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Nicaragua

12 Sep 1502 Discovered by Colombus, claimed for Aragon and Castille

1521 Named for the 'Nicarao' tribal leader Macuilmiquiztil

in the area Nic-Anahuac ("here at the lake")

1522 - 15 Sep 1821 Part of Guatemala, subordinated to New Spain

1661 - 12 Sep 1861 British protectorate over the Mosquito Coast

15 Sep 1821 Kingdom of Guatamala declares independence

12 Oct 1821 - 02 Jul 1823 Part of Mexican Empire

02 May 1823 - 30 Apr 1838 Part of Central American Federation

22 Apr 1825 State of Nicaragua

30 Apr 1854 Republic of Nicaragua

12 Sep 1861 Mosquito coast under Nicaraguan sovereignty

20 Nov 1894 Kingdom of Mosquito fully incorporated into Nicaragua

15 Sep 1896 - 30 Nov 1898 Part of an abortive attempt to re-establish the

Central American Federation

17 Nov 1909 - 03 Jan 1933 U.S Protectorate

Chiefs of State

11 Feb - 04 May 1824 José Justo Milla Pineda Arriago

10 Oct 1824 - 22 Apr 1825 Manuel Arzú y Nájera

22 Apr 1825 - 22 Apr 1826 Manuel Antonio de la Cerda y Aguilar

22 Apr 1826 - 14 Sep 1827 Juan Argüello del Castillo y Guzmán (1st Time)

14 Sep - Dec 1827 Pedro Oviedo de Chinandega

14 Sep - Dec 1827 José Anacleto Ordóñez

05 Aug 1828 - Apr 1829 Juan Argüello del Castillo y Guzmán (2nd Time)

Apr 1829 - 12 May 1830 Juan Espinosa

12 May 1830 - Nov 1833 José Dionisio de la Trinidad de Herrera

y Díaz del Valle

Nov 1833 - 10 Mar 1834 Benito Rosales

10 Mar 1834 - 23 Apr 1835 José Núñez (1st Time)

23 Apr 1835 - 25 Jan 1837 José Zepeda

25 Jan 1837 - 12 Jan 1838 José Núñez (2nd Time)

12 Jan - 13 Mar 1838 Francisco Jiménez Rubio

13 Mar 1838 - 23 Apr 1839 José Núñez (3rd Time)

Supreme Directors

23 Apr - 30 Jun 1839 Evaristo Rocha

30 Jun - 27 Jul 1839 Patricio Rivas (1st Time)

27 Jul - 20 Oct 1839 Joaquín del Cosío

20 Oct - 07 Nov 1839 Hilario Ulloa

07 Nov 1839 - 21 Sep 1840 Tomás Valladares

21 Sep 1840 - 04 Mar 1841 Patricio Rivas (2nd Time)

04 Mar 1841 - 01 Apr 1843 Pablo Sánchez de Buitrago Sandoval y Benavent

01 Apr - 31 May 1843 Juan de Dios Orozco

31 May 1843 - 04 Nov 1844 Manuel Pérez

04 Nov 1844 - 20 Jan 1845 Emiliano Madriz

20 Jan - 04 Apr 1845 Manuel Antonio Blas Sáenz

04 Apr 1845 - 12 Mar 1847 José León Sandoval

12 Mar - 06 Apr 1847 Miguel Ramón Morales

06 Apr 1847 - 31 Dec 1848 José María Guerrero de Acros y Molina

01 Jan - 08 Mar 1849 Toribio Terán Prado

08 Mar - 01 Apr 1849 Benito Rosales

01 Apr 1849 - 01 Apr 1851 Norberto Ramírez Areas

01 Apr - 05 May 1851 Justo Abaúnza y Muñzo de Avilés

(1st Time)

05 May - 04 Aug 1851 José Laureano Pineda Ugarte

(1st Time)

04 Aug - 11 Nov 1851 Justo Abaúnza y Muñzo de Avilés (2nd Time)

11 Nov 1851 - 01 Apr 1853 José Laureano Pineda Ugarte (2nd Time)

01 Apr 1853 - 12 Mar 1855 Fruto Chamorro Pérez

Presidents

12 Mar - 20 Mar 1855 Panciano Corral Acosta

20 Mar - 25 Oct 1855 José María Estrada

25 Oct 1855 - 24 Jun 1857 Patricio Rivas

24 Jun - 19 Oct 1857 Maximo José de Jesús Jerez y Telleria

19 Oct - 15 Nov 1857 Gregorio Juárez Sacasa

- Rosalio Cortés Sánchez

15 Nov 1857 - 01 Mar 1867 Tomás Martínez Guerrero

01 Mar 1867 - 01 Mar 1871 Fernando Guzmán Solórzano

01 Mar 1871 - 01 Mar 1875 José Vincent de la Quadra y Rui Lugo

01 Mar 1875 - 01 Mar 1879 Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro

01 Mar 1879 - 01 Mar 1883 Joaquín Zavala Solís (1st Time)

01 Mar 1883 - 01 Mar 1887 Adán Cardenas y del Castillo

01 Mar 1887 - 01 Aug 1889 Evaristo Carazo Aranda

01 Aug - 05 Aug 1889 Nicolás Osorno

05 Aug 1889 - 31 Dec 1890 Roberto Sacasa y Sarria (1st Time)

01 Jan - 01 Mar 1891 Ignacio Chavaz López

01 Mar 1891 - 11 Jul 1893 Roberto Sacasa y Sarria (2nd Time)

30 Apr - 20 May 1893 Eduardo Montiel (in disstance)

01 Jun - 15 Jul 1893 Salvador Machado Agüero

16 Jul - 30 Jul 1893 Joaquín Zavala Solís (2nd Time)

31 Jul 1893 - 21 Dec 1909 José Santos Zelaya López (2nd Time)

21 Dec 1909 - 20 Aug 1910 José Madriz Rodríguez

20 Aug - 27 Aug 1910 José Dolores Estrada Morales

27 Aug - 30 Aug 1910 Luis Mena Solórzano

30 Aug 1910 - 09 May 1911 Juan José Estrada Morales

09 May 1911 - 31 Dec 1916 Adolfo Díaz Recionos (1st Time)

01 Jan 1917 - 31 Dec 1920 Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (1st Time)

01 Jan 1921 - 12 Oct 1923 Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños

12 Oct - 27 Oct 1923 Rosendo Chamorro Oreamuno

27 Oct 1923 - 31 Dec 1924 Bartolomé Martínez González

01 Jan 1925 - 14 Mar 1926 Carlos José Solórzano Gutiérrez

14 Mar - 11 Nov 1926 Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (2nd Time)

11 Nov - 14 Nov 1926 Sebastián Uriza

14 Nov 1926 - 31 Dec 1928 Adolfo Díaz Recionos (2nd Time)

01 Jan 1929 - 31 Dec 1932 José María Moncada Tapia

01 Jan 1933 - 09 Jun 1936 Juan Bautista Sacasa Sacasa

09 Jun - 31 Dec 1936 Carlos Alberto Bredes Jarquín

01 Jan 1937 - 01 May 1947 Anastasio Somoza García .............................. 1896-1956

(1st Time)

01 May - 26 May 1947 Leonardo Argüello Barreto ............................ 1875-1947

26 May - 15 Aug 1947 Benjamín Lacayo Sacasa ............................... 1884-1959

15 Aug 1947 - 06 May 1950 Victor Manuel Román y Reyes .......................... 1873-1950

06 May - 07 May 1950 Manuel Fernando Zurita

(acting)

07 May 1950 - 29 Sep 1956 Anastasio Somoza García (2nd Time)

29 Sep 1956 - 01 May 1963 Luis Anastasio Somoza Debayle ........................ 1922-1967

01 May 1963 - 03 Aug 1966 René Schick Gutiérrez ................................ 1909-1966

03 Aug - 04 Aug 1966 Orlando Montenegro Medrano ........................... 1908-1988

04 Aug 1966 - 01 May 1967 Lorenzo Guerrero Gutiérrez ........................... 1900-1981

01 May 1967 - 30 Apr 1972 Anastasio Samoza Debayle ............................. 1925-1980

(1st Time)

01 May 1972 - 30 Nov 1974 National Goverment Junta

- Roberto Martínez Lacayo .............................. 1899-1984

- Fernando Bernabé Agüero Rocha ........................ 1920-2011

(To 28 Feb 1973)

- Edmundo Paguaga Irías ................................ 1923-2008

(To 28 Feb 1973)

- Alfonso Lovo Cordero ................................. 1927-

01 Dec 1974 - 17 Jul 1979 Anastasio Samoza Debayle (2nd Time)

17 Jul - 18 Jul 1979 Francisco Urcuyo Maliaños ............................ 1915-2001

Junta of National Reconstruction

18 Jul 1979 - 10 Jan 1985 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra .......................... 1945- FSLN

18 Jul 1979 - 19 Apr 1980 Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro ................... 1929-

(1st Time)

18 Jul 1979 - 22 Apr 1980 Luis Alfonso Robelo Callejas ......................... 1939-

18 Jul 1979 - 04 Mar 1981 Moisés Hassán Morales ................................ 1942-

18 Jul 1979 - 04 Mar 1981 Sergio Ramírez Mercado ............................... 1942- FSLN

18 May 1980 - 04 Mar 1981 Arturo José Cruz Porras .............................. 1923-2013 FSLN

18 May 1980 - 10 Jan 1985 Rafael Ángel Cordóva Rivas ........................... 1923-2009

Presidents

10 Jan 1985 - 25 Apr 1990 José Daniel Ortega Saavedra .......................... (s.a) FSLN

(1st Time)

25 Apr 1990 - 10 Jan 1997 Violeta Barrios Torres de Chamorro (2nd Time)

10 Jan 1997 - 10 Jan 2002 Arnoldo Arnoldo Alemán Lacayo ........................ 1946- PLC

10 Jan 2002 - 10 Jan 2007 Enrique José Baleñdos Geyer .......................... 1928- PLC

10 Jan 2007 - José Daniel Ortega Saavedra FSLN

(2nd Time)

Commanders of the US Forces

17 Nov 1909 - 31 May 1910 .....

01 Jun - 05 Sep 1910 Smedley D. Butler ................................... 1881-1940

23 Aug - 16 Dec 1912 Joseph H. Pendleton ................................. 1860-1942

16 Dec 1912 - 1913 Charles G. Long ..................................... 1869-1943

1917 - 16 Apr 1918 Hamilton D. South

1922 - 1924 John Marston VII

1924 - 03 Aug 1925 Ralph S. Keyser

20 Feb - 09 Mar 1927 Clark H. Woodward

09 Mar - Sep 1927 Logan Feland ........................................ 1869-1933

Sep 1927 - Jan 1928 Louis M. Gulick ..................................... 1879-1933

Jan 1928 - 26 Mar 1929 R.H Dunlap .......................................... 1879-1931

18 Apr 1929 - 18 Apr 1930 Dion Williams ....................................... 1869-1952

18 Apr 1930 - Nov 1931 Frederick L. Bradman ................................ 1879-1965

Nov 1931 - 03 Jan 1933 Randolphe C. Berkeley ............................... 1875-1960

Leaders of the Contras (In Miami, US, exile)

Dec 1979 - Nov 1984 Edgar Chamorro Coronel

1980 - Oct 1983 José Francisco Cardenal FDN

11 Aug 1981 - 15 May 1987 José Aristides Sánchez Herdocia ..................... 1943-1993 NR

1982 - 1990 Enrique Bermúdez Varela ............................. 1932-1991

Oct 1983 - May 1990 Adolfo Calero Portocarrero UNO

 

FDN=Fuerza Democrática Nicaragüense (Nicaraguan Democratic Forces, Right-wing, anti-Sandinistas)

FSLN=Frente Sandinista de Limeración Nacional (Sandinista National Liberation Front, Socialist)

NF=Resistencia Nicaragüense (Nicaraguan Resistance, Right-wing, anti-Sandinistas)

PLC=Partido Liberal Constitucionalist (Constitutional Liberal Party, Conservative)

UNO=Unidad Nicaragüense Opositora (United Nicaraguan Opposition, active 1985-87)

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Mosquito Nation

      

1661 Kingdom of Mosquitos in Nicaragua

       1668 De facto British Protectorate

16 Mar 1740 Formal British protectorate

14 Jul 1786 Great Britian recognised Spanish sovereignty

over the Mosquito coast

29 Aug 1789 - 04 Sep 1800 Attempted Spanish settlements

09 Apr 1844 British protectorate re-established

08 Feb 1848               British seize San Juan del Norde

28 Nov 1859 By the British-Honduran Treaty of Comayagua, Mosquito territory

in Honduras is annexed by Honduras

28 Jan 1860 By Treaty of Managua, Great Britains terminates protectorate

over the Kingdom

12 Sep 1861 Kingdom transformed into Mosquito Reservation under soveraeignty

of Nicaragua

06 Jul - 07 Aug 1894 U.S occupation

07 Aug 1894 Reservation abolished and fully incorporated into Nicaragua

 

Kings

1661 - 1677               Oldman I

1677 - 1686               Oldman II

1686 - 1720               Jeremy I

1720 - 1720               Jeremy II

1729 - 1739               Peter

1739 - 1755               Edward

1755 - 1776               George I

       1776 -    Oct 1800 George II Samuel

   Oct 1800 - 14 Nov 1815 Prince Steven (Regent)

14 Nov 1815 - 09 Mar 1824 George III

09 Mar 1824 - 08 Oct 1841 Robert Charles Frederick

08 Oct 1841 - 04 May 1843 Archibald Alexander Macdonald 

                          (Prince Regent)

04 May 1843 - 17 Apr 1845 Regency

                        - Prince Wellington

                       - Lowry Robinson

                        - Johnson

17 Apr 1845 - 27 Nov 1865 George IV Augustus Frederick ....................... 1832-1865

27 Nov 1865 - 23 May 1866 Henry Patterson

                          (Vice-President of the Council)

23 May 1866 - 05 May 1879 William Henry Clarence ............................. 1856-1879

05 May      - 17 Jun 1879 Charles Patterson

                          (Vice-President of the council)

17 Jun 1879 - 08 Nov 1888 George V William Albert Hendy

08 Nov 1888 - 08 Mar 1889 Charles Pattersom (2nd Time)

                          (Vice-President of the Council)

08 Mar 1889 - 11 Nov 1890 Jonathan Charles Frederick ......................... 1865-1890

11 Nov 1890 - 30 Jan 1891 Charles Patterson (3rd Time)

                          (Vice-President of the Council)

30 Jan 1891 - 07 Aug 1894 Robert Henry Clarence .............................. 1872-1908

 

Chairmen of the State Council

1846 - 1848               Patrick Walker

1848 - 1849               William Christie ................................... 1816-1874

Vice-Presidents of the Executive Council

13 Sep 1861 - 1879        Henry Patterson

       1879 - 07 Aug 1894 Charles Patterson

 

Note: Mosquito Nation was the east coast of Nicaragua only.

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