Afghanistan

Part of Persia

To Macedon

Greek Kingdom of Bactria

Part of Persia

Kingdom of Afghanistan ("land of the mountain people")

Part of Mongol Empire

Part of Mogul Empire

   Jul 1747 - 02 Oct 1880 Emirate of Afghanistan under Kabul

07 Aug 1839 - 06 Jan 1842 British occupation of Kabul

12 Oct 1879 - 08 Aug 1919 British protectorate

02 Oct 1880               God-Granted State of Afghanistan

08 Aug 1919               Independence

09 Jun 1926               Kingdom of Afghanistan

17 Jan 1929               Exalted State of Afghanistan

17 Oct 1929               Kingdom of Afghanistan

17 Jul 1973               Republic of Afghanistan

01 May 1978               Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

27 Dec 1979 - 15 Feb 1989 Soviet occupation

28 Apr 1992               Islamic State of Afghanistan,

                           retains international recognition after 27 Sep 1996

26 Oct 1997 - 13 Nov 2001 Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban)

13 Nov 2001 -             NATO and international forces occupation

22 Dec 2001 - 13 Jun 2002 Interim Authority of Afghanistan

13 Jun 2002 - 26 Jan 2004 Transnational Islamic State of Afghanistan

26 Jan 2004 -             Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Kingdom of Bactria

Kings

256-248 Diodotus I

248-235 Diodotus II

235-200 Euthidemus I

200-190 Euthidemus II

200-185 Dimitrius

185-175 Pantaleon

190-180 Antimachus I

180-165 Dimitrius II

180-165 Agathocles

171-155 Eucratides I

155-130 Menandar

155-140 Plato

155-140 Heliocles I

140-130 Eucratides II

130-125 Antimachus II

130-95  Strato

130-120 Archebius

125-115 Philoxenus

129-125 Zolios I

120-115 Heliocles II

120-110 Lysias

115-100 Antialcidas

115-95 Apollodotus

95-80 Zolios II

95-80 Dioysius

95-80 Apollophanes

95-85 Nicias

95-85 Diommedes

95-80 Telephus

85-70 Hippiostratus

85-75 Amyntas

79-75 Theopilus

75-55 Hermeaus

______________________________________________________________________________

Ghaznavid Empire


Rulers

977-997 Sebuk Tigin

997-998 Ismail I

998-1030 Yaminid, Mahmud I

1030-1031 Yaminid, Jalal ud Dawlah Mohammed I

1031-1041 Yaminid, Masud I

1041      Yaminid, Jalal ud Dawlah Mohammed II

1041-1050 Yaminid, Mawdud

1050      Yaminid, Masud II

1050      Yaminid, Ali

1050-1053 Yaminid, Izz ud Dawlah abd al Rashid

1053      Yaminid, Qiwam ud Dawlah Tughril

1053-1059 Yaminid, Jamal ud Farrukhzad

1059-1099 Yaminid, Zahir ud Dawlah Ibrahim

1099-1115 Yaminid, Masud III

1115      Yaminid, Shirzad

1115-1118 Yaminid, Arslan Shah

1118-1152 Yaminid, Yamin ud Dawlah Bahram Shah

1152-1160 Yaminid, Muizz ud Dawlah Khusra Shah

1160-1186 Yaminid, Taj ud Dawlah Khusrau Malik

______________________________________________________________________________

Ghurid Empire


Ghurid Sultans

9..-10.. Amir Suri

....-1011 Mohammad I ibn Suri

1011-1035 Abu Ali

1035-1059 Abbas

1059-1079 Mohammad II

1079-1100 Qutb ad-Din Hasan

1100-1146 Izz ad-Din Abu I-Muluk Husain I

1146-1149 Saif ad-Din Suri

1149      Baha ad-Din Sam I

1149-1161 Ala ad-Din Jahan-Suz Husain II

1161-1163 Saif ad-Din Mohammad II

1163-1203 Ghiyath ad-Din Abu I-Fath Mohammad III

1203-1206 Muizz ad-Din Mohammad IV

1206-1212 Ghiyath ad-Din Mahmud

1212-1213 Baha ad-Din Sam II

1213-1214 Ala ad-Din Atsiz

1214-1215 Ala ad-Din Mohammad V

________________________________________________________________________

Ghazni



998 - 1187                Ghaznavid Empire as Kingdom of Afghanistan

21 Apr 1880               Incorporated into Kabul

02 Oct 1881               To Afghanistan thereafter

 

Emirs

24 Dec 1879 - 21 Apr 1880 Musa Jan Khan ...................... 1868-1951

________________________________________________________________________


Herat



1504 - 1731               Under Persian control

1747                      Kingdom of Herat

02 Oct 1881               Incorporated into Afghanistan

 

Kings

1405 - 1447               Shah Rukh

1447 - 1457               Abu al-Qasim Babur

1457                      Shah Mahmud

1457 - 1459               Ibrahim

1469 - 1470               Sultan Hussein Baiqara ibn Mansur (1st Time)

1470                      Yadigar Mohammad

1470 - 1506               Sultan Hussein Baiqara ibn Mansur (2nd Time)

1506                      Badi az-Zaman ibn Hussein Baiqara

1708 - 1712               Abdullah Khan

1712 - 1720               Asad Allah Khan

1720 - 1729               Allah Yar Khan

   Jul 1747 - 1773        Timur Shah ibn Ahmad Shah

1773 - 1797               Mahmud Shah (1st Time)

1818 - 1819               Mahmud Shah (2nd Time)

1819 - 1826               Mahmud Shah (3rd Time)

1826 - 1842               Kamran Shah

   Mar 1842 - 01 Jun 1851 Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay

                          (Minister-Regent)

01 Jun 1851 - 15 Sep 1855 Sayyed Mohammad Khan Alikozay

                          (Minister-Regent)

15 Sep 1855 -    Jun 1856 Mohammad Yusuf Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Minister-Regent)

        Jun -    Oct 1856 Isa Khan Bardorani

Emirs

27 Jul 1857 - 26 May 1863 Soltan Ahmad Khan

26 May 1863 - 08 Sep 1868 Shir `Ali Khan

   Mar 1880 - 02 Oct 1881 Mohammad Ayyub Khan ................ 1855-1914

1887                      Timur Shah

 

Wazir (Chief Ministers)

1801 - 1818                   Fateh Khan Barakzai

1818 - 1829                   Ata Mohammad Khan

       1829 -    Mar 1842 Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay

________________________________________________________________________

Kandahar

 

1704                      Under Persian control

16 Oct 1772               Kingdom of Kandahar (Qandahar)

1772 - 1881               Intermitand rule by Kabul

22 Sep 1881               Incorporated into Afghanistan

 

Monarchs

520    Vivana

500    Bakabadush

320    Sybithtios

180    Demetrios I

1470-1507 Dhu'l-Nun Arghun

1507-1552 Shah Beg Arghun

1707-1715 Mir Vais

1715-1717 Mir Abdullah Aziz

1717-1725 Mir Mahmud

1725-1730 Ashraf Shah

1730-1738 Mir Hossein

Kings

16 Oct      -        1772 Soleiman Shah

18 Mar      - 19 Jun 1793 Homayun Shah

1804 - 1805               Kamran Shah

1808                      Mahmud Shah (1st Time)

1809                      Mahmud Shah (2nd Time)

1819 - 1826               Shirdil Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

1826 - 1839               Purdil Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

   Apr 1839 - 05 Apr 1842 Shoja al-Molk Shah

1842                      Safdar Jang Khan Saddozay

                          (Regent)

1842 -    Aug 1855        Kohandil Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

   Aug      -    Nov 1855 Mohammad Sadeq Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

   Nov 1855 -    Jul 1858 Golam Haydar Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

Emirs

09 Jun 1863 - 1865        Mohammad Amin Khan

       1865 -    Jan 1867 Shir Ali Khan (1st Time)

   Jan      - 07 Oct 1867 Mohammad Afzal Khan

07 Oct 1867 -    Apr 1868 Mohammad Azam Khan

   Apr      - 08 Sep 1868 Shir Ali Khan (2nd Time)

12 Oct 1879 - 21 Apr 1881 Shir Ali Khan Barakzay

                          (Minister-Regent)

20 Jul      - 22 Sep 1881 Mohammad Ayyub Khan

_______________________________________________________________________

Kabul


       1747               Emirate of Afghanistan under Kabul

02 Oct 1881               United with Afghanistan

03 Oct 1901               Kingdom fully absorbed into Afghanistan

 

Monarchs

   Jul 1747 - 16 Oct 1773 Durrani, Ahmad shah Sadozai

16 Oct 1773 - 18 May 1793 Durrani, Timur Shah

18 May 1793 - 25 Jul 1801 Durrani, Zaman Shah

25 Jul 1801 - 13 Jul 1803 Durrani, Mahmud Shah (1st Time)

13 Jul 1803 - 1809        Durrani, Shuja al-Molk Shah (1st Time)

03 May 1809 - 1818        Durrani, Mahmud Shah (2nd Time)

1818 - 1819               Durrani, Soltan Ali Shah

1819 - 1823               Durrani, Ayyub Shah

1823                      Durrani, Habibollah Shah

1823 - 1826               Soltan Mohammad Khan Mohammadzay

                          (Regent)

       1826 - 02 Aug 1839 Barakzai, Dost Mohammad (1st Time)

02 Aug 1839 - 05 Apr 1842 Durrani, Shuja al-Molk Shah (2nd Time)

30 Jun      - 12 Oct 1842 Fath Jung Khan

12 Oct      -    Dec 1842 Shahpur Khan

   Dec 1842 - 09 Jun 1863 Barakzai, Dost Mohammad (2nd Time)

       1863 -    May 1866 Barakzai, Shir Ali (1st Time)

   May 1866 - 07 Oct 1867 Barakzai, Mohammad Fozal

07 Oct 1867 - 08 Sep 1868 Barakzai, Mohammad Azam Khan

08 Sep 1868 - 21 Feb 1879 Barakzai, Shir Ali (2nd Time)

21 Feb      - 12 Oct 1879 Barakzai, Yakub Khan

12 Oct 1879 - 31 Mar 1880 Mohammed Jan

                          (Minister Regent)

22 Jul 1880 - 02 Oct 1881 Barakzai, Abdor Rahman Khan

 

 

Wazir-i-azam (Chief Ministers)

1747 - 1757               Haji Jamal Khan Barakzai

1757 - 1773               Shah Wali Khan

1773 - 1793               Payinda Khan Mohammadzai

1793 - 1800               Wafadar Khan

1800 - 1808               Shir Hohammad Khan

1808 - 1809               Nawab Mohammad Usman Khan

1809 - 1818               Fateh Khan

1818                      Dost Mohammad Khan Mohammadzai

1818 - 1823               Mohammad Azim Khan

1823 - 1824               Yar Mohammad Khan Alikozay

1824 - 1826               Sultan Mohammad Khan Telai

1826 - 1839               Mirza Sami Khan

1839 - 1840               Mulla Shakur Ishakzai

1840 - 1841               Mohammad Usman Khan Sadozai

1841 - 1842               Aminullah Khan Logari

1842                      Mohammad Akbar Khan

1842                      Gholam Mohammad Khan Bamizai

1843 - 1848               Mohammad Akbar Khan

1848 - 1855               Gholam Haydar Khan

1855 - 1863               .....

1863 - 1869               Mohammad Rafiq Khan

1869 - 1878               Sayyid Nur Mohammad Khan

       1878 - 31 Mar 1880 Mirza Mohammad Hasan Khan

_______________________________________________________________________

Peshawar

 

171 - 55 BC              Greek Kingdom of Eucratid Bactria

1823                     Incorporated into Punjab, British India

 

Eucratid Bactria

171-155 Eucratides I

155     Platon

155-140 Helicoles I

140-130 Eucratides II

130-120 Archebios

120-115 Helicoles II

115-110 Antialcidas

100-85 Diomedes

95-85 Telephos

85-75 Amyntas

75-55 Hermaios

Kings

   Aug        - Sep 1801 Barakzai, Shoja al-Molk Shah

1818 - 1826              Barakzai, Ayyub Shah

1831 - 1833              Barakzai, Soltan Mohammad

________________________________________________________________________

Kingdom of Afghanistan

Emirs

02 Oct 1880 - 03 Oct 1901 Barakzai, Abdur Ramman Khan ....... 1844-1901

   Apr      -    Jun 1887 Timur Shah Khan Ghilzai

                          (in rebellion in Herat)

01 Aug      - 29 Sep 1887 Sardar Muhammad Ishaq Khan

                          (in rebellion in Balkh)

14 Aug      -    Sep 1887 Mohammad Ayyub Khan ............... 1855-1914

                          (in rebellion in Herat)

03 Oct 1901 - 20 Feb 1919 Barakzai, Habibollah I ............ 1872-1919

20 Feb      - 28 Feb 1919 Barakzai, Nasrollah Khan .......... 1875-1919

28 Feb 1919 - 09 Jun 1926 Barakzai, Ahmanollah .............. 1892-1960

Kings

09 Jun 1926 - 14 Jan 1929 Barakzai, Ahmanollah Shah ......... s.a

14 Jan      - 17 Jan 1929 Barakzai, Inayatollah ............. 1888-1946

Emir

17 Jan      - 13 Oct 1929 Ghazi, Habibollah II .............. 1890-1929

Kings

17 Jan      - 09 Feb 1929 Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan Jan ......... 1883-1929

                          (1st Time, in rebellion in Jalalabad)

21 Jan      - 23 May 1929 Barakzai, Ahmanollah Shah ......... s.a

                          (in rebellion in Qandahar)

23 May      - 31 May 1929 Sardar Ali Ahmad Khan Jan ......... s.a

                          (2nd Time, in rebellion in Qandahar)

17 Oct 1929 - 08 Nov 1933 Barakzai, Mohammad Nadir Shah ..... 1880-1933

                          (in rebellion in Khost until 17 Oct 1929)

08 Nov 1933 - 17 Jul 1973 Barakzai, Mohammad Zahir Shah ..... 1914-2007

                          (in Italy exile from 1973, abdicated Aug 1974)



Prime Ministers

1892 - 1901               Mir Abul Qasim

1901 - 1916               Sirdar Abdul al-Qudduz Khan (1st Time)

1916 - 1919               Sirdar Nasr Ullah Khan

       1919 - 25 Oct 1927 Sirdar Abdul al-Qudduz Khan (2nd Time)

25 Oct 1927 - 14 Jan 1929 Sardar Shir Ahmad Sura-i-Milli .... 1885-19?

14 Jan      - 01 Nov 1929 Shir Giyan ........................ 18..-1929

14 Nov 1929 -    May 1946 Sardar Mohammad Hashim Khan ....... 1885-1953

   May 1946 - 07 Sep 1953 Sardar Shah Mahmud Khan ........... 1890-1959

07 Sep 1953 - 10 Mar 1963 Sardar Mohammad Daud Shah

10 Mar 1963 - 02 Nov 1965 Mohammad Yusuf Khan ............... 1917-1998

02 Nov 1965 - 11 Oct 1967 Mohammad Hashim Maiwandwal ........ 1919-1973

11 Oct      - 01 Nov 1967 Abdullah Yaqta .................... 1914-2003

01 Nov 1967 - 09 Jun 1971 Mohammad Nur Ahmad Etemadi ........ 1921-1979

09 Jun 1971 - 12 Dec 1972 Sharifi Abdul Zahir ............... 1910-1982

12 Dec 1972 - 17 Jul 1973 Mohammad Musa Shafiq .............. 1932-1979

_______________________________________________________________________

Republic of Afghanistan

President

17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978 Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan ......... 1909-1978

27 Apr      - 30 Apr 1978 Abdul Qadir Dagarwal .............. 1944-2014


Prime Minister

17 Jul 1973 - 27 Apr 1978 Sardar Mohammad Daud Khan ......... s.a

_______________________________________________________________________

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan

General Secretaries of the People's Democratic Communist Party

30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979 Nur Mohammad Takari ............... 1913-1979

16 Sep      - 27 Dec 1979 Hafizullah Amin ................... 1929-1979

27 Dec 1979 - 04 May 1986 Babrak Karmal ..................... 1929-1996

04 May 1986 - 16 Apr 1992 Dr Mohammad Najiullah Ahmadzai .... 1947-1996


 

Presidents of the Revolutionary Council

30 Apr 1978 - 16 Sep 1979 Nur Mohammad Taraki ............... s.a

16 Sep      - 27 Dec 1979 Hafizullah Amin ................... s.a

27 Dec 1979 - 24 Nov 1986 Babrak Karmal ..................... s.a

24 Nov 1986 - 30 Sep 1987 Haji Mohammad Chamkani ............ 1947-

20 Sep 1987 - 16 Apr 1992 Dr Mohammad Najibullah Ahmadzai ... s.a


 

Prime Ministers

01 May 1978 - 27 Mar 1979 Nur Mohammad Taraki ............... s.a

27 Mar      - 27 Dec 1979 Hafizullah Amin ................... s.a

27 Dec 1979 - 11 Jun 1981 Babrak Karmal ..................... s.a

11 Jun 1981 - 26 May 1988 Sultan Ali Keshmtmand ............. 1935-

                          (1st Time)

26 May 1988 - 21 Feb 1989 Mohammad Hassan Sharq ............. 1925-

21 Feb 1989 - 08 May 1990 Sultan Ali Keshmtmand

                          (2nd Time)

08 May 1990 - 15 Apr 1992 Fazal Haq Khaliqyar ............... 1934-2004



Commanders of the Soviet Forces

27 Dec 1979 - 23 Sep 1980 Yuri Vladimirovich Tukharinov ..... 1927-1998

23 Sep 1980 - 07 May 1982 Boris Ivanovich Tkach ............. 1935-

07 May 1982 - 04 Nov 1983 Viktor Fyodorovich Ermakov ........ 1935-

04 Nov 1983 - 19 Apr 1985 Leonid Yevstafyevich Generalov .... 1937-1991

19 Apr 1985 - 30 Apr 1986 Igor Nikolayovich Rodionov ........ 1936-

01 May 1986 - 31 May 1987 Viktor Petrovich Dubynin .......... 1943-1992

01 Jun 1987 - 15 Feb 1989 Boris Vsevolodovich Gromov ........ 1943-

_______________________________________________________________________

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Presidents

16 Apr      - 28 Apr 1992 Abdul Rahim Hatef ................. 1925-2013

                          (interim)

28 Apr      - 28 Jun 1992 Sibghatullah Mojadedi ............. 1925-2019

                          (interim)

28 Jun 1992 - 22 Dec 2001 Burhanuddin Rabbini ............... 1940-2011

                          (in internal exile 27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001)


Prime Ministers

06 Jul      - 15 Nov 1992 Abdul Sabur Farid Kuhestani ....... 1952-2007

17 Jun 1993 - 28 Jun 1994 Gulbuddin Hekmatyar ............... 1947-

                          (1st Time)

   Nov 1994 -    Jun 1995 Arsala Rahmani .................... 1937-

   Jun 1995 - 26 Jun 1996 Ahmad Shah Ahmadzai ............... 1944-

26 Jun 1996 - 11 Aug 1997 Gulbuddin Hekmatyar

                          (2nd Time, in opposition from 27 Sep 1996)

11 Aug      - 21 Aug 1997 Abdul Rahim Ghafoorzai ............ 1947-1997

                          (in opposition to the Taliban)

21 Aug      - 30 Sep 1997 Abdul Ghafoor Ravan Farhadi ....... 1929-

                          (in opposition to the Taliban)

_______________________________________________________________________

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (Taliban)

Amir al-Mo`menim (Leader of the faithfull)

27 Sep 1996 - 13 Nov 2001 Mullah Mohammad Omar Akhund  ...... 1959-2013


Heads of the Supreme Council

27 Sep 1996 - 16 Apr 2001 Mullah Mohammad Rabbani Akhund .... 1955-2001

16 Apr      - 13 Nov 2001 Mawlawi Mohammad Abdul Kabir ...... 1958-

_______________________________________________________________________

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Presidents

22 Dec 2001 - 29 Sep 2014 Hamid Karzai ...................... 1957-

                          (interim to 19 Jun 2002)

29 Sep 2014 -             Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai ............. 1949-



Chief Executive

29 Apr 2014 -             Abdullah Abdullah ................. 1960-



Commanders of the International Security Force in Afghanistan

15 Nov 2001 - 20 Jun 2002 John Charlmers McColl ............. 1952-     (U.K)

20 Jun 2002 - 10 Feb 2003 Akin Zorlu ........................ 1948-2014 (Turkey)

10 Feb      - 11 Aug 2003 Norbert van Heyst ................. 1944-     (Netherlands)

11 Aug 2003 - 09 Feb 2004 Götz Gliemeroth ................... 1943-     (Germany)

09 Feb      - 09 Aug 2004 Rick J. Hillier ................... 1956-     (Canada)

09 Aug 2004 - 13 Feb 2005 Jean-Louis Py ..................... 1948-     (France)

13 Feb      - 05 Aug 2005 Ethem Erdagi ...................... 1949-     (Turkey)

05 Aug 2005 - 04 Mar 2006 Mauro Del Vecchio ................. 1946-     (Italy)

04 Mar 2006 - 06 Feb 2007 David J. Richards ................. 1952-     (U.K)

06 Feb 2007 - 03 Jun 2008 Daniel K. McNeil .................. 1946-     (U.S)

03 Jun 2008 - 15 Jun 2009 David D. McKiernan ................ 1950-     (U.S)

15 Jun 2009 - 23 Jun 2010 Stanley Allen McChrystal .......... 1954-     (U.S)

23 Jun      - 04 Jul 2010 Sir Nicholas Ralph Parker ......... 1954-     (U.K)

04 Jul 2010 - 18 Jul 2011 David Howell Petreaus ............. 1952-     (U.S)

18 Jul 2011 - 10 Feb 2013 John R. Allen ..................... 1953-     (U.S)

10 Feb 2013 - 26 Aug 2014 Joseph F. Dunford, Jr. ............ 1955-     (U.S)

26 Aug      - 28 Dec 2014 John F. Campbell .................. 1957-     (U.S)

Commanders of the Resolute Support Mission

28 Dec 2014 - 02 Mar 2016 John F. Campbell .................. s.a

02 Mar 2016 - 02 Sep 2018 John Nicholson, Jr. ............... 1957-     (U.S)

02 Sep 2018 -             Austin Scott Mills ................ 1961-     (U.S)


________________________________________________________________________


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