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Zhonggou

Legendary Empire

c. 2200 - 1800 BC Kingdom of Xia

1800 - 1722 BC Kingdom of Shang

1016 - 249 BC Kingdom of Zhou

304 - 439 BC Era of disunity, 16 Kingdoms period

475 - 207 BC Chinese Empire unified under Kingdom of Qin

207 - 202 Han-Chu contention, Era of the 18 Kingdoms

202 - 420 Chinese Empire

420 - 589 Divided in to Northern and Southern dynasties

907 - 979 Era of the "5 dynasties and 10 kingdoms"

20 Mar 1270 - 20 Jan 1368 Yuan (Mongol) dynasty under Mongolian Empire

28 Jan 1368 - 25 Apr 1644 Great Ming Empire

01 Oct 1644 - 31 Dec 1911 Great Qing (Jing [Manchu]) Empire

14 Nov 1860 Russia annexes left bank of the Amur river

02 Jul 1895 - 25 Oct 1945 Taiwan annexed by Japan

Nov 1897 Russia annexes Northwest Manchuria

1899 - 07 Sep 1901 Boxer rebelion

10 Oct 1911 - 12 Feb 1912 Xinhai Revolution

01 Jan 1912 Republic of China

12 Feb 1912 Abdication of the Emperor

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Empire of China

22 Mar 1916 Republic of China (restored)

01 Jul - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of the Great Qing Empire

12 Jul 1917 Republic of China (re-restored)

01 Dec 1931 - 15 Oct 1934 Sovet Republic of China declared in Kiangsi

07 Jul 1937 - 15 Aug 1945 Manchuria occupied by Japan

15 Aug 1945 - May 1946 Manchuria under Soviet occupation

01 Oct 1949 People's Republic of China

20 Oct 1949 Urgystan (East Turkistan) re-incorporated into China

02 Dec 1949 Inner Mongolia re-integrated into China

07 Oct 1950 Tibet occupied by China, annexed 1951

01 Jul 1997 Re-integration of Hong Kong

20 Dec 1999 Re-integration Macao

 

Note: This record uses the Hanyu Pinyin romanization system for standard Chinese used

in mainland China since 1958 and in western sources from 1980. Before these dates

romanization of standard Chinese had used the Wade-Giles system which became standard

in the nineteenth century. The Republic of China (Taiwan) continued to use Wade-Giles

until 2008, when it was officially replayced by Pinyin, though use of Wade-Giles

continues. Wade-Giles is still generally used for Chinese names in countries with large Chinese populations such as Singapore and Malaysia.

 

Pinyin pronounciations are as follows: b = p, d = t, g = k, j = ch, q = ch, x = sh,

zh = j, z = ds, c = ts. i after z,c,s and zh,

sh, r and x is pronounced as a continuation

of the consonant with a z or as 'ur'.

e.g Cixi: Tsee-shzz-ur.

______________________________________________________________________________________

Chinese Empire

 

Government: Monarchy.

Capital: Peking.

Language: Guanhua Chinese, Manchu.

Religion: Confucianism, Taoism, Shamanism, Buddhism, Islam.

National Anthem: "Gong Jin'ou" ("Cup of Solid Gold") (1911).

National Day: Emperors Birthday, 07 February (1906).

National Emblem: Chinese Dragon.

Currency: Silver Tael.

 

Note: The Chinese emperors had four names. Ming, the personal or birth name which was never used directly or in reference to the emperor. Miaohao the temple name that

was used postumosly. Shihao the posthumos name often combined with the temple name; and Niaohao - the era name. The emperor was always known by his era name, and refered to even after his death (except in earlier dynasties which used the temple name). The era name started as the emperor's own motto and could be changed semi-regually during the reign. The Ming dynasty emperors discontinued this practice and only one name was used for the entire reign. The Qing dynasty emperors followed the Manchu convention of not using one's personal and family name together, which was in complete contravention of Chinese tradition and considered a taboo when referring to the emperor.

 

Emperors (Legerndary)

You Chao

Sui Ren

- Three August Ones -

Tai Hao Feng Fuxi The Ox-tamer

Yan Di Jiang Xen Nuwa

Huang Di Gongsun Xuan Yuan Yellow Emperor

Five Emperors

Ji Xao Hao Ji Tian

Di Ku Ji Goa Xin

Di Zhi Ji Goa Xin

Ji Tang Tao

Yao Yu Xun

Kingdom of Xia

2100-2055 Si Yu Di The Great

2055-2016 Si Qu

2016-1986 Si Tai Kang

1986-1977 Si Zhong Kong

1977-1970 Si Xiang

1970-???? Xao Kung

Zhu

Huai

Mang

Xie

Bu Zhiang

Zhiang

Jun

Gao

Fu

1801-1800 Jia

Kingdom of Xang

1800-1797 Tong

1797-1781 Wai Bong

Zhong Ren

Tai Jin

Wo Dong

Tai Gong

Xiao Zhin

Yong Zho

Tai Wu

Zhong Dong

Wai Ren

He Den Jin

Zo Yo

Wo Jin

Zo Dong

Nan Gong

Yang Jin

Pan Gong

Xiao Xan

Xiao Yu

Wo Dong

Zo Gong

1251-1250 Zu Zhin

1250-1191 Lon Xon

1191-1147 Gong Dong

1147-1112 Wu Yu

1112-1101 Tai Dong

1101-1076 Di Yo

1075-1046 Di Xan

Kingdom of Zhou

1046-1043 Ji Fa

shi: Zhou Xiaowuwang

1043-1021 Ji Song

shi: Zho Chengwang

1021-996 Ji Zhao

shi: Zhou Kangwang

996-977 Ji Xia

shi: Zhou Zhaowang

977-922 Ji Man

shi: Zhou Muwang

922-900 Ji Yihu

shi: Zhou Gongwang

900-892 Ji Jian

shi: Zhou Yiwang I

892-885 Ji Pifang

shi: Zhou Xiowang

885-878 Ji Xie

shi: Zhou Yiwang II

877-841 Ji Li

shi: Zhou Liwang

827-782 Ji Jang

shi: Zhou Xuanwang

782-770 Ji Gongsheng

shi: Zhou Youwang

770-720 Ji Yijiu

shi: Zhou Pingwang

720-697 Ji Lin

shi: Zhou Huanwang

697-681 Ji Tuo

shi: Zhou Zhuanwang

681-676 Ji Huqi

shi: Zhou Xiwang

676-652 Ji Xi

shi: Zhou Huiwang I

652-619 Ji Lang

shi: Zhou Xianwang

619-613 Ji Renchen

shi: Zhou Qingwang

613-607 Ji Ban

shi: Zhou Kuangwang

606-586 Ji Yu

shi: Zhou Dingwang

586-572 Ji Yi

shi: Zhou Jianwang

572-544 Ji Xiexin

shi: Zhou Lingwang

544-521 Ji Gi

shi: Zhou Jingwang I

521-519 Ji Meng

shi: Zhou Daowang

519-476 Ji Gai

shi: Zhou Jingwang II

476-469 Ji Ren

shi: Zhou Yuanwang

469-441 Ji Jie

shi: Zhou Zhendingwang

441 Ji Quji

shi: Zhou Aiwang

441 Ji Shu

shi: Zhou Siwang

440-426 Ji Wei

shi: Zhou Kaowang

426-402 Ji Wu

shi: Zhou Weiliewang

402-376 Ji Jiao

shi: Zhou Anwang

376-369 Ji Xi

shi: Zhou Liewang

369-321 Ji Bian

shi: Zhou Xianwang

321-315 Ji Ding

shi: Zhou Shenjingwang

315-256 Ji Yan

shi: Zhou Nanwang

256-249 Ji Jie

shi: Zhou Huiwang II

Kingdom of Qin, Qin Dynasty

302 - 250 Ying Ze

shi: Zhaoxiang

250 - 249 Ying Zhu

shi: Xiaowen

249 - 247 Ying Zichu

shi: Zhuangxiang

07 May 247 - 10 Sep 210 Ying Zheng

shi: Qin Shihuangdi (The First Emperor)

10 Sep 210 - Oct 207 Ying Huhai

shi: Er Shi Huangdi

Oct - Dec 207 Ying Ziying

Chu Dynasty

Dec 207 - Jan 205 Min Xin

shi: Yi / nianhao: Huai Il

Western Han Dyansty

28 Feb 202 - 01 Jun 195 Liu Bang

shi: Gaozu

01 Jun 195 - Oct 188 Liu Ying

shi: Xiaohui

Oct 188 - 184 Liu Gong

shi: Qiansho

184 - Oct 180 Liu Hong

shi: Houshaodi

Oct 180 - Jul 157 Liu Heng

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Xiaowen

nianhao: Houyuan

Jul 157 - 09 Mar 141 Liu Qi

miaohao: ? / shi: Jingdi

nianhao: Qianyuan

09 Mar 141 - 29 Mar 87 Liu Che

miaohao: Shizong / shi: Wudi

nianhao: 12 in total

30 Mar 87 - 74 Liu Fuling

miaohao: ? / shi: Zhaodi

nianhao: Yuanping

74 - 49 Liu Bingyi

miaohao: Zhongzhong/ shi: Xuan

nianhao: 8 in total

49 - 33 Liu Yi

miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoyuan

nianhao: Yongguang

33 - 07 Liu Ao

miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaocheng

nianhao: 7 in total

07 - 00 Liu Xin

miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoai

nianhao: Jianping

00 - 05 Liu Kan

miaohao: ? / shi: Xiaoping

nianhao: Yuanshi

05 - 10 Jan 09 Liu Ying

miaohao: ? / shi: Ruzi

nianhao: Jushe

Xin Dynasty

10 Jan 09 - 06 Oct 23 Wang Mang ................................. 45-23

nianhao: Shijianguo 9-13, Tianfeng 14-19, Dihuang 20-23

Easten Han Dynasty

07 Oct 23 - 24 Aug 25 Liu Xuan

miaohao: ?/ shi:

nianhao: Gengshi

25 Aug 25 - 29 Mar 57 Liu Xiu

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Guangwu

nianhao: Jianwu

30 Mar 57 - 75 Liu Yang

miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Ming Di

nianhao: Yongping

75 - 88 Liu Da

miaohao: Suzong/ shi: Xiaozhang

nianhao: 3 in total

88 - Aug 105 Liu Zhao

miaohao: Muzong/ shi: Xiaohe

nianhao: Yongyuan

Aug 105 - Sep 106 Liu Long

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoshang

nianhao: Yanping

Sep 106 - 125 Liu Hu

miaohao: Gongzong/ shi: Xiaoan

nianhao: 5 in total

125 Liu Yi (Marquess of Beixiang)

nianhao: Yanguang

125 - 145 Liu Bao

miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Xiaoshun

nianhao: 5 in total

145 - 146 Liu Bing

shi: Xiaochong/ nianhao: Yongxi

146 - 147 Liu Zuan

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaozhi

nianhao: Benchu

147 - 168 Liu Zhi

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaohuan

nianhao: 7 in total

168 - 13 May 189 Liu Hong

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoling

nianhao: 4 in total

15 May - 28 Sep 189 Liu Bian

miaohao: ?/ shi: Hongnong

nianhao: Zhaoning

28 Sep 190 - 10 Dec 220 Liu Xie

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaoxian

nianhao: 5 in total

Kingdom of Han

221 - 10 Jun 223 Liu Bei

miaohao: Xuande/ shi: Zhaolie

nianhao: Zhangwu

22 Jun 223 - 263 Liu Shan

miaohao: Gongsi/ shi: Xiaohuai

nianhao:4 in total

Kingdom of Wei

10 Dec 220 - 29 Jun 226 Cao Pi

miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Wen Di

nianhao: Huangchu

30 Jun 226 - 22 Jan 239 Cao Rui

miaohao: Liezu/ shi: Ming Di

nianhao: 3 in total

23 Jan 239 - 254 Cao Fang

miaohao: Lanqing/ shi: Qi Wang

nianhao: Zhengshi 240-49, Jiaping 249-54

254 - 260 Cao Mao

miaohao: Yanshi/ shi: Gaoguixiang Gong

nianhao: Zhengyuan 254-56, Ganlu 256-60

260 - 265 Cao Huan

miaohao: Jingming/ shi: Yuan Di

nianhao: Jingyuan 260-64, Xianxi 264-65

Kingdom of Wu

222 - 252 Sun Quan

miaohao: Zhongmou/ shi: Dongwudadi

nianhao: 6 in total

252 - 258 Sun Liang

miaohao: Fei Di/ shi: Kuaiji Wang

nianhao: 3 in total

258 - 03 Sep 264 Sun Xia

miaohao: Zilie/ shi: Jing Di

nianhao: Yongan

04 Sep 264 - Mar 280 Sun Hao

miaohao: Yuanzong/ shi:None

nianhao: 8 in total

Jin Dynasty

- Western Jin -

08 Feb 266 - 17 May 290 Sima Yan I

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Wu

nianhao:4 in total

17 May 290 - 08 Jan 307 Sima Lun

miaohao: Hui Di/ shi: Xiaohui

nianhao: 11 in total

08 Jan 307 - Aug 311 Sima Chi

miaohao: Huai Di/ shi: Xiaohuai

nianhao: Yongjia

Aug 311 - Oct 316 Sima Ye

miaohao: Min Di/ shi: Xiaomin

nianhao: Jianxing

- Eastern Jin -

Feb 317 - 03 Jan 323 Sima Rui

miaohao: Zhongzong/ shi: Yuan

nianhao: Jianwu 317-18, Taixing 318-21, Yongchang 322-23

03 Jan 323 - 18 Oct 325 Sima Shao

miaohao: Suzu/ shi: Ming

nianhao: Taining

19 Oct 325 - 26 Jul 342 Sima Yan II

miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Cheng

nianhao: Xianhe 326-34, Xiankang 335-42

27 Jul 342 - 17 Nov 344 Sima Yue

shi: Kang Di/ nianhao: Jianyuan

18 Nov 344 - 10 Jul 361 Sima Dan

miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Mu Di

nianhao: Yonghe 345-57, Shengping, 357-61

11 Jul 361 - 30 Mar 365 Sima Pi

shi: Ai Di

nianhao: Longhe 362-63. Xingning 363-35

31 Mar 365 - 06 Jan 372 Sima Yi

miaohao: Fei Di/ shi: ?

nianhao: Taihe

07 Jan - 12 Sep 372 Sima Yu

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Jianwen

nianhao: Xianan

13 Sep 372 - 05 Nov 396 Sima Yao

miaohao: ?/ shi: Xiaowu

nianhao: Ningkang 372-76, Taiyuan 376-96

06 Nov 396 - 28 Jan 419 Sima Dezong

miaohao: ?/ shi: An Di

nianhao: Longan 397-401, Yuanxing 402-04, Yixi 404-19

30 Jan 419 - 10 Jul 420 Sima Dewen

miaohao: ?/ shi: Gong Di

nianhao: Yuanxi

Liu Song Dynasty

Oct 420 - Jun 422 Liu Yu I

miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Wu

nianhao: Yongchu

Jul 422 - 424 Liu Yifu

shi: Shao/ nianhao: Jingping

424 - Feb 453 Liu Yilong

miaohao: Taizu/ shi: Jing

nianhao: Taichu

453 Liu Shao

shi: Yuanxiong/ nianhao: Taichu

453 - 464 Hsiao Liu Jun

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Xiaowu

nianhao: Xiaojian

12 Jul 464 - 01 Jan 466 Liu Ziye

shi: Qian Fei/ nianhao: Yongguang

01 Jan 466 - Aug 472 Liu Yu II

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Ming

nianhao: Taishi

Aug 472 - Aug 477 Liu Yu III

shi: Hou Fei/ nianhao: Yuanhui

Aug 477 - 479 Liu Zhun

shi: Shun /nianhao: Shengming

Southern Qi Dynasty

479 - 482 Xiao Daocheng

miaohao: Gaozu / shi: Gao

nianhao: Jianyuan

482 - 493 Xiao Ze

miaohao: Shizu / shi: Wu

nianhao: Yongming

493 - 494 Xiao Zhaoye

miaohao:None / shi: Yulin

nianhao: Longchang

494 Xiao Zhaowen

miaohao:None / shi: Gong

nianhao: Yanxing

494 - 498 Xiao Luan

miaohao: Gaozong/ shi: Ming

nianhao: Jianwu

499 - 501 Xiao Baojuan

miaohao: Zhizang / shi: Dong Hun

nianhao: Yongyuan

501 - 502 Xiao Baorong

miaohao: Zhizhao / shi: He Di

nianhao: Zhongxing

Liang Dynasty

502 - Aug 549 Xiao Yan

miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Wu Di

nianhao: 7 in total

Aug 549 - 551 Xiao Gang

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Jianwen Di

nianhao: Dabao

551 - 552 Xai-Dong

shi: Yu Zhang Wang/nianhao: Tianzheng

13 Dec 552 - 07 Jan 555 Xiao Yi

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Xai Yuan

nianhao: Chengsheng

07 Jan - 31 Oct 555 Xai Yuanming

miaohao: Zhenyang Hou/ shi: Yuan Di Min

nianhao: Tianchen

01 Nov 555 - 16 Nov 557 Xiao Fangzhi

shi: Jing Di/nianhao: Taiping

Northern Qi Dynasty

09 Nov 550 - 25 Nov 559 Gao Yang

miaohao: Xianzu/ shi: Wenshuan

niaohao: Tianbao

04 Dec 559 - 08 Sep 560 Gao Yin

miaohao: / shi: Fei

niaohao: Qianming

09 Sep 560 - 561 Gao Yan

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Xiaozhao

niaohao: Taining 561-62, Heqing 562-65

561 - 565 Gao Dan

miaohao: Suzong/ shi: Wucheng

niaohao: Huangjian

08 Jun 565 - 04 Feb 577 Gao Wei

miaohao: Houzhu/ shi: Rengang

niaohao: Tiantong 565-70, Wuping 570-76, Longhua 576-77

04 Feb - Dec 577 Gao Heng

miaohao: Youzhu niaohao: Chengguan

Southern Chen Dynasty

Dec 557 - Jul 559 Chen Baxian

miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Wu Di

nianhao: Yongding

Jul 559 - Jun 566 Chen Qian

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Wen

nianhao: Tianjia

Jun 566 - Dec 568 Chen Bozong

shi: Fei Di/nianhao: Guangda

Jan 569 - Mar 582 Chen Xu

miaohao: Gaozong/ shi: Xuan Di

nianhao: Tiajian

20 Feb 582 - 10 Feb 589 Chen Shubao

miaohao: Houzhu/ shi: Yang

nianhao: Zhenming

Sui Dynasty

04 Mar 581 - 13 Aug 604 Yang Jian

miaohao: Gaozu/shi: Wen Di

nianhao: Kaihuang

21 Aug 604 - 11 Apr 618 Yang Guang (Duke of Xi)

miaohao: Shizu/ shi: Yang Di

nianhao: Daye

18 Dec 617 - 12 Jun 618 Yang You

shi: Yang Di/nianhao: Daye

22 Jun 618 - 23 May 619 Yang Tong

shi: Gong/nianhao: Huangtai

(Emperor in rebellion, Duke of Lu)

Tang Dynasty

18 Jun 618 - 04 Sep 626 Li Yuan

miaohao: Gaozu/ shi: Shenyao

nianhao: Wude

04 Sep 626 - 10 Jul 649 Li Shimin

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Wen Huangdi

nianhao: Zhenguan

15 Jul 649 - 27 Dec 683 Li Zhinu

miaohao: Gaozong/ shi: Tianhuang

nianhao:15 in total

03 Jan - 26 Feb 684 Li Xian (1st Time)

miaohao: Zhongzong/ shi: Xiaohe

nianhao: Sisheng

27 Feb 684 - 08 Oct 690 Li Dan (1st Time)

miaohao: Ruizong/ shi: Shengzhen

nianhao: 5 in total

Zhou Dynasty

18 Oct 690 - 22 Feb 705 Empress Wu Zhao

miaohao: Wu Ze Tian/ shi: Zetian

nianhao: 12 in total

Tang Dynasty

23 Feb 705 - 03 Jul 710 Li Xian (2nd Time)

nianhao: Shenlong 705-07, Jinglong 707-10

08 Jul - 23 Jul 710 Li Chongmao

miaohao: Shang Di/ shi: Shang

nianhao: Tanglong

24 Jul 710 - 31 Aug 712 Li Dan (2nd Time)

nianhao: Jingyun

08 Sep 712 - 13 Aug 756 Li Longji

miaohao: Wuanzong/ shi: Ming

nianhao: Xiantian 712-13, Kaiyuan 713-41, Tianbao 742-56

13 Aug 756 - 16 May 762 Li Heng

miaohao: Suzong/ shi: Wenming

nianhao: 4 in total

18 May 762 - 23 May 779 Li Yu

miaohao: Daizong/ shi: Ruiwen Xiaowu

nianhao: Guangdi 763-64, Yontai 765-66, Dali 766-79

12 Jun 779 - 25 Feb 805 Li Gua

miaohao: Dezong/ shi: Shenwu Xiaowen

nianhao: Jianzhong 780-83, Xingyuan 784, Zhengyuan 785-805

28 Feb - 31 Aug 805 Li Song

miaohao: Shunzong/ shi: Zhide

nianhao: Shunzong

05 Sep 805 - 14 Feb 820 Li Chun

miaohao: Xianzong/ shi: Zhangwu

nianhao: Yuanhe

20 Feb 820 - 25 Feb 824 Li Heng

miaohao: Muzong/ shi: Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao

nianhao: Changqing

29 Feb 824 - 09 Jan 827 Li Zhan

miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Zhaomin

nianhao: Baoli

13 Jan 827 - 10 Feb 840 Li Ang

miaohao: Wenzong/ shi: Zhaoxian

nianhao: Dahe

20 Feb 840 - 22 Apr 846 Li Yan

miaohao: Wuzong/ shi: Zedao Zhaosui Xiao

nianhao: Huichang

25 Apr 846 - 07 Sep 859 Li Chen

miaohao: Wuanzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Daizhong

13 Sep 859 - 15 Aug 873 Li Cui

miaohao: Yi Zong/nianhao: Xiantong

16 Aug 873 - 20 Apr 888 Li Xuan

miaohao: Xi Zong/nianhao: Xiantong

20 Apr 888 - 22 Sep 904 Li Ye

miaohao: Zhaozong/nianhao: Tanyou

26 Sep 904 - 12 May 907 Li Zhu

miaohao: Ai Di/nianhao: Longji

Liang Dynasty

01 Jun 907 - 18 Jul 912 Zhu Wen

miaohao: Taizu/ shi: Xianwu

nianhao: Kaiping

21 Jul 912 - 27 Mar 913 Zhu Youngui

nianhao: Qianghua

28 Mar 913 - 18 Nov 923 Zhu Zhen

shi: Modi/nianhao: Zhenming

Later Tang Dynasty

13 May 923 - 25 May 926 Li Cunxu

miaohao: Zhunag Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Tongguang

03 Jun 926 - 15 Dec 933 Li Siyuan

miaohao: Ming Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Changxing

17 Dec 933 - 20 May 934 Li Conghou

shi: Min Di/nianhao: Yingshun

21 May 934 - 11 Jan 937 Li Congke

shi: Mo Di/nianhao: Qingtai

Later Jin Dynasty

28 Nov 936 - 28 Jul 942 Shi Jingtang

miaohao: Gao Zu I/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Tainfu

942 - 947 Shi Chonggui

shi: Chu Di/nianhao: Kaiyun

Later Han Dynasty

10 Mar 947 - 10 Mar 948 Liu Zhiyuan

miaohao: Gao Zu II/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Qianyou

14 Mar 948 - 02 Jan 951 Liu Chengyou

shi: Yin Di/nianhao: Qianyou

Zhou Dynasty

13 Feb 951 - 22 Feb 954 Guo Wei

miaohao: Tai Zu/nianhao: Xiande

26 Feb 954 - 27 Jul 959 Chai Rong

miaohao: Shi Zong/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Xiande

27 Jul 959 - 03 Feb 960 Chai Zongxun

shi: Gong Di/nianhao: Xiande

Song Dynasty

04 Feb 960 - 14 Nov 976 Zhao Kuangyin

miaohao: Taizu/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Jianlong, Qiande, Kaibao

15 Nov 976 - 08 May 997 Zhao Kuangyi

miaohao: Taizong/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Taipingxingguo

23 Dec 997 - 23 Mar 1022 Zhao Heng

miaohao: Zhenzong/ shi:Never used in short form

nianhao: Xianping

24 Mar 1022 - 30 Apr 1063 Zhao Zhen

miaohao: Renzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Tiansheng 1023-1032, Jiayou 1056-63

02 May 1063 - 25 Jan 1067 Zhao Shu

miaohao: Yingzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Zhiping

26 Jan 1067 - 01 Apr 1085 Zhao Xu I

miaohao: Shenzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Xining 1068-77, Yuanfeng 1078-85

02 Apr 1085 - 23 Feb 1100 Zhao Xu II

miaohao: Zhezong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Yuanyou 1086-1094, Yuanfu 1098-1100

24 Feb 1100 - 18 Jan 1126 Zhao Ji

miaohao: Huizong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Jianzhongjingguo 1101-02, Xuanhe 1119-25

19 Jan 1126 - 09 Jan 1127 Zhao Huan

miaohao: Qinzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Jingkong

- Western Xia Dynasty -

10 Nov 1038 - 19 Jan 1048 Li Yuanhao

miaohao: Jingzong/ shi: Wuliedi

nianhao: Tianshoulifayanzuo

1047 - 1067 Li Liangzuo

miaohao: Yizong/ shi: Zhaoyingdi

nianhao: Gonghua

1067 - 1086 Li Bingchang

miaohao: Huizong/ shi: Kangjingdi

nianhao: Tiananliding

1086 - 1139 Li Qianshun

miaohao: Chongzong/ shi: Shengwendi

nianhao: Dade

1139 - 1193 Li Renxiao

miaohao: Renzong/ shi: Shengzhendi

nianhao: Qianyou

1193 - 1206 Li Chunyou

miaohao: Huanzong/ shi: Zhaojianji

nianhao: Tianqing

1206 - 05 Aug 1211 Li Anquan

miaohao: Xiangzong/ shi: Jingwudi

nianhao: Huangjian

12 Aug 1211 - 1223 Li Zunxu

miaohao: Shenzong/ shi: Yingwendi

nianhao: Guangding

1223 - 1226 Li Dewang

miaohao: Xianzong/nianhao: Qianding

1226 - 1227 Li Xian

miaohao: Mozhu/nianhao: Baoyi

Northern Jin Dynasty

28 Jan 1115 - 19 Sep 1123 Wanyan Aguda

miaohao: Taizu/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Tianfu

27 Sep 1123 - 09 Feb 1134 Wanyan Sheng

miaohao: Taizong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Tianhui

10 Feb 1134 - 09 Jan 1150 Wanyan Hela

miaohao: Xizong shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Huangtong 1141-1149

09 Jan 1150 - 15 Dec 1161 Wanyan Digunai

shi: Hailingwang

nianhao: Zhenglong 1156-61

27 Oct 1161 - 20 Jan 1189 Wanyan Wulu

miaohao: Shizong shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Dading

20 Jan 1190 - 29 Dec 1208 Wanyan Jing

miaohao: Zhangzong shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Mingchang 1190-96, Cheng'an 1196-99, Taihe 1200-08

29 Dec 1208 - 11 Sep 1213 Wanyan Yongji

shi: Weishaowang

nianhao: Chongqing

22 Sep 1213 - 14 Jan 1224 Wanyan Xun

miaohao: Xuanzong shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Yuanguang

15 Jan 1224 - 08 Feb 1234 Wanyan Shouxu

miaohao: Aizong shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Tianxing 1232-34

09 Feb 1234 Wanyan Chenglin

shi: Modi

Southern Song Dynasty

12 Jun 1127 - 24 Jul 1162 Zhao Gou

miaohao: Gaozong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Jianyan 1127-30, Shaoxing 1131-62

24 Jul 1162 - 18 Feb 1189 Zhao Shen

miaohao: Xiaozong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Longxing 1163-64, Chunxi 1174-89

18 Feb 1189 - 05 Jul 1194 Zhao Dun

miaohao: Guangzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Shaoxi

24 Jul 1194 - 17 Sep 1224 Zhao Kuo

miaohao: Ningzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Qingyuan 1194-99, Jiading 1208-24

17 Sep 1224 - 16 Nov 1264 Zhao Yun

miaohao: Lizong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Baoqing 1225-27, Jingding 1260-64

16 Nov 1264 - 12 Aug 1274 Zhao Qi

miaohao: Duzong/ shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Xianchun

12 Aug 1274 - 04 Feb 1276 Zhao Xian

miaohao: Gongzong/ shi: Gongdi

nianhao: Deyou

14 Jun 1276 - 08 May 1278 Zhao Shi

miaohao: Duan Zong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Jingyan

09 May 1278 - 19 Mar 1279 Zhao Bing

shi: Weiwang

nianhao: Xiangxing

Dai Ön Ulus Yüan (Birjigin) Dynasty

20 Mar 1279 - 18 Feb 1294 Khubilai Khan

miaohao: Shizu / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Zhiyuan

18 Feb 1294 - 02 Feb 1307 Temür Öljeytü Khan

miaohao: Chengzong / shi: Qin Ming Guang Xiao Huangdi

nianhao: Yuanzhen

02 Feb 1307 - 27 Jan 1311 Külüg qayan

miaohao: Wuzong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Zhida

07 Apr 1311 - 01 Mar 1320 Ayurbarwada Buyantu

miaohao: Renzong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Huangqing 1312-13, Yanyou 1314-20

19 Apr 1320 - 04 Sep 1323 Shidibala Geegen

miaohao: Yingzong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Zhizhi

04 Oct 1323 - 15 Aug 1328 Yesün Temür

miaohao: Jinzong / shi: Taiding Di

nianhao: Taiding

15 Aug - 14 Nov 1328 Arigabag

shi: Tianshun Di/nianhao: Tianshun

16 Oct 1328 - 27 Feb 1329 Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (1st Time)

miaohao: Wenzong / shi: Shengming Yuan Xiao Huangdi

nianhao: Tianli 1328-29, Zhishun 1329-32

27 Feb - 30 Aug 1329 Qutuytu qayan

miaohao: Mingzong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Tienli

08 Sep 1329 - 02 Sep 1332 Jijaghatu Toq-Temür (2nd Time)

nianhao: Zhishun

02 Sep - 14 Dec 1332 Irinchinbal Khan

miaohao: Ningzong / shi: Never used in short form

nianhao: Zhinshun

19 Jul 1333 - 20 Jan 1368 Toghan-Temür

miaohao: Huizong / shi: Shundi

nianhao: Yuantong 1333-35, Zhiyuan 1335-40, Zhizheng 1340-68

Ming Dynasty

28 Jan 1368 - 24 Jun 1398 Zhu Yuanzhang

miaohao: Gaodi/ shi: Taizu

nianhao: Hongwu

30 Jun 1398 - 13 Jul 1402 Zhu Yunwen

miaohao: Huidi/ shi:

nianhao: Jianwen

17 Jul 1402 - 12 Aug 1424 Zhu Di

miaohao: Wendi/ shi: Chengzu

nianhao: Yongle

07 Sep 1424 - 29 May 1425 Zhu Gaochi

miaohao: Zhaodi/ shi: Renzong

nianhao: Hongxi

27 Jun 1425 - 31 Jan 1435 Zhu Zhanji

miaohao: Zhangdi/ shi: Xuanzong

nianhao: Xuande

07 Feb 1435 - 01 Sep 1449 Zhu Qizhen (1st Time)

miaohao: Ruidi/ shi: Yingzong

nianhao: Zhengtong

22 Sep 1449 - 11 Feb 1457 Zhu Qiyu

miaohao: Jingdi/ shi: Daizong

nianhao: Jingtai

11 Feb 1457 - 23 Feb 1464 Zhu Qizhen (2nd Time)

nianhao: Tianshun

28 Feb 1464 - 09 Sep 1487 Zhu Jianshen

miaohao: Chundi/ shi: Xianzong

nianhao: Chenghua

22 Sep 1487 - 08 Jun 1505 Zhu Youtang

miaohao: Jingdi/ shi: Xiaozong

nianhao: Hongzhi

19 Jun 1505 - 20 Apr 1521 Zhu Houzhao

miaohao: Yidi/ shi: Wuzong

nianhao: Zhengde

27 May 1521 - 23 Jan 1567 Zhu Houcong

miaohao: Sudi/ shi: Shizong

nianhao: Jiajing

04 Feb 1567 - 05 Jul 1572 Zhu Zhaihou

miaohao: Zhuangdi/ shi: Muzong

nianhao: Longqing

19 Jul 1572 - 18 Aug 1620 Zhu Yijun

miaohao: Xiandi/ shi: Shenzong

nianhao: Wanli

28 Aug - 26 Sep 1620 Zhu Changlu

miaohao: Shih Tsu/ shi: Guangzong

nianhao: Tiachang

01 Oct 1620 - 30 Sep 1627 Zhu Youjiao

miaohao: Shih Tsu/ shi: Zhang huangdi

nianhao: Shun Chih

02 Oct 1627 - 25 Apr 1644 Zhu Youjian

miaohao: Zhuangliemin/ shi: Sizong

nianhao: Chongzhen

- Southern Ming Dynasty -

Apr 1644 - Jun 1645 Zhu Yousong

miaohao: Anzong/nianhao: Hongguang

Aug 1645 - 06 Oct 1646 Zhu Yujian

miaohao: Shaozong/nianhao: Longwu

1645 Prince Zhu Changfang

(Regent)

1645 - 1653 Prince Zhu Yihai

(Regent)

18 Nov 1646 - Apr 1662 Zhu Youlang

miaohao: Zhaozong/nianhao: Yongli

Dec 1646 - Jan 1647 Zhu Yuyue

nianhao: Shaowu

Shun Dynasty

08 Feb 1644 - 1645 Li Zicheng .............................. 1606-1645

nianhao: Chuang Wang

Qing (Aisin-Gioro) Dynasty

01 Oct 1644 - 05 Feb 1661 Fulin ................................... 1638-1661

miaohao: Shih Tsu/ shi: Zhang huangdi

nianhao: Shunzhi

07 Feb 1661 - 20 Dec 1722 Xuanye .................................. 1654-1722

miaohao: Sheng Tsu/ shi: Ren huangdi

nianhao: Kangxi

27 Dec 1722 - 08 Oct 1735 Yinzhen ................................. 1678-1735

miaohao: Shi Tsung/ shi: Xian huangdi

nianhao: Yongzhen

18 Oct 1735 - 09 Feb 1796 Hongli .................................. 1711-1796

miaohao: Kao Tsung/ shi: Chun huangdi

nianhao: Qianlong

09 Feb 1796 - 02 Sep 1820 Yongyan ................................. 1760-1820

miaohao: Jen Tsung/ shi: Rui huangdi

nianhao: Jiaqing

03 Oct 1820 - 25 Feb 1850 Minning ................................. 1782-1850

miaohao: Xuanzong/ shi: Cheng huangdi

nianhao: Daoguang

09 Mar 1850 - 22 Aug 1861 Yizhu ................................... 1831-1861

miaohao: Wenzong/ shi: Xian huangdi

nianhao: Xianfeng

22 Aug 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Regents

- Empress Dowager Cixi .................... 1835-1908

(1st Time)

- Empress Dowager Ci'an ................... 1837-1881

- Prince Kong

11 Nov 1861 - 12 Jan 1875 Zaichun ................................. 1856-1875

miaohao: Muzong/ shi: Yi hiangdi

nianhao: Tongzhi

12 Jan 1875 - 04 Mar 1889 Empress Dowager Cixi

(Regent, 2nd Time)

14 Nov 1875 - 14 Nov 1908 Zaitian ................................. 1871-1908

miaohao: Dezong/ shi: Jing huangdi

nianhao: Guangxu

21 Aug 1900 - 15 Nov 1908 Empress Dowager Cixi

(Regent (de facto), 3rd Time)

15 Nov 1908 - 31 Dec 1911 Prince Chun ............................. 1882-1951

(Regent)

02 Dec 1908 - 12 Feb 1912 Puyi .................................... 1906-1967

miaohao: Gongzong/ shi: Mindi

nianhao: Xuangtong (1st Time)

01 Jan 1909 - 12 Feb 1912 Empress Longyu Xiaoding ................. 1868-1913

(holder of the Imperial seal, acting)

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Yuan Shikai ............................. 1859-1916

nianhao: Hongxian

(Non-dynastic Emperor)

01 Jul - 12 Jul 1917 Puyi (2nd Time)

(Emperor within the Forbidden City to 1924)

 

Premiers (serving jointly)

06 Jan 1900 - 21 Jun 1907 Wang Wenshao ............................ 1830-1908

31 Jan 1902 - 18 Sep 1909 Sun Jianai .............................. 1827-1909

Oct 1903 - 16 Oct 1904 Jiangxin ................................ 18..-1908

09 Nov 1905 - 28 Oct 1906 Yüde .................................... 18..-1906

10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911 Shi Xu .................................. 1852-1921

10 Jan 1905 - 30 Oct 1911 Natong .................................. 1856-1925

10 Aug 1907 - 18 Sep 1909 Zhang Zhidong ........................... 1837-1909

06 Nov 1909 - 01 Sep 1910 Lu Zhuanlin ............................. 1836-1910

01 Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911 Lu Runyang .............................. 1841-1913

01 Sep 1910 - 30 Oct 1911 Xu Shichang ............................. 1858-1939

08 May - 01 Nov 1911 Yukiang, Prince Qing .................... 1839-1917

01 Nov - 31 Dec 1911 Yuan Shi-kai ............................ (s.a)

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Lu Zhengxiang ........................... 1871-1949

01 Jul - 12 Jul 1917 Duke Zhang Xun .......................... 1854-1923

 

 

Imperial Style: Huangdi, Bixia Da Qing Chao, Tianzi, Wansui "His Imperial Majesty

the Emperor of the Great Qing Dynasty, Son of Heaven, Lord of Ten Thousand Years".

_____________________________________________________________________________

 

Republic of China

10 Oct 1911 Republican revolution

01 Jan 1912 Republic of China

22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916 Great Empire of China

01 Jul - 12 Jul 1917 Brief restoration of Qing Empire

12 Jul 1917 - 02 Jun 1928 Warlord era

08 Dec 1949 - Defeated Nationalist government establishes itself in Taiwan

 

Military Governor

30 Nov - 31 Dec 1911 Li Yuanhung ............................ 1864-1928

Presidents

29 Dec 1911 - 10 Mar 1912 Sun Yat Sen ............................ 1866-1925

(provisional)

10 Mar 1912 - 06 Jun 1916 Yuan Shi-Kai ........................... (s.a)

(1st Time, provisional to 10 Oct 1913,

Emperor 22 Dec 1915 - 22 Mar 1916)

06 Jun 1916 - 01 Jul 1917 Li Yuanhong ............................ (s.a)

- Warlord China -

Presidents

17 Jul 1917 - 10 Oct 1918 Duke Feng Guozhang ..................... 1859-1919

10 Oct 1918 - 02 Jun 1922 Xu Xichiang ............................ 1855-1939

02 Jun - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi .............................. 1871-1923

(acting)

11 Jun 1922 - 13 Jun 1923 Li Yuanhong

13 Jun - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng ......................... 1879-1928

09 Jun - 10 Oct 1923 Gao Lingwei ............................ 1868-1943

10 Oct 1923 - 02 Nov 1924 Cao Kun ................................ 1862-1938

02 Nov - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu ............................... 1880-1936

24 Nov 1924 - 20 Apr 1926 Duan Qirui ............................. 1865-1936

20 Apr - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide ............................... 1863-1933

13 May - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing ............................ 1877-1950

22 Jun - 01 Oct 1926 Du Xigui ............................... 1874-1933

01 Oct 1926 - 17 Jun 1927 Gu Weijan .............................. 1887-1985

18 Jun 1927 - 02 Jun 1928 Zhang Zuolin ........................... 1873-1928

Premiers

13 Mar - 27 Jun 1912 Tang Shaoyi ............................ 1860-1938

29 Jun - 25 Sep 1912 Lu Cheng-hsiang ........................ 1870-1949

25 Sep 1912 - 01 May 1913 Zhao Bingjun ........................... 1859-1914

01 May - 31 Jul 1913 Duan Qirui (1st Time, acting) .......... s.a

31 Jul 1913 - 12 Feb 1914 Xiong Xiling ........................... 1870-1941

12 Feb - 30 Apr 1914 Sun Baoqi

(acting)

01 May 1914 - 22 Dec 1915 Xu Shichang (1st Time, acting) ......... s.a

22 Mar - 23 Apr 1916 Xu Shichang (2nd Time)

23 Apr 1916 - 23 May 1917 Tuan Qirui (2nd Time)

23 May - 28 May 1917 Wu Tingfang ............................ 1842-1922

28 May - 02 Jun 1917 Li Jingxi (1st time) ................... 1859-1925

02 Jun - 12 Jun 1917 Xu Shichang ............................ s.a

12 Jun - 24 Jun 1917 Jiang Chaozong ......................... 1861-1943

24 Jun - 01 Jul 1917 Li Jingxi (2nd time)

14 Jul - 30 Nov 1917 Duan Qirui (2nd time)

30 Nov 1917 - 23 Mar 1918 Weng Shizhen ........................... 1861-1930

23 Mar - 10 Oct 1918 Duan Qirui (3rd time)

10 Oct 1918 - 13 Jun 1919 Qian Nengxun ........................... 1869-1924

13 Jun - 24 Sep 1919 Gong Xinzhan ........................... 1869-1943

24 Sep 1919 - 14 May 1920 Jin Yunpeng ............................ 1877-1951

(1st Time, acting to 5 Nov 1919)

14 May - 09 Aug 1920 Sa Zhenbing ............................ 1859-1952

09 Aug 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Jin Yunpeng

(2nd time, acting)

18 Dec - 24 Dec 1921 Yan Huiqing (1st time)

24 Dec 1921 - 25 Jan 1922 Liang Shiyi ............................ 1869-1933

25 Jan - 08 Apr 1922 Yan Huiqing

(2nd time, acting)

08 Apr - 11 Jun 1922 Zhou Ziqi .............................. s.a

(acting)

11 Jun - 05 Aug 1922 Yan Huiqing (3rd time)

05 Aug - 29 Nov 1922 Wang Chonghui .......................... 1881-1958

29 Nov - 11 Dec 1922 Wang Daxie ............................. 1859-1929

(acting)

11 Dec 1922 - 04 Jan 1923 Wang Zhengting ......................... 1882-1961

04 Jan - 09 Sep 1923 Zhang Shaozeng ......................... s.a

09 Sep 1923 - 12 Jan 1924 Gao Lingwei ............................ s.a

(acting)

12 Jan - 14 Sep 1924 Sun Baoqi .............................. s.a

14 Sep - 31 Oct 1924 Yan Huiqing (4th time)

02 Nov - 24 Nov 1924 Huang Fu

(acting)

26 Dec 1925 - 04 Mar 1926 Xu Shiying ............................. 1873-1964

04 Mar - 20 Apr 1926 Jia Deyao .............................. 1881-1940

20 Apr - 13 May 1926 Hu Weide ............................... s.a

(acting)

13 May - 22 Jun 1926 Yan Huiqing (5th time)

22 Jun - 01 Oct 1926 Du Xigui ............................... s.a

(acting)

01 Oct 1926 - 18 Jun 1927 Gu Weijun .............................. s.a

(acting)

18 Jun 1927 - 02 Jun 1928 Pan Fu ................................. s.a

____________________________________________________________________________

- Nationalist China -

Generalissimo of the Military Government

10 Sep 1917 - 05 Jul 1918 Sun Yat-sen (1st Time) ................. s.a

21 Aug 1918 - 24 Oct 1920 Cen Chunxuan ........................... 1861-1933

24 Oct 1920 - 04 May 1921 Military Government

- Sun Yat-sen ............................ s.a

- Tang Shaoyi

- Wu Tingfang

- Tang Jiyao

Heads of State

05 May 1921 - 29 Jun 1922 Sun Yat-sen (2nd Time)

02 Mar 1923 - 12 Mar 1925 Sun Yat-sen (3rd Time)

12 Mar - 01 Jul 1925 Hu Hanmin .............................. 1879-1936

01 Jul 1925 - 15 Apr 1926 Wang Jingwei ........................... 1883-1944

(1st Time)

16 Apr 1926 - 29 Mar 1927 Tan Tankai (1st Time) .................. s.a

20 Mar - 13 Sep 1927 Wang Jingwei

(2nd Time, in Wuhan)

17 Sep 1927 - 10 Oct 1928 Tan Yankai (2nd Time)

10 Oct 1928 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek ........................ 1887-1975 KMT

(1st Time)

15 Dec 1931 - 01 Aug 1943 Lin Sen ................................ 1867-1943 KMT

01 Aug 1943 - 21 Jan 1949 Chiang Kai-shek (2nd Time)

Presidents

21 Jan 1949 - 28 Feb 1950 Li Tsung Jet ........................... 1890-1969 KMT

(In Taiwan from 08 Dec 1949)

01 Mar 1950 - 05 Apr 1975 Chang Kai-shek (3rd Time)

05 Apr 1975 - 20 May 1978 Yen Qai Kan ............................ 1905-1993 KMT

20 May 1978 - 13 Jan 1988 Chiang Ching-kuo ....................... 1910-1988 KMT

13 Jan 1988 - 20 May 2000 Lee Teng Hui ........................... 1923- KMT

20 May 2000 - 20 May 2008 Chen Shui Bian ......................... 1950- DP

20 May 2008 - 20 May 2016 Ma Yingjiu ............................. 1950- KMT

(Ma Ying-jeou)

20 May 2016 - Cai Yingwen ............................ 1956- DP

(Tsai Ying-wen)

Premiers

10 Oct 1928 - 22 Sep 1930 Tan Yankai ............................. s.a

22 Sep - 04 Dec 1930 Song Ziwen ............................. 1894-1971 KMT

04 Dec 1930 - 15 Dec 1931 Chiang Kai-shek (1st Time)

15 Dec - 28 Dec 1931 Chen Mingshu ........................... 1890-1965 KMT

28 Dec 1931 - 28 Jun 1932 Sun Fo ................................. 1895-1973 KMT

28 Jun 1932 - 07 Dec 1935 Wang Jingwei

07 Dec 1935 - 31 Dec 1937 Chiang Kai Shek (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1938 - 20 Nov 1939 Kong Xiangxi ........................... 1880-1967 KMT

20 Nov 1939 - 31 May 1945 Chiang Kai Shek (3rd Time)

01 Jun 1945 - 28 Feb 1947 Song Ziwen (2nd Time)

01 Mar - 18 Apr 1947 Chiang Kai Shek (4th Time)

18 Apr 1947 - 24 May 1948 Zhang Qun .............................. 1889-1990 KMT

24 May - 26 Nov 1948 Weng Wenhao ............................ 1889-1971 KMT

26 Nov 1948 - 12 Mar 1949 Sun Fo (2nd Time)

12 Mar - 03 Jun 1949 He Yingqin ............................. 1889-1987 KMT

03 Jun 1949 - 07 Mar 1950 Yan Xishan ............................. 1883-1960 KMT

(In Taiwan from 08 Dec 1949)

07 Mar 1950 - 07 Jun 1954 Chen Cheng (1st Time) .................. 1898-1965 KMT

07 Jun 1954 - 30 Jun 1958 Yu Hongjun ............................. 1897-1960 KMT

01 Jul 1958 - 15 Dec 1963 Chen Cheng (2nd Time)

15 Dec 1963 - 29 May 1972 Yen Chai-kan ........................... s.a KMT

29 May 1972 - 30 May 1978 Chiang Ching-kuo ....................... s.a KMT

30 May 1978 - 20 May 1984 Sun Yunxuan ............................ 1913-2006 KMT

20 May 1984 - 21 May 1989 Yu Guohua .............................. 1914-2000 KMT

21 May 1989 - 30 May 1990 Li Huan ................................ 1917-2010 KMT

30 May 1990 - 10 Feb 1993 Hau Pei-tsun ........................... 1919- KMT

10 Feb 1993 - 31 Aug 1997 Lien Chan .............................. 1936- KMT

01 Sep 1997 - 20 May 2000 Siew Wan-chang ......................... 1939- KMT

20 May - 06 Oct 2000 Tang Fei ............................... 1932- KMT

06 Oct 2000 - 31 Jan 2002 Chang Chun-hsiung (1st Time) ........... 1938- DP

01 Feb 2002 - 31 Jan 2005 Yu Shyi-kun ............................ 1948- DP

01 Feb 2005 - 25 Jan 2006 Hsieh Chang-tang ....................... 1946- DP

25 Jan 2006 - 21 May 2007 Su Tseng-chang ......................... 1947- DP

21 May 2007 - 20 May 2008 Chang Chun-hsiung (2nd Time)

20 May 2008 - 10 Sep 2009 Liu Zhaoxuan ........................... 1943- KMT

(Liu Chao-shiuan)

10 Sep 2009 - 06 Feb 2012 Wu Dunyi ............................... 1948- KMT

(Wu Den-yeh)

06 Feb 2012 - 18 Feb 2013 Chen Chong ............................. 1949- KMT

(Chen Chun)

18 Feb 2013 - 04 Dec 2014 Jiang Yihua ............................ 1960- KMT

(Jiang Yi-huah)

04 Dec 2014 - 01 Feb 2016 Mao Zhiguo ............................. 1948- KMT

(Mao Chi-kuo)

18 Jan - 20 May 2016 Zhang Shanzheng (Chang San-cheng) ...... 1954- KMT

(acting for Mao to 01 Feb 2016)

20 May 2016 - Lin Quan ............................... 1951- DP

(Lin Chuan)

DP=Democratic Progressive Party (Liberal, pro Taiwan independence)

KMT=Kuomintang (Nationalist, Conservative (formerly Socialist, Chinese unification)

 

Note: The Republic of China (1912-1949) was an unstable era where the central

government did not excercise full authority over the country. During the revolution

of 1911 the local warlords had seized control over the provinces where they were

based and ruled independently of the central government in Nanjing. In 1915

the former Qing statesman and warlord, Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor

of the Empire of China with the intention of starting his own ruling dynasty, however

this proclamation was soon rescinded due to overwhelming domestic opposition and a lack of foreign support. The accession rites planned for 01 January 1916 were never carried out, leading most historians to dismiss Yuan's 'empire' as an insignificant event.

 

In July 1917 a Qing loyalist warlord - Zhang Xun (1854-1923), captured Beijing and briefly made an attempt at restoring the imperial system. The 'Manchu restoration' was quickly quashed by government troops and was largly symbolic. The imperial household continued to maintain the imperial system withing the Forbiden City

until they were expelled by another warlord Feng Yuxiang (1882-1948) in 1924. Though the Kuomintang eventually succeded in passifying the various warlords, the republic never managed to establish absolute authority over China and continued to be faced by internal rebellions and foreign agression; culminating with Japanese invasion in 1937. After 1945 the Kuomintang gradually lost control over the mainland to the Communist insurgencey that had raged since the 1920s. The republican government relocated to the island of Taiwan in December 1949 where it has remained ever since, continuing to claim sovereignty over the mainland. The republic continued to hold China's U.N seat until 1971 and maintained U.S recognition as the legitimate government of China until 1979.

____________________________________________________________________________

People's Republic of China

01 Dec 1931 - 15 Nov 1934 Chinese Soviet Republic in Jiangxi

01 Oct 1949 - People's Republic of China

Government: People's Republic.

Capital: Beijing.

Language: Mandarin, Cantonese, Tibetan, Urgur, Mongolian, Manchu, Wu.

Religion: Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism, Islam, Christian.

National Anthem: "Yijongjun Jinxingqu" (March of the volunteers).

National Emblem:

National Day: 1st October, founding of the P.R.C (1949).

National Motto: None.

Currency: Yuan.

Chairmen of the Communist Party

20 Mar 1943 - 09 Sep 1976 Mao Tse-Tsung ........................... 1893-1976

07 Oct 1976 - 30 Jun 1981 Su Zhu Hua Guofeng ...................... 1921-2008

General Secretaries of the Communist Party

1956 - Jun 1966 Deng Xiaoping ........................... 1904-1997

(De facto leader 1978 - 1992)

1966 - 29 Feb 1980 Post abolished

29 Feb 1980 - 16 Jan 1987 Hu Yaobang .............................. 1915-1989

16 Jan 1987 - 24 Jun 1989 Zhao Ziyang ............................. 1919-2005

24 Jun 1989 - 15 Nov 2002 Jiang Zemin ............................. 1926-

15 Nov 2002 - 15 Nov 2012 Hu Jintao ............................... 1942-

15 Nov 2012 - Xi Jinping .............................. 1953-

 

Presidents

01 Oct 1949 - 27 Apr 1959 Mao Tse-Tsung ........................... (s.a)

27 Apr 1959 - 31 Oct 1968 Liu Xaoqi ............................... 1898-1969

31 Oct 1968 - 17 Jan 1975 Dong Biwu ............................... 1886-1975

31 Oct 1968 - 24 Feb 1972 Soong Qingling .......................... 1893-1981

(1st Time, co-president)

17 Feb 1975 - 06 Jul 1976 Zhu De .................................. 1886-1976

06 Jul 1976 - 05 Mar 1978 Soong Qingling (2nd Time)

05 Mar 1978 - 18 Jun 1983 Ye Jianying ............................. 1897-1986

16 May - 28 May 1981 Soong Qingling

(3rd Time, Honorary President)

18 Jun 1983 - 08 Apr 1988 Li Xiannain ............................. 1909-1992

08 Apr 1988 - 27 Mar 1993 Yang Xangkun ............................ 1907-1998

27 Mar 1993 - 15 Mar 2003 Jiang Zemin ............................. (s.a)

15 Mar 2003 - 14 Mar 2013 Hu Jintao ............................... (s.a)

14 Mar 2013 - Xi Jinping .............................. (s.a)

 

Premiers

01 Oct 1949 - 08 Jan 1976 Zhou Enlai .............................. 1898-1976

08 Jan 1976 - 10 Sep 1980 Hua Su Zhu Guofeng ...................... (s.a)

10 Sep 1980 - 24 Nov 1987 Zhao Zuyang ............................. (s.a)

24 Nov 1987 - 17 Mar 1998 Li Peng ................................. 1928-

17 Mar 1998 - 16 Mar 2003 Zhu Rongji .............................. 1928-

16 Mar 2003 - 15 Mar 2013 Wen Jiabao .............................. 1942-

15 Mar 2013 - Li Keqiang .............................. 1955-

 

_____________________________________________________________________________

Taiwan

c. 1200's First Chinese settlements

1403 - 1424 Ming dynasty explorations

1544 Visited by Portugal

26 Aug 1624 Southern Formosa a Dutch colony

07 Aug 1626 Chlung, Tanshui and Ilan a Spanish colony

25 Aug 1642 Taiwan a Dutch colony

01 Feb 1661 Independent Kingdom loyal to deposed Ming dynasty

27 Oct 1683 Occupied by China (annexed 27 May 1684)

08 May 1895 Ceded to Japan by China formally from 02 Jun 1895

26 May - 21 Oct 1895 Republic of Taiwan (in rebellion to Japan)

25 Oct 1945 Restored to China

08 Dec 1949 Republic of China government relocates to Taiwan

Kings

01 Feb 1661 - 23 Jun 1662 Cheng Ch'eng-kung ...................... 1624-1662

23 Jun - 30 Jun 1662 Cheng Shi-hsi

30 Jun 1662 - 17 Mar 1681 Cheng Ching ............................ 1642-1681

17 Mar - 19 Mar 1681 Cheng K'o-tsang ........................ 1664-1681

19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683 Cheng K'oshang ......................... 1670-1717

19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683 Cheng Tsung

(Regent)

19 Mar 1681 - 22 Sep 1683 Feng Xifan

(de facto regent)

Emperors

26 May - 30 Jul 1721 Chu Yi-gwe ............................. 1689-1721

Dec 1786 - 10 Feb 1788 Lin Tsuang-wen ......................... 1756-1788

nianhao: Shuntian

Presidents

24 May - 04 Jun 1895 Tang Qing Sung ......................... 1841-1903

04 Jun - 21 Oct 1895 Liu Yung Fu ............................ 1837-1917

____________________________________________________________________________

Manchuria (Manchukuo)

698 - 1644 Manchu realm

01 Oct 1644 United with Chinese Empire

01 Jan 1912 Part of China

21 May 1900 - 10 Mar 1905 Russian occupation

10 Mar 1905 - 15 Apr 1907 Japanese occupation

1916 - 29 Dec 1928 Warlord control

1922 Autonomy declared

29 Dec 1928 Reunified with China

18 Sep 1931 - 15 Aug 1945 Japanese occupation

09 Mar 1932 Great Manchu State

01 Mar 1934 Great Manchu Empire

15 Aug 1945 - May 1946 Under Soviet Occupation

Emperors

...-...

280-285 Yilu

285-290 ?

290-295 Yiluo

Liao Dynasty

926-927 T'ai Tsu

927-947 T'ai Tsung

947-951 Shih Tsung

951-969 Mu Tsung

969-982 Ching Tsung

982-1031 Sheng Tsung

1031-1055 Hsing Tsung

1055-1101 Tao Tsung

1101-1125 T'ien-Tsu Ti

Jin Dynasty

1115-1123 T'aizu Tsu

1123-1134 T'ai Tzong

1134-1149 Xizong I

1149-1161 Wanyan Liang

1161-1189 Xizong II

1189-1208 Zhiangzong

1208-1213 Wanyan Yongji

1213-1223 Xuanzong

1223-1234 Aizong

1234 Wanyan Chenglin

Jianzhou Dynasty

1405 Bukuri Yongson

1405-1433 Mengtemu

1433-1467 Cungsan

1467-1481 Tolo

1481-1522 Sibeoci Fiyanggu

1522-1542 Fuman

Later Jin (Qing) Dynasty

17 Feb 1616 - 30 Sep 1626 Nurhachu ............................... 1559-1626

20 Oct 1626 - 21 Sep 1643 Huang Taiji ............................ 1592-1643

08 Oct 1643 - 05 Feb 1661 Fulin .................................. (s.a)

(Shunzhi Emperor of China from 10 Oct 1644)

Military Governors

1922 - 07 Jun 1928 Zhang Zuolin ........................... 1873-1928

07 Jun 1928 - 18 Sep 1931 Zhang Xuelian .......................... 1901-2001

Japenese Military governor

18 Sep 1931 - 09 Mar 1932 Jiro Minami ............................ 1874-1957

Emperor (Qing Dynasty)

09 Mar 1932 - 15 Aug 1945 Pu-yi .................................. (s.a)

nianhao: Datong 1932-34, Kangde 1934-45

(Former Chinese Emperor,

Chief Executive 1932-1934)

Soviet Military Governor

15 Aug 1945 - May 1946 Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevskiy ..... 1895-1977

Premiers

09 Mar 1932 - 21 May 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu ........................... 1860-1938

21 May 1935 - 15 Aug 1945 Zhang Jinghui .......................... 1871-1959

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