Greece

1000 - 317 BC            Kingdom of Sparta

800 - 146 BC             Kingdom of Macedon

510 - 338 BC             Republic of Athens

312 - 63 BC              Kingdom of Thrace

312 - 63 BC              Part of Seleucid Empire

27 - 364 BC              Part of Roman Empire

364 - 395 BC             Eastern Roman Empire

25 Jul 395 - 29 May 1453 Part of Byzantine Empire

1204 - 1566              Fourth Crusader Frankokratia "rule of Franks" rule

16 Apr 1346 -    Dec 1371 Partly to Serbian Empire

29 May 1453               Part of Ottoman Empire

25 Mar 1821 - 22 Mar 1829 Greek war of Independence

13 Jan 1822               Independence proclaimed

15 Apr 1827               Ellinikí Politeía (Greek State)

03 Feb 1830               International recognition of independence

07 May 1832               Vasílion tís Elládos (Kingdom of Greece)

01 Jun 1864               Incorporation of Ionian Islands

02 Jul 1881               Incorporation of Thrace

08 Oct 1912 - 30 May 1913 First Balkan war

30 May 1913               Incorporation of Crete

10 Aug 1913               Incorporation of Macedonia

16 Jul      - 18 Jul 1913 Second Balkan war

12 May 1919 - 08 Sep 1922 Asia-Minor war

25 Mar 1924               Ellinikí Politeía (Greek State)

24 May 1924               Ellinikí Dímokratía (Republic of Greece)

10 Oct 1935               Vasílion tís Elládos (Kingdom of Greece)

27 Apr 1941 - 02 Sep 1944 Ellinikí Politeía (Hellenic State),

                           Axis occupation and administration

10 Mar      - 09 Oct 1944 Politikí Epitropí Ethikís Apelefthérosis

                          (Political Committee of National Liberation [Communist

                           'Mountain Government'] in opposition to the British

                            supported royal government)

   Jul 1944 - 16 Oct 1949 Communist insurgency in Northern Greece,

                           state of civil war until 28 Aug 1949

13 Oct 1944               Vasílion tís Elládos (Kingdom of Greece [re-restored])

24 Dec 1947 - 28 Aug 1949 Northern Greece under Communist control

07 Mar 1948               Incorporation of Dodecanese Islands and Rhodes

01 Jun 1973               Republic of Greece (illegal declaration)

08 Dec 1974               Refurendum on a republican government (69% in favour)

11 Jun 1975 -             Ellinikí Dímokratía (Hellenic Republic)

01 Jan 1981               Accession to the EEC

Empire of Romania (Latin Empire)


Emperors

09 May 1204 - 14 Apr 1205 Flanders, Baldwin I of Flanders ............. 1172-1205

                          (Count of Flanders & Hainaut,

                           Bulgarian prisoner from 1205)

20 Aug 1206 - 11 Jun 1216 Flanders, Henryk I .......................... 1174-1216

                          (Regent 1205-06)

11 Jun 1216 - 1219        de Courtenay, Peter I ....................... 11..-1219

                          (Imprisoned by Despot of Epirus 1217-19)

1217 - 1219               de Hainaut, Yolande ......................... 1175-1219

                          (Regent of the Empire, acting for imprisoned Peter)

       1219 - 25 Mar 1221 ..... (Regent)

25 Mar 1221 -    Feb 1228 de Courtenay, Robert I ...................... 1201-1228

       1228 - 25 Jul 1261 de Courtenay, Baldwin II .................... 1217-1273

                          (Constantinople re-captured 1261;

                           Titular Emperor in exile to Oct 1273)

       1229 - 21 Mar 1237 de Brienne, Jean ............................ 1170-1237

                          (Regent Emperor, King of Jerusalem)

   Oct 1273 - 1283        de Courtenay, Philip I ...................... 1243-1283

                          (de jure Latin Emperor in exile)

       1283 -    Jan 1308 de Courtenay, Catherine I ................... 1274-1308

                          (de jure Latin Empress; with Charles de Valois 1301-08)

   Jan 1308 - 1346        Valois, Catherine II ........................ 1303-1346

                          (in Achaea, governor of Kefalonia 1341-46)

29 Jul 1313 - 26 Dec 1331 Angevin, Philip II of Taranto ............... 1278-1331

                          (King of Albania, Prince of Achaea;

                           Titular Latin Emperor)

       1346 - 10 Sep 1364 Angevin, Robert II of Taranto ............... 1299-1364

                          (Prince of Achaea, Titular Latin Emperor)

10 Sep 1364 - 25 Nov 1374 Angevin, Philip III ......................... 1329-1374

                          (Prince of Achaea, Titular Latin Emperor)

25 Nov 1374 - 17 Jul 1383 de Baux, Jacques of Taranto ................. 13..-13

                          (Titular Latin Emperor)





Hellenic State

Heads of State

09 Mar      -    Jun 1770 Antónios Psáros

       1770               Nikólaos Fortounis

- Senate of East Greece (Areios Pagos) -

15 Nov 1821 - 01 Mar 1823 14 Annual Members

Presidents of the Executives

24 Jan 1822 - 10 May 1823 Prince Aléxandros Mavrokotdátos .................... 1791-1865

10 May      - 31 Dec 1823 Petros Iliou Mavromichalis ......................... 1765-1848

18 Jan 1824 - 26 Apr 1826 Geórgios Andréou Koundrouriotis .................... 1782-1858

President of the Government Commission

26 Apr 1826 - 14 Apr 1827 Andréas Asimakou Zaïmis ............................ 1791-1840

Governors

15 Apr 1827 - 24 Jan 1828 Goverment Commission

24 Jan 1828 - 09 Oct 1831 Count Ioánnis Kapidístrias ......................... 1776-1831

09 Oct 1831 - 09 Apr 1832 Count Avgoustínos Kapidístrias ..................... 1778-1864

09 Apr 1832 - 06 Feb 1833 Goverment Commission                  



Prime Ministers

31 Jan 1828 - 28 Feb 1829 Spyrídon Ioánnou Trikoúpis ......................... 1788-1873

01 Mar 1829 - 26 Apr 1832 Nikólaos Spiliadis ................................. 1785-1867

26 Apr 1832 - 06 Feb 1833 Dimítros Christidis ................................ 1799-1877


Kingdom of Greece


Government: Constitutional Monarchy.

Capital: Athens (Nauplion 1822-34).

Demographics: Greek, Arvanites, Turks, Jewish, Slavs, Aromanians, Pomaks.

Language: Greek, Albanian, Turkish, Ladino, Aromanian.

Religion: Greek Orthodox, Islam, Judaism, Catholic.

National Anthem: "Ymnos eis tín Eleftherían" (Hymn to Freedom).

Nathional Emblem: Greek Cross.

National Day: Independence day, 25 March (1821).

National Motto: Ischýs mou í ágápi tou laoú, (My power is the love of the people).

Currency: Greek Drachmi.


Monarchs

27 May 1832 - 22 Oct 1862 Wittelsbach, Óthon A ............................... 1815-1867

                          (Prinz Otto von Bayern, arrived 06 Feb 1833)

18 Feb 1833 - 31 May 1835 Josef Ludwig Graf Armansperg ....................... 1787-1853

                          (Chairman of the Regency council)

22 Oct 1862 - 30 Oct 1863 Provisional Government

                        - Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris ....................... 1802-1878

                          (to 21 Feb 1863)

                        - Venizélos Athanasiou Roúphos

01 Dec 1862               Wettin, Prince Alfred of Great Britain ............. 1844-1900

                          (Elected by pleblicite which is overturned by Great Britain)

06 Jun 1863 - 18 Mar 1913 Oldenburg, Geórgios A .............................. 1845-1913

                          (Prince Christian Vilhelm of Denmark; George II)

18 Mar 1913 - 11 Jun 1917 Oldenburg, Konstantínos AII (1st Time) ............. 1868-1923

                          (Constantine I (XII) exiled but did not abdicate)

11 Jun 1917 - 25 Oct 1920 Oldenburg, Aléxandros .............................. 1894-1920

                          (Alexander I (II) refered to as King-regent)

25 Oct      - 15 Dec 1920 Queen Olga Konstantinova Romanova .................. 1851-1926

                          (Regent)

11 Dec 1920 - 27 Sep 1922 Oldenburg, Konstantínos AII (2nd Time)

27 Sep 1922 - 25 Mar 1924 Oldenburg, Geórgios B (1st Time) ................... 1890-1947

                          (George II; in exile in Rumania from 19 Dec 1923)

20 Dec 1923 - 14 Apr 1924 Pavlos Theódorou Koundouriótis ..................... 1854-1935

                          (Regent for Georgios II to 16 Mar 1924)

25 Mar 1924 - 10 Oct 1935 Monarchy Abolished

10 Oct      - 22 Nov 1935 Geórgios Theódoros Kondýlis ........................ 1879-1936

                          (Regent)

10 Oct 1935 - 07 May 1941 Oldenburg, Geórgios B (2nd Time)

                          (In London until 22 Nov 1935)

13 Oct 1944 - 27 Sep 1946 Archbishop Damaskinos Papandréou ................... 1891-1949

                          (Regent)

13 Oct 1944 - 01 Apr 1947 Oldenburg, Geórgios B (3rd Time)

                          (in London exile, until 27 Sep 1946)

01 Apr 1947 - 06 Mar 1964 Oldenburg, Pávlos A ................................ 1901-1964

                          (Paul I)

       1954               Welf, Friederike von Braunschweig und Lüneburg ..... 1917-1981

                          (Queen-regent)

20 Feb      - 06 Mar 1964 Crown Prince Konstantínos .......................... 1940-

                          (acting)

06 Mar 1964 - 14 Dec 1974 Oldenburg, Konstantínos IIIA* ...................... s.a

                          (In exile from 13 Dec 1967)

13 Dec 1967 - 21 Mar 1972 Lt. Geórgios Konstantínos Zoitakis ................. 1910-1996 Mil

                          (Regent, Head of the Military government)

21 Mar 1972 - 31 May 1973 Col. Geórgios Chrístou Papadópoulos ................ 1919-1999 Mil

                          (Regent, Head of the Military government)




Prime Ministers

06 Feb      - 24 Oct 1833 Spyrídon Ioánnou Trikoúpis ......................... s.a

24 Oct 1833 - 12 Jun 1834 Prince Aléxandros Nikólaou Mavrokorátos (1st Time) . s.a

12 Jun 1834 - 01 Jun 1835 Ioánnis Koléttis (1st Time) ........................ 1774-1847

01 Jun 1835 - 14 Feb 1837 Josef Ludwig Graf von Armansperg ................... s.a

14 Feb      - 20 Dec 1837 Ignaz Ritter von Rundhart .......................... 1790-1839

06 Jul      - 22 Aug 1841 Prince Aléxandros Nikólaou Mavrokorátos (2nd Time)

15 Sep 1843 - 11 Mar 1844 Andréas Pétrou Metaxas ............................. 1790-1860

11 Mar      - 11 Apr 1844 Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris (1st Time) ............ 1790-1877

11 Apr      - 18 Aug 1844 Prince Aléxandros Nikólaou Mavrokorátos (3rd Time)

18 Aug 1844 - 17 Sep 1847 Ioánnis Koléttis (2nd Time)

17 Sep 1847 - 19 Mar 1848 Kítsos Photou Tzavélas ............................. 1801-1855

19 Mar      - 27 Oct 1848 Geórgios Andréou Koundouriótis ..................... 1782-1858

27 Oct 1848 - 24 Dec 1849 Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris (2nd Time)

24 Dec 1849 - 28 May 1854 Antónios Geórgiou Kriezís .......................... 1796-1865

28 May 1854 - 11 Oct 1855 Prince Aléxandros Nikólaou Mavrokorátos (4th Time)

11 Oct 1855 - 25 Nov 1857 Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris (1st Time) ............ 1802-1878

25 Nov 1857 - 07 Jun 1862 Athanásios Andréou Miaoulis ........................ 1815-1867

07 Jun      - 23 Oct 1862 Gennaios Theódorou Kolokotrónis .................... 1803-1868

23 Oct 1862 - 21 Feb 1863 Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris (2nd Time)

24 Feb      - 09 Apr 1863 Zinóvias Ioánnou Válvis (1st Time) ................. 1800-1886

01 Jul      - 03 Jul 1863 Diomídis Anastásiou Kiriakós ....................... 1811-1869

03 Jul      - 30 Oct 1863 Mpenizélos Athanásiou Roúphos (1st Time) ........... 1795-1868

06 Nov 1863 - 17 Mar 1864 Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris (3rd Time)

28 Apr      - 07 Aug 1864 Zinóvias Ioánnou Válvis (2nd Time)

07 Aug 1864 - 14 Mar 1865 Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris (3rd Time)

14 Mar      - 01 Nov 1865 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (1st Time) ................ 1817-1883

11 Dec 1865 - 21 Jun 1866 Mpenizélos Athanásiou Roúphos (2nd Time)

25 Nov      - 11 Dec 1865 Epameinóntas Mitrou Deligeórgis (1st Time) ......... 1829-1889

01 Jan      - 06 Feb 1868 Aristeídis Moraïtínis .............................. 1806-1875

06 Feb 1868 - 06 Feb 1869 Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris (4th Time)

06 Feb 1869 - 22 Jul 1870 Thrasivoúlos Andréou Zaïmis (1st Time) ............. 1829-1880

22 Jul      - 15 Dec 1870 Epameinóntas Mitrou Deligeórgis (2nd Time)

15 Dec 1870 - 09 Nov 1871 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (2nd Time)

09 Nov 1871 - 06 Jan 1872 Thrasivoúlos Andréou Zaïmis (2nd Time)

06 Jan 1872 - 21 Feb 1874 Epameinóntas Mitrou Deligeórgis (3rd Time)

21 Feb 1874 - 08 May 1875 Dimítrios Geórgiou Voúlgaris (5th Time)

08 May      - 27 Oct 1875 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (1st Time) .......... 1832-1896

27 Oct 1875 - 08 Dec 1876 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (3rd Time)

08 Dec 1876 - 10 Mar 1877 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (4th Time)

10 Mar      - 01 Jun 1877 Epameinóntas Mitrou Deligeórgis (4th Time)

07 Jun      - 14 Sep 1877 Konstantínos Michaíl Kanáris (4th Time)

14 Sep 1877 - 22 Mar 1880 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (5th Time)

22 Mar      - 25 Oct 1880 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (2nd Time)

25 Oct 1880 - 15 Mar 1882 Aléxandros Koumoundoúros (6th Time)

15 Mar 1882 - 01 May 1885 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (3rd Time)

01 May 1885 - 09 May 1886 Theódoros Pangaiou Deligiánnis (1st Time) .......... 1820-1905

09 May      - 21 May 1886 Dimítrios Válvis ................................... 1814-1886

21 May 1886 - 05 Nov 1890 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (4th Time)

05 Nov 1890 - 01 Mar 1892 Theódoros Pangaiou Deligiánnis (2nd Time)

01 Mar      - 22 Jun 1892 Konstantínos Konstantópoulos ....................... 1832-1910

22 Jun 1892 - 15 May 1893 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (5th Time)

15 May      - 11 Nov 1893 Sotírios Sotirópoulos .............................. 1831-1898

11 Nov 1893 - 24 Jan 1895 Charílaos Spyridonou Trikoúpis (6th Time)

24 Jan      - 11 Jun 1895 Nikólaos Pétrou Deligiánnis ........................ 1845-1910

11 Jun 1895 - 03 Oct 1897 Theódoros Pangaiou Deligiánnis (3rd Time)

30 Apr      - 03 Oct 1897 Dimítrios Rállis (1st Time) ........................ 1844-1921

03 Oct 1897 - 14 Apr 1899 Aléxandros Thrasivoulos Zaïmis (1st Time) .......... 1855-1936

14 Apr 1899 - 25 Nov 1901 Geórgios Theokókis (1st Time) ...................... 1844-1916

25 Nov 1901 - 06 Dec 1902 Aléxandros Thrasivoulos Zaïmis (2nd Time)

06 Dec 1902 - 27 Jun 1903 Theódoros Pangaiou Deligiánnis (4th Time)

27 Jun      - 11 Jul 1903 Geórgios Theokókis (2nd Time)

11 Jul      - 19 Dec 1903 Dimítrios Rállis (2nd Time)

19 Dec 1903 - 29 Dec 1904 Geórgios Theokókis (3rd Time)

29 Dec 1904 - 13 Jun 1905 Theódoros Pangaiou Deligiánnis (5th Time)

22 Jun      - 21 Dec 1905 Dimítrios Rállis (3rd Time)

21 Dec 1905 - 29 Jul 1909 Geórgios Theokókis (4th Time)

29 Jul      - 28 Aug 1909 Dimítrios Rállis (4th Time)

28 Aug 1909 - 31 Jan 1910 Kiriakoulis Mavromichalis .......................... 1849-1916

31 Jan      - 18 Oct 1910 Stéphanos Nikólaos Dragoúmis ....................... 1842-1923

18 Oct 1910 - 10 Mar 1915 Elefthérios Kiriakou Venizélos (1st Time) .......... 1864-1936

10 May      - 23 Aug 1915 Dimítrios Goúnaris (1st Time) ...................... 1866-1922

07 Nov 1915 - 22 Jun 1916 Stéphanos Skouloúdis ............................... 1836-1928

22 Jun      - 16 Sep 1916 Aléxandros Thrasivoulos Zaïmis (3rd Time)

16 Sep      - 10 Oct 1916 Nikólaos Spyrisonou Kalogerópoulos (1st Time) ...... 1853-1927

10 Oct 1916 - 05 Feb 1917 Spyridon Pavlou Lámpros ............................ 1864-1936

05 Feb      - 27 Jun 1917 Aléxandros Thrasivoulos Zaïmis (4th Time)

27 Jun 1917 - 18 Nov 1920 Elefthérios Kiriakou Venizélos (2nd Time)

18 Nov 1920 - 06 Feb 1921 Dimítrios Rállis (6th Time)

06 Feb      - 08 Apr 1921 Nikólaos Spyrisonou Kalogerópoulos (2nd Time)

08 Apr 1921 - 16 May 1922 Dimítrios Goúnaris (2nd Time)

16 May      - 22 May 1922 Nikólaos Andréou Stártos ........................... 1872-1922

22 May      - 10 Sep 1922 Pétros Protopapadákis .............................. 1860-1922

10 Sep      - 29 Sep 1922 Nikólaos Triantaphillákos .......................... 1855-1939

29 Sep      - 30 Sep 1922 Anastásions Charalábis ............................. 1862-1949

30 Sep      - 27 Nov 1922 Sotirios Krokidás .................................. 1852-1924

27 Nov 1922 - 24 Jan 1924 Stilianós Epaminóndou Gonatás ...................... 1876-1966

24 Jan      - 19 Feb 1924 Elefthérios Kiriakou Venizélos (3rd Time)

19 Feb      - 12 Mar 1924 Geórgios Konstantínou Kaphantáris .................. 1873-1946

10 Oct      - 30 Nov 1935 Geórgios Theódoros Kondýlis (2nd Time)

01 Dec 1935 - 12 Apr 1936 Konstantínos Demertzis ............................. 1876-1936

13 Apr 1936 - 29 Jan 1941 Count Ioánnis Pánagou Metaxás ...................... 1871-1941

                          ("Archigos")

29 Jan      - 18 Apr 1941 Aléxandros Geórgiou Korizís ........................ 1885-1941

18 Apr 1941 - 13 Apr 1944 Emmanouíl Ioánnou Tsouderós ........................ 1882-1956

                          (in exile from 29 Apr 1941)

13 Apr      - 26 Apr 1944 Sophoklis Eleftheriou Venizélos (1st Time) ......... 1894-1964

                          (in London, Great Britain, exile)

26 Apr 1944 - 03 Jan 1945 Geórgios Andréou Papandréou ........................ 1888-1968

                          (in exile to 18 Oct 1944)

03 Jan      - 09 Apr 1945 Nikólaos Plastíras (1st Time) ...................... 1883-1953

09 Apr      - 17 Oct 1945 Pétros Voúlgaris ................................... 1884-1957

01 Nov      - 22 Nov 1945 Panagiotis Kanellópoulos (1st Time) ................ 1902-1986

27 Nov 1945 - 04 Apr 1946 Themistoklís Panagiotou Sophoúlis (1st Time) ....... 1862-1949

04 Apr      - 18 Apr 1946 Panagiotis Poulítsas ............................... 1881-1968

18 Apr 1946 - 25 Jan 1947 Konstantínos Stavrou Tsaldráris .................... 1884-1970

25 Jan      - 29 Aug 1947 Dimítrios Epaminondou Máximos ...................... 1873-1955

07 Nov 1947 - 30 Jun 1949 Themistoklís Panagiotou Sophoúlis (2nd Time)

30 Jun 1949 - 06 Jan 1950 Aléxandros Nikólaou Diomidis ....................... 1875-1950

06 Jan      - 23 Mar 1950 Ioánnis Geórgiou Theotókis ......................... 1880-1961

15 Apr      - 21 Aug 1950 Nikólaos Plastíras (2nd Time)

21 Aug 1950 - 01 Nov 1951 Sophoklis Eleftheriou Venizélos (2nd Time)

01 Nov 1951 - 11 Oct 1952 Nikólaos Plastíras (3rd Time)

11 Oct      - 19 Nov 1952 Dimítrios Kiousópoulos ............................. 1892-1977

19 Nov 1952 - 04 Oct 1955 Aléxandros Leónidou Papágos ........................ 1883-1955

06 Oct 1955 - 05 Mar 1958 Konstantínos Geórgiou Karamanlís (1st Time)

05 Mar      - 17 May 1958 Konstantínos Geórgiou Geórgakópoulos ............... 1890-1978

17 May 1958 - 20 Sep 1961 Konstantínos Geórgiou Karamanlís (2nd Time)

20 Sep      - 04 Nov 1961 Konstantínos Dóvas ................................. 1898-1973

04 Nov 1961 - 17 Jun 1963 Konstantínos Geórgiou Karamanlís (3rd Time)

17 Jun      - 29 Sep 1963 Panagiotis Pipinélis ............................... 1899-1970

29 Sep      - 08 Nov 1963 Stylianós Mavromichális ............................ 1902-1981

08 Nov      - 30 Dec 1963 Geórgios Andréou Papandréou (2nd Time)

30 Dec 1963 - 18 Feb 1964 Ioánnis Paraskevópoulos (1st Time) ................. 1900-1984

18 Feb 1964 - 15 Jul 1965 Geórgios Andréou Papandréou (3rd Time)

15 Jul      - 20 Aug 1965 Geórgios Themistókleous Anthanasiádis-Nóvas ........ 1893-1987

20 Aug      - 17 Sep 1965 Ilías Ioánnou Tsirimókos ........................... 1907-1968

17 Sep 1965 - 22 Dec 1966 Stéphanos Chrístou Stephanópoulos .................. 1892-1982

22 Dec 1966 - 03 Apr 1967 Ioánnis Paraskevópoulos (2nd Time)

03 Apr      - 21 Apr 1967 Panagiotis Kanellópoulos (2nd Time)

21 Apr      - 13 Dec 1967 Konstantínos Vasíliou Kóllias ...................... 1901-1998 Mil

13 Dec 1967 - 31 May 1973 Col. Geórgios Chrístou Papadópoulos ................ s.a

 

* Left Greece on 13 Dec 1967, in exile in Rome. Deposed 01 Jun 1973, continued de jure

until 14 Dec 1974.


Style of the Monarch: Vasiléfs ton Ellínon ("King of the Hellens").


Orders: Tagma tou Sotiros (Order of the Redeemer).

        Vasiliko Oikoueneiako Tagma Ton Agion Georgiou kai Agion Konstantinou

        (Royal Order of the St. George and St. Constantine).



Note: Regal numbering for the modern Greek Monarchs sometimes carries on from the

Byzantine Empire. For example Constantine I of Greece can be numbered as the Constantine XII

as not to confuse with the Emperor Constantine I. However this was in semi-official use

in Greece and was usually in unofficial and interchangeable use in foreign countries.


The military junta in power from 1967-1974 retained the exiled Monarchy until 1973 when a

republic (that was dismised as illegal) was declared. The last Monarch Constantine II/XIII

never abdicated and was considered formally deposed follwoing a 1974 plebliscite.