporated into Denmark

16 Nov 1864 - 20 Aug 1865 Austro-Prussian administration

20 Aug 1865               In personal-union with Prussia

01 Jul 1876               Incorporated into Prussia, part of Schleswig-Holstein,

                          style Herzogtum Sachs-Lauenburg continued

 

 

Herzog von Lauenburg (Dukes of Lauenburg)

13 Mar 1808 - 03 Dec 1839 Oldenburg, Frederik VI of Denmark

03 Dec 1839 - 20 Jan 1848 Oldenburg, Christian VIII of Denmark

20 Jan 1848 - 15 Nov 1863 Oldenburg, Frederik VII of Denmark

15 Nov 1863 - 16 Nov 1864 Oldenburg, Christian IX of Denmark

20 Aug 1865 - 30 Jun 1876 Hohenzollern, Wilhelm I of Prussia ....... 1797-1888

18 Mar 1890 - 30 Jul 1898 Prinz Otto von Bismark-Schonhausen ....... 1815-1898

Schaumburg-Lippe

19 Jul 1647               County of Schaumburg-Lippe separated from Lippe

18 Apr 1807               Principality of Schaumburg-Lippe

16 Nov 1918               Free State of Schaumburg Lippe

01 May 1946               Incorporated into Niedersachsen

 

Princes

18 Apr 1807 - 21 Nov 1860 Haholt, Georg I Wilhelm .................. 1787-1860

21 Nov 1860 - 08 May 1893 Haholt, Adolf I .......................... 1817-1893

08 May 1893 - 29 Apr 1911 Haholt, Georg II ......................... 1846-1911

29 Apr 1911 - 16 Nov 1918 Haholt, Adolf II ......................... 1883-1936

Reichsstatthalter

16 May 1933 - 04 Apr 1945 Gustav Alfred Julius Meyer ............... s.a

 

Ministers of State

1849 - 1871               Eduard von Lauer-Münchhofen

1885 - 1895               Heinrich Spring

       1895 - 19 Nov 1897 Martin Georg Martin von Wegnern .......... 1855-1897

       1898 - 04 Dec 1918 Friedrich Rudolf Ernst

                           Freiherr von Feilitzsch ................. 1858-1942

Chairman of the Council of State

04 Dec 1918 - 14 Mar 1919 Heinrich Lorenz .......................... 1870-1947 SPD

State Councillors

14 Mar 1919 - 22 May 1922 Heinrich Friedrich Otto Bömers ........... 1857-1931

22 May 1922 - 28 May 1925 Konrad Wippermann ........................ 1858-1935

28 May 1925 - 07 Oct 1927 Erich Steinbrecher

07 Oct 1927 - 07 Mar 1933 Heinrich Lorenz

01 Apr      - 23 May 1933 Hans Joachim Riecke ...................... 1899-1987 NSDAP

State President

23 May 1933 - 17 May 1945 Karl Heinrich Dreier ..................... 1898-1974 NSDAP

Minister

       1945 - 30 Apr 1946 Heinrich Hermann Wilhelm Drake ........... 1881-1970 SPD

Südbaden

07 Jul 1945               Baden divided into South Baden with the north being

                           merged into Württemberg-Baden

02 Dec 1946               South Baden renmaed Baden

07 Sep 1949               Part of West Germany

25 Apr 1952               Part of Baden-Württemberg


State Presidents

02 Jun 1945 - 30 Nov 1946 State Administration

                        - Paul Hausser ............................. 1880-1966

                        - Karl Otte ................................ 1873-1952

                        - Alfred Bund .............................. 1882-1975

                        - Friedrich Leibbrandt ..................... 1894-1960

                        - Carl Deiz ................................ 1877-1969

                        - Philipp Martzloff ........................ 1880-1962

                        - Paul Zürcher ............................. 1893-1880

01 Dec 1946 - 25 Apr 1952 Leo Joseph Wohleb ........................ 1888-1955

Thüringen (Saxon) Duchies and Principalities


The Ernestinische Herzogtümer (Ernestine Duchies), or Saxon Duchies were a

number of small states that existed in the modern state of Thuringen. The

Saxon Duchies were junior branches of the Saxon House of Wettin, the most

famous of which was Saxe-Coburg-Gotha whose members provided the ruling

dynasties of Great Britain, Belgium, Bulgaria, and Portugal. In addition to

the Ernestine Duchies there were also the principalities of Reuss and

Schwarzburg which did not belong to the Wettin dynasty. After the revolution

of 1918 the states briefly existed in republican form until they were all

incorporated into the new state of Thuringen - named after the Medieval

German state that existed in the same area.

14 Jul 1919               Reuss and the Saxon Duchies united as Thüringen

01 May 1920               Freistaat Thüringen

08 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924 Under martial law

07 Oct 1949               Part of East Germany

23 Jul 1952               State dissolved

03 Oct 1990               Reconstituted as a state

 

Military Administrator

08 Nov 1923 - 28 Feb 1924 Paul Hasse ............................... 1864-1945

Reichsstatthalter

06 May 1933 - 12 Apr 1945 Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel ........ 1894-1946 NSDAP

 

Chairmen of the Council of State

14 Jul 1919 - 30 Apr 1920 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen .............. 1864-1942

Minister-Presidents

01 May      - 11 Nov 1920 August Frölich (1st Time) ................ 1867-1964 SPD

11 Nov 1920 - 06 Oct 1921 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen (1st Time)

07 Oct 1921 - 21 Feb 1924 August Frölich (2nd Time)

21 Feb 1924 - 06 Nov 1928 Richard Leutheusser ...................... 1867-1945

06 Nov 1928 - 22 Jan 1930 Arnold Eudolf Otto Paulssen (2nd Time)

22 Jan 1930 - 26 Aug 1932 Erwin Baum ............................... 1868-1950

26 Aug 1932 - 08 May 1933 Ernst Friedrich Christoph Sauckel

08 May 1933 - 12 May 1945 Wilhelm E.K. Marschler ................... 1893-1952 NSDAP

Reuss

Reuss aelterer Linie (Reuss Senior Line)


17 Mar 1768               Reuß-Untergrei and Reuß-Obergreiz combine to re-form,

                          Reuß-Greiz, encompassing the senior line polity

12 May 1778              Fürstentum Reuß älterer Linie

11 Nov 1918               Freistaat Reuß älterer Linie (Free State of Reuss Senior Line)

17 Apr 1919               United with Reuss junior line as Volksstaat Reuß

                          (People's State of Reuss)

01 May 1920               Part of Thuringia

 

Princes

17 Mar 1768 - 28 Jun 1800 Reuß, Heinrich XI ........................ 1722-1800

28 Jun 1800 - 29 Jan 1817 Reuß, Heinrich XIII ...................... 1747-1817

29 Jun 1817 - 31 Oct 1836 Reuß, Heinrich XIX ....................... 1790-1836

31 Oct 1836 - 08 Nov 1859 Reuß, Heinrich XX ........................ 1794-1859

08 Nov 1859 - 19 Apr 1902 Reuß, Heinrich XXII ...................... 1846-1902

19 Apr 1902 - 11 Nov 1918 Reuß, Heinrich XXIV ...................... 1878-1927

15 Oct      - 11 Nov 1918 Heinrich XXVII Fürst Reuß jüngere Linie .. 1858-1928

                          (Regent)

 

Government and Konsistorial Presidents

1782 - 1841               Franz Christian Ferdinand von Grün ....... 1758-1841

1841 - 1848               Ludwig Freiherr von und zu Mannsbach ..... 1794-1872

01 Jul 1848 - 06 May 1861 Franz Eduard Otto ........................ 1780-1865

07 May 1861 - 26 Jan 1870 Hugo Moritz Herman ....................... 1809-1870

01 Jun 1870 - 30 Sep 1874 Otto Theodor Meusel ...................... 1832-1906

01 Oct 1874 - 1888        Albert Friedrich Wilhelm Faber ........... 1817-....

       1888 - 13 Apr 1892 Alfred August Mortag ..................... 1825-1892

       1893 - 17 Sep 1900 Theodor von Dietel ....................... 1830-1900

       1901 - 12 Nov 1918 Ernst August von Meding .................. 1855-1928

Leading Minister of State

12 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Wilhelm Oberländer ....................... 1869-1946

                          (co-Minister of Volksstaat Reuß from 17 Apr 1919)

______________________________________________________________________________


Reuss juengere Linie (Reuss junior line)


26 Apr 1802               Reuß-Schleiz and Reuß-Gera united as Reuß-Schleiz und Gera

01 Oct 1848               Fürstentum Reuß Jüngerer Linie

11 Nov 1918               Freistaat Reuß Jüngerer Linie (Free State of Reuss Junior Line)

17 Apr 1919               United with Reuss junior line as Volksstaat Reuß

                          (People's State of Reuss)

01 May 1920               Part of Thuringia

 

Princes

26 Apr 1802 - 17 Apr 1818 Reuß, Heinrich XLII ...................... 1752-1818

17 Apr 1818 - 19 Jun 1854 Reuß, Heinrich LXII ...................... 1785-1854

19 Jun 1854 - 11 Jul 1867 Reuß, Heinrich LXVII ..................... 1789-1867

11 Jul 1867 - 29 Mar 1913 Reuß, Heinrich XIV ....................... 1832-1913

29 Mar 1913 - 11 Nov 1918 Reuß, Heinrich XXVII ..................... s.a

 

Ministers of State

1825 - 1839               Gustav Adolph von Strauch ................ 1790-1839

1840 - 1855               Hermann Robert von Bretschneider ......... 1796-18..

1856 - 1862               Eduard von Geldern ....................... 1806-1866

1862 - 1877               Andreas Paul Adolph von Harbou ........... 1809-1877

1877 - 1892               Emil von Beulwitz ........................ 1821-1893

1892 - 1896               Christian August Anton Vollert ........... 1826-1897

1896 - 1902               Walter Engelhardt

01 Oct 1902 - 07 Nov 1918 Karl Franz Ernst von Hinüber ............. 1854-1929

07 Nov      - 10 Nov 1918 Paul Ruckdeschel ......................... 1864-1942

Leading Minister of State

10 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Karl Eduard Emil Franz Moritz

                           Freiherr von Brandenstein ............... 1875-1946

                          (co-Minister of Volksstaat Reuß from 17 Apr 1919)

Sachs-Altenburg

13 Nov 1602               Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg

26 May 1672 - 11 Feb 1825 Personal union with Saxe-Gotha

09 Nov 1918               Freistaat Sachs-Altemburg

01 May 1920               Incorporated into Thuringia

 

Dukes

11 Feb 1825 - 29 Sep 1834 Wettin, Friedrich ........................ 1763-1834

29 Sep 1834 - 30 Nov 1848 Wettin, Josef ............................ 1789-1868

30 Nov 1848 - 03 Aug 1853 Wettin, Georg ............................ 1796-1853

03 Aug 1853 - 07 Feb 1908 Wettin, Ernst I .......................... 1826-1908

07 Feb 1908 - 13 Nov 1918 Wettin, Ernst II ......................... 1871-1955

 

 

Chairmen of the State Ministry

13 Nov 1918 - 27 Mar 1919 Wilhelm Tells ............................ 1871-1929

27 Mar 1919 - 30 Apr 1920 August Froelich .......................... 1877-1966 SPD

Sachs-Coburg und Gotha

05 Mar 1680               Duchy of Saxe-Gotha

29 Jul 1735               Duchy of Saxe-Coburg

12 Nov 1826               Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha

13 Nov 1918               Free State of Saxe-Coburg-Gothe

01 May 1920               Saxe-Gotha to Thüringen, Coburg to Bavaria



Dukes

12 Nov 1826 - 29 Jan 1844 Wettin, Ernst I .......................... 1784-1844

29 Jan 1844 - 22 Aug 1893 Wettin, Ernst II ......................... 1818-1893

22 Aug 1893 - 30 Jun 1900 Wettin, Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh ........ 1844-1900

30 Jun 1900 - 14 Nov 1918 Wettin, Carl Eduard ...................... 1884-1954

 

 

Chairmen of the State Council

09 Nov 1918 - 11 Jul 1919 Karl Hermann Quarck ...................... 1873-1932

11 Jul 1919 - 30 Jun 1920 Franz Klinger ............................ 1875-1933 SPD

Minister of State for Sachs Gotha

14 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Otto Geithner ............................ 1876-1948

Sachs-Meiningen

05 Mar 1680               Herzogtum Sachs-Meiningen (Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen)

12 Nov 1918               People's State of Saxe-Meiningen

01 May 1920               To Thüringen

 

Dukes

05 Mar 1680 - 27 Apr 1706 Wettin, Bernhard I

27 Apr 1706 - 24 Nov 1724 Wettin, Ernst Ludwig I

                          (co-ruler)

27 Apr 1706 - 10 Mar 1746 Wettin, Friedrich Wilhelm

                          (co-ruler)

27 Apr 1706 - 27 Jan 1763 Wettin, Anton Ulrich

                          (co-ruler)

24 Nov 1744 - 28 Mar 1729 Wettin, Ernst Ludwog II

                          (co-ruler)

24 Nov 1724 - 23 Mar 1732 Wettin,Friedrich II Herzog

                           von Sachsen-Gotha (regent)

23 Mar 1732 - 18 Aug 1733 Wettin, Friedrich III Herzog

                           von Sachsen-Gotha (regent)

24 Nov 1724 - 28 Mar 1743 Wettin, Carl Friedrich

                          (co-ruler)

28 Mar 1743 - 10 Mar 1746 Wettin, Friedrich Wilhelm

                          (co-ruler)

27 Jan 1763 - 19 Nov 1775 Charlotte Amalie

                           von Hessen (regent)

27 Jan 1763 - 21 Jul 1782 Wettin, August Friedrich

27 Jan 1782 - 24 Dec 1803 Wettin, Georg I .......................... 1761-1803

24 Dec 1803 - 17 Dec 1821 Luise Eleonore

                           von Hohenlohe-Langenburg ................ 1763-1837

                           -Regent

24 Dec 1803 - 20 Sep 1866 Wettin, Bernhard II ...................... 1800-1882

20 Sep 1866 - 25 Jun 1914 Wettin, Georg II ......................... 1826-1914

25 Jun 1914 - 10 Nov 1918 Wettin, Bernhard III ..................... 1851-1918

 

Leading Minister

12 Nov 1918 - 30 Apr 1920 Ludwig Freiherr von Türcke ............... 1857-1933

Sachs-Weimar-Eisenach

Dukes

20 Sep 1809 - 14 Jun 1828 Wettin, Carl August ...................... 1757-1828

14 Jun 1828 - 08 Jul 1853 Wettin, Carl Friedrich ................... 1783-1853

08 Jul 1853 - 05 Jan 1901 Wettin, Carl Alexander ................... 1818-1901

05 Jan 1901 - 09 Nov 1918 Wettin, Wilhelm Ernst .................... 1876-1923

 

Commissioner of State

08 Nov 1918 - 20 May 1919 August Baudert ........................... 1860-1942 SPD

Presiding Minister of State

20 May 1919 - 01 May 1920 Arnold Rudolf Paulssen ................... 1864-1942