Eastern Empire

Eastern Empire

Byzantine Empire

25 Jul 306                Byzantine Empire

17 Jan 395                Upon the death of Emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire

                          is divided between his sons Arcadius (Emperor in the East)

                          and Honorius (Emperor in the West); the division becomes final

04 Sep 476                End of the Western Roman Empire

       634                Arab conquest of Syria

       639                Arab conquest of Egypt

       670                Arab conquest of Tunisia and Algeria

       1191               Cyprus under Crusader control

   May 1204               Constantinople sacked by Forth Crusader forces

09 May 1204 - 15 Aug 1261 Empire of Romania (Latin Empire)

       1204 - 25 Dec 1261 Empire in Nicea (Byzantine)

25 Dec 1261               Byzantine empire restored to Constantinople

       1424               Tributary of the Ottoman state

29 May 1453               Constantinople captured by the Osmanli Turks,

                          the Empire is dissolved



Capital: Constantinople

Language: Greek, Latin.

Religion: Eastern Orthodoxy.

Currency: Gold Solidos.


Emperors

25 Jul 306 - 22 May 337 Konstantínos, Agios Konstantínos A

                        (Constantinus I)

22 May 337 - 05 Oct 361 Konstantínos, Agios Konstantínos B

                        (Constantinus II)

05 Oct 361 - 28 Jun 363 Konstantínos, Ioulianós A

                        (Iulianus I)

28 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 Iovianós (Iovianus)

                        (Non-dynastic military ruler)

26 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375 Valentinianos, Oualentianos A

                        (Valeninianus I)

28 Mar 364 - 09 Aug 378 Valentinianos, Ouális A

                        (Valens I, co-Emperor to 375)

09 Aug 378 - 19 Jan 379 Valentinianos, Gratianós

                        (Gratianus)

19 Jan 379 - 17 Jan 395 Theodosios, Theodósios I

17 Jan 395 - 01 May 408 Theodosios, Arcádios I

01 May 408 - 28 Jul 450 Theodosios, Theodósios II

28 Jul 450 -    Jan 457 Theodosios, Markianós

07 Feb 450 - 18 Jan 474 Leonta, Léon I

    18 Jan - 17 Nov 474 Leonta, Léon II

09 Feb 474 - 09 Jan 475 Leonta, Zínon I (1st Time)

                        (co-Emperor to 17 Nov 474)

09 Jan 475 -    Aug 476 Leonta, Vasilískos I

   Aug 476 - 09 Apr 491 Leonta, Zínon I (2nd Time)

11 Apr 491 - 09 Jul 518 Leonta, Anastásios I

   Jul 518 - 01 Aug 527 Lustinios, Ioustínos I        

01 Aug 527 - 14 Nov 565 Lustinios, Ioustiniavós

14 Nov 565 - 05 Oct 578 Lustinios, Ioustínos II    

05 Oct 578 - 14 Aug 582 Lustinios, Tibérios I

14 Aug 582 -    Nov 602 Lustinios, Maurikios I

   Nov 602 - 05 Oct 610 Phokás

                        (Non-dynastic military ruler)

05 Oct 610 - 11 Feb 641 Heraklios, Irákleois I

    11 Feb - 26 May 641 Heraklios, Iraklonás I

    11 Feb -    Sep 641 Heraklios, Konstantínos III

                        (co-Emperor)

   Sep 641 - 15 Sep 668 Heraklios, Kónstans II

15 Sep 668 - 669        Mizizios the Armenian

                        (Usurper Emperor in Sicily)

15 Sep 668 -    Sep 685 Heraklios, Konstantínos IV

681 - 695               Heraklios, Ioustiniavós II

                        (co-Emperor to 685)

695 - 698               Leóntios

                        (Non-dynastic military governor-general)

698 - 705               Tibérios II

                        (Non-dynastic military ruler;

                         deposed by the Bulgarians)

       705 - 11 Dec 711 Heraklios, Ioustinianós II

11 Dec 711 - 03 Jun 713 Philippikós the Armenian

                        (Non-dynastic military ruler)

03 Jun 713 -    Nov 715 Anastásios II

                        (Imperial secretary)

   Nov 715 - 25 Mar 717 Theodósios III

                        (Non-dynastic civil servant)

25 Mar 717 - 18 Jun 741 Isauria, Léon III

       720 - 14 Sep 775 Isauria, Konstantínos V

                        (co-Emperor to 741)

25 Jan 750 - 08 Sep 780 Isauria, Léon IV

                        (co-Emperor to 775)

       777 -    Jul 797 Isauria, Konstantínos VI

                        (co-Emperor to 780)

   Jul 797 - 31 Oct 802 Sarantapíchaina, Eiríni I of Athens

31 Oct 802 - 26 Jul 811 Nikephoros, Nikiphóros I

       803 - 02 Oct 811 Nikephoros, Stathrákios I

                        (co-Emperor to 811)

02 Oct 811 - 11 Jul 813 Nikephoros, Michaíl I

11 Jul 813 - 25 Dec 820 Léon V The Armenian

                        (Non-dynastic Emperor)

25 Dec 820 - 02 Oct 829 Phrigia, Michaíl II

02 Oct 829 - 20 Jan 842 Phrigia, Theóphilos

20 Jan 842 - 855        Phrigia, Theodóra I regent

       842 - 23 Sep 867 Phrigia, Michaíl III The Drunkard

   Oct 867 - 02 Aug 886 Makedón, Vasileios I

02 Aug 886 - 11 May 912 Makedón, Léon VI

11 May 912 -        913 Makedón, Aléxandros I

09 May 908 - 09 Nov 959 Makedón, Konstantínos VII   

17 Dec 919 - 16 Dec 944 Makedón, Romanós I

                        (co-Emperor)

09 Nov 959 - 15 Mar 963 Makedón, Romanós II

16 Aug 963 - 11 Dec 969 Makedón, Nikiphóros II

11 Dec 969 - 10 Jan 976 Makedón, Ioánnis I

10 Jan 976 - 15 Dec 1025 Makedón, Vaíleios II

15 Dec 976 - 15 Nov 1028 Makedón, Konstantínos VIII

15 Nov 1028 -    Jun 1050 Porphyrogennitos, Zoí I ...................... 978-1050

15 Nov 1028 - 11 Apr 1034 Argyrós, Romanós III ......................... 968-1034

                          (1st husband of Zoí)

11 Apr 1034 - 10 Dec 1041 Paphlagón, Michaíl IV ....................... 1010-1041

                          (2nd husband of Zoí)

10 Dec 1041 - 20 Apr 1042 Kalaphátis, Michaíl V ....................... 1015-1042

                          (Nephew of Zoí)

11 Jun 1042 - 11 Jan 1055 Monomáchos, Konstantínos IX ................. 1000-1055

                          (3rd husmand of Zoí)

11 Jan 1055 - 31 Aug 1056 Porphyrogennitos, Theodóra II ................ 984-1056

01 Sep 1056 - 31 Aug 1057 Michaíl VI .................................. ....-1059

                          (Non dynastic Emperor, Minister of Defence)

31 Aug 1057 - 22 Nov 1059 Komnenos, Isaákios I ........................ 1005-1061

24 Nov 1059 - 22 May 1067 Doúkas, Konstantínos X ...................... 1006-1067

22 May 1067 - 24 Mar 1078 Doúkas, Michaíl VII ......................... 1050-1090

                          (Senior Emperor from 1071)

01 Jan 1068 - 24 Oct 1071 Diogénis, Romanós V ......................... 1032-1072

                          (co-Emperor)

31 Mar 1078 - 10 Dec 1081 Votaneiátis, Nikiphóros III ................. 1001-1081

04 Apr 1081 - 15 Aug 1118 Komnenos, Aléxios I ......................... 1048-1118

                          (co-Emperor to 10 Dec 1081)

15 Aug 1118 - 08 Apr 1143 Komnenos, Ioánnes II ........................ 1087-1143

08 Apr 1143 - 24 Sep 1180 Komnenos, Manouíl I ......................... 1118-1180

24 Sep 1180 -    Oct 1183 Komnenos, Aléxios II ........................ 1169-1183

   Oct 1183 - 02 Sep 1185 Komnenos, Andrónikos I ...................... 11..-1185

02 Sep 1185 - 1195        Aggelos, Isaákios II ........................ 1156-1205

                          (1st Time)

       1195 - 23 Jun 1203 Aggelos, Aléxios III ........................ 1153-1211

31 Jul 1201               Komnenos, Ioánnes (III) "the Fat" (usurper)

23 Jun 1203 - 28 Jan 1204 Aggelos, Isaákios II (2nd Time)

23 Jun 1203 - 28 Jan 1204 Aggelos, Aléxios IV ......................... 1182-1204

                          (co-Emperor)

28 Jan      - 05 Feb 1204 Kanavós, Nikolaós ........................... 11..-1205

05 Feb      - 12 Apr 1204 Moúrtzouphlos, Aléxios V Doúkas.............. 1140-1205

       1204 -    Oct 1205 Láskaris, Konstantínos The Defender of Constantinople

- Empire of Nicea -

Emperors

       1205 - 15 Dec 1221 Láskaris, Theódoros I ....................... 1174-1221

15 Dec 1221 - 03 Nov 1254 Vatatzes, Ioánnis III ....................... 1192-1254

04 Nov 1254 - 18 Aug 1258 Láskaris, Theódoros II ...................... 1222-1258

18 Aug 1234 - 25 Dec 1261 Láskaris, Ioánnis IV ........................ 1250-1305

                          (Senior Emperor 1259-61)

- Byzantine Empire restored -

Emperors

01 Jan 1259 - 11 Dec 1282 Palaeologos, Michaíl VIII ................... 1223-1282

                          (co-Emperor to 25 Dec 1261)

11 Dec 1282 - 24 May 1328 Palaeologos, Andrónikos II .................. 1259-1332

       1295 - 12 Oct 1320 Palaeologos, Michaíl IX ..................... 1277-1320

                          (co-Emperor)

       1316 - 15 Jun 1341 Palaeologos, Andrónikos III ................. 1297-1341

                          (Senior Emperor from 24 May 1328)

15 Jun 1341 - 08 Feb 1347 Palaeologos, Ioánnis V ...................... 1332-1391

                          (1st Time)

15 Jun      - 1341        Ioánnis Kantakouzenós ....................... 1292-1383

                          (regent)

   Oct 1341 - 08 Feb 1347 Regents

                        - Jeanne de Savoie ............................ 1308-1365

                        - Patriárchis Ioánnis Kalékas ................. 1282-1347

08 Feb 1347 - 04 Dec 1354 Kantakouzenós, Ioánnis VI ................... s.a

15 Apr 1353 -    Dec 1357 Kantakouzenós, Matthias I Asánis ............ 1325-1391

                          (co-Emperor to 04 Dec 1354)

04 Dec 1354 - 12 Aug 1376 Palaeologos, Ioánnis V (2nd Time)

12 Aug 1376 - 01 Jul 1379 Palaeologos, Andrónikos IV .................. 1348-1385

                          (co-Emperor c.1352-76)

01 Jul 1379 - 14 Apr 1390 Palaeologos, Ioánnis V (3rd Time)

01 Jul 1379 - 17 Sep 1390 Palaeologos, Ioánnis VII .................... 1370-1408

                          (co-Emperor to 14 Apr 1390)

17 Sep 1390 - 16 Feb 1391 Palaeologos, Ioánnis V (4th Time)

16 Feb 1391 - 21 Jul 1425 Palaeologos, Manouíl II ..................... 1350-1425

                          (co-Emperor 1373-91)

1404 - 1407               Palaeologos, Andrónikos V ................... 1400-1407

                          (co-Emperor)

21 Jul 1425 - 31 Oct 1448 Palaeologos, Ioánnis VIII ................... 1392-1448

                          (co-Emperor 1416-25)

31 Oct 1448 - 29 May 1453 Palaeologos, Konstantínos XI ................ 1405-1453

31 Oct 1448 - 12 Mar 1449 Jelena Dragaš tis Servias ................... 1372-1450

                          (acting for Konstantínos XI)

30 May 1453 -    May 1460 Palaeologos, Dimítros of Morea .............. 1407-1470

                          (de jure Emperor in exile)

30 May 1453 - 12 May 1465 Palaeologos, Thomás of Morea ................ 1409-1465

                          (co-Emperor to 1460 de jure)

12 May 1465 - 1494        Palaeologos, Andréas ........................ 1453-1502[1]

                          (Titular Emperor of Constantinople, in Rome exile)


[1] Sold his Title and rights to Charles VIII of France (1470-98) and then to

Fernando and Isabella of Spain; neither were known to have used them and the title

falls into desuetude from this point on.