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Romania

... - 106 BC              Kingdom of Dacia

552 - 899                 Kingdom of Ghepids

1290                      Principality of Wallechia

1310                      Principality of Moldova

       1541               Moldavia and Walachia vassles of the Ottoman Empire

   May 1600 - 09 Aug 1601 Mihai I of Wallachia unites Moldavia, Transylvania and Wallachia

       1611 - 09 May 1877 Under Ottoman protectorate

05 Feb 1859               Union of the Danubian Principalities

23 Dec 1861               United Rumanian Principalities

09 May 1877               Independence from Ottoman Empire

26 Mar 1881               Kingdom of Rumania

06 Dec 1916 - 29 Nov 1918 Southern Rumania under Austro-Hungarian and German occupation

09 Apr 1918               Bessarabia incorporated into Rumania

01 Jan 1919               Bukovina incorporated into Rumania

11 Jan 1919               Transylvania incorporated into Rumania

27 Jun 1940               Bessarabia and Bukovina annexed by the USSR

30 Aug 1940 - 11 Mar 1945 Transilvania restored to Hungary

07 Sep 1940               Southern Dobruja ceded to Bulgaria

25 Jul 1941 - 24 Aug 1944 Bessarabia and Bukovina restored to Rumania

31 Aug 1944 - 10 Feb 1947 Soviet occupation

30 Dec 1947               People's Republic of Rumania

21 Aug 1965               Socialist Republic of Romania

       1966               English spelling officially changed to Romania

30 Dec 1989 -             România (Romania)

01 Jan 2007               Accession to the EU

Late Antiquity Romania

Kings of Dacia

Zalmoxis

Moskon

Dromichaetes

Rubobostes

Oroles

200-397 Rhemaxos

Dicomes

Rholes

Dapyx

Cotiso

Zyraxes

70-44 Burebista

44    Charnadon

44-28 Comosicus

Coson

68-87 Duras

87-106 Decebal

Kings of the Arvars

552-562 Kandik

562-602 Bayan I

602-617 Bayan II

Kings of the Ghepids

729-730 Surakat

791-795 Yugurus

795-803 Kajid Tundun

803-813 Zodan

813-814 Theodorius

814-830 Abraham

830-835 Isaac Tundun

835-899 Kursan

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Kingdom of Rumania

Capital: Bucharest.

Government: Constitutional Monarchy 1866-1930, 1944-45.

            Royal dictatorship 1930-40.

            Fascist dictatorship 1940-44.

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, Ukrainian, German.

Religions: Romanian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Protestant.

National Anthem: Trǎiascǎ Regele (Long live the King).

National Motto: Nihil Sine Deo (Nothing without God).

Currency: Leu.



Prince-Dominator of the Danuban Principalities

05 Feb 1859 - 23 Dec 1861 Cuza, Alexandru Ioan I ............................. 1820-1873

Princes

23 Dec 1861 - 23 Feb 1866 Cuza, Alexandru Ioan I ............................. s.a

23 Feb      - 22 May 1866 Princely Lieutenancy

                        - Nicolae Constantin Golescu ......................... 1810-1878

                        - Lascar Stefan Catargiu ............................. 1823-1899

                        - Nicolae Constantin Haralambie ...................... 1835-1908

22 May 1866 - 26 Mar 1881 Hohenzollern, Carol I .............................. 1839-1914

                          (Prinz Karl von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen)

Kings

26 Mar 1881 - 10 Oct 1914 Hohenzollern, Carol I .............................. s.a

10 Oct 1914 - 20 Jul 1927 Hohenzollern, Ferdinand I .......................... 1865-1927

                          (Prinz Ferdinand Viktor Albert Meinrad von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen)

                          (in internal exile at Iasi 03 Dec 1916 - 01 Dec 1918)

20 Jul 1927 - 08 Jun 1930 Hohenzollern, Mihai I (1st Time) ................... 1921-2017

20 Jul 1927 - 08 Jun 1930 Regency

                        - Gheorghe Buzdugan .................................. 1867-1929

                          (to 07 Oct 1929)

                        - Patriarch Miron Cristea ............................ 1868-1939

                        - Constantin Sǎrateanu ............................... 1882-1935

                          (from 07 Oct 1929)

                        - Hohenzollern, Principele Nicolae al României ....... 1903-1978

08 Jun 1930 - 06 Sep 1940 Hohenzollern, Carol II ............................. 1893-1953

06 Sep 1940 - 30 Dec 1947 Hohenzollern, Mihai I (2nd Time)



Prime Ministers

23 Dec 1861 - 15 Feb 1862 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi ........................ 1805-1873

15 Feb      - 08 Jun 1862 Baru Catargiu ...................................... 1807-1862

08 Jun      - 24 Jun 1862 Apóstolos Arsákis  ................................. 1792-1874

24 Jun 1862 - 24 Oct 1863 Nicolae Cretzulescu (1st Time) ..................... 1812-1900

24 Oct 1863 - 26 Jan 1865 Mihail Kogalniceanu ................................ 1817-1891

26 Jan      - 14 Jun 1865 Constantin Bosianu ................................. 1815-1882

14 Jun 1865 - 15 Jul 1866 Nicolae Cretzulescu (2nd Time)

24 May      - 24 Jul 1866 Lascǎr Stefan Catargiu ............................. (s.a)

15 Jul      - 16 Jul 1866 Constantin Alexandru Rosetti ....................... 1816-1885

24 Jul 1866 - 13 Mar 1867 Prince Ion Ghica (1st Time) ........................ 1817-1898

13 Mar      - 26 Nov 1867 Constantin Alexandru Cretulescu .................... 1809-1884

26 Nov 1867 - 12 May 1868 Stefan Golescu ..................................... 1809-1874

12 May      - 28 Nov 1868 Nicolae Constantin Golescu

28 Nov 1868 - 14 Nov 1870 Prince Dimitrie Ghica .............................. 1816-1897

14 Nov      - 01 May 1870 Alexandru Gheorghe Golescu ......................... 1819-1881

01 May      - 26 Dec 1870 Manolache Costache Epureanu (1st Time) ............. 1824-1880

26 Dec 1870 - 24 Mar 1871 Prince Ion Ghica (2nd Time)

24 Mar 1871 - 17 Apr 1876 Lascǎr Catargiu (2nd Time)

17 Apr      - 06 May 1876 Emanoil Ion Florescu ............................... 1819-1893

06 May      - 05 Aug 1876 Manolache Costache Epureanu (2nd Time)

05 Aug 1876 - 19 Apr 1881 Ion Constantin Brǎtianu (1st Time) ................. 1821-1891

19 Apr      - 21 Jun 1881 Dumitru Constanin Bratianu ......................... 1818-1892

21 Jun 1881 - 13 Apr 1888 Ion Constantin Brǎtianu (2nd Time)

13 Apr 1888 - 11 Apr 1889 Theodor Rosetti .................................... 1837-1923

11 Apr 1889 - 02 Mar 1891 Gheorghe Manu ...................................... 1833-1911

02 Mar      - 29 Dec 1891 Manolache Costache Epureanu (3rd Time)

29 Dec 1891 - 15 Oct 1895 Prince Ion Ghica (3rd Time)

15 Oct 1895 - 02 Dec 1896 Prince Dimitrie Alexandru Strudza-Miclǎusanu ....... 1832-1913

                          (1st Time)

02 Dec 1896 - 12 Apr 1897 Petrie Stefan Aurelian ............................. 1833-1909

12 Apr 1897 - 23 Apr 1899 Dimitrie Alexandru Strudza-Miclǎusanu

                          (2nd Time)

23 Apr 1899 - 19 Jul 1900 Count Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino ................. 1832-1913

19 Jul 1900 - 27 Feb 1901 Count Petre Petrache Carp (1st Time) ............... 1837-1919

27 Feb 1901 - 04 Jan 1906 Dimitrie Alexandru Strudza-Miclǎusanu

                          (3rd Time)

04 Jan 1906 - 24 Mar 1907 Count Printul Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino

                          (2nd Time)

24 Mar 1907 - 09 Jan 1909 Dimitrie Alexandru Strudza-Miclǎusanu

                          (4th Time)

09 Jan 1909 - 14 Jan 1911 Ion Ionel Constantin Bratianu ...................... 1864-1927

                          (1st Time)

14 Jan 1911 - 10 Apr 1912 Count Petre Petrache Carp (2nd Time)

14 Jan 1912 - 15 Jan 1914 Titu Liviu Maiorescu ............................... 1840-1817

15 Jan 1914 - 09 Feb 1918 Ion Ionel Constantin Brǎtianu

                          (2nd Time)

09 Feb      - 15 Mar 1918 Alexandru Averescu (1st Time) ...................... 1859-1938

15 Mar      - 24 Oct 1918 Alexandru Maghiloman ............................... 1854-1925

24 Oct      - 14 Dec 1918 Constantin Coandǎ .................................. 1857-1932

14 Dec 1918 - 01 Oct 1919 Ion Ionel Constantin Brǎtianu

                          (3rd Time)

01 Oct      - 09 Dec 1919 Artur Vǎitoianu .................................... 1864-1956

09 Dec 1919 - 19 Mar 1920 Alexandru Vaida-Voievod ............................ 1872-1950

19 Mar 1920 - 18 Dec 1921 Alexandru Averescu (2nd Time)

18 Dec 1921 - 19 Jan 1922 Dumitru Tache Ionescu .............................. 1858-1922

19 Jan 1922 - 30 Mar 1926 Ion Ionel Constantin Brǎtianu

                          (4th Time)

30 Mar 1926 - 04 Jun 1927 Alexandru Averescu (3rd Time)

04 Jun      - 21 Jun 1927 Barbu Alexandru Stirbei ............................ 1872-1946

21 Jun      - 24 Nov 1927 Ion Ionel Constantin Brǎtianu

                          (5th Time)

24 Nov 1927 - 11 Nov 1928 Vintilǎ Ion Constantin Brǎtianu .................... 1867-1930

11 Nov 1928 - 08 Jun 1930 Iuliu Maniu (1st Time) ............................. 1873-1953

10 Oct 1930 - 19 Apr 1931 Gheorghe Grigori Mironescu ......................... 1874-1949

19 Apr 1931 - 06 Jun 1932 Nicolae N. Iorga ................................... 1871-1940

06 Jun      - 19 Oct 1932 Alexandru Averescu (3rd Time)

19 Oct 1932 - 14 Jan 1933 Iuliu Maniu (2nd Time)

14 Jan      - 14 Nov 1933 Alexandru Averescu (4th Time)

14 Nov      - 29 Dec 1933 Ion Gheorghe Duca .................................. 1879-1933

29 Dec 1933 - 03 Jan 1934 Constantin Angelescu ............................... 1869-1948

03 Jan 1934 - 28 Dec 1937 Gheorghe Ion Tǎtǎrascu (1st Time) .................. 1886-1957

28 Dec 1937 - 11 Feb 1938 Octavian Goga ...................................... 1881-1938

11 Feb 1938 - 06 Mar 1939 Patriach Miron Elie Cristea of All Romania ......... 1868-1939

06 Mar      - 21 Sep 1939 Armand Cǎlinescu ................................... 1893-1939

21 Sep      - 28 Sep 1939 Gheorghe Argesanu .................................. 1883-1940

28 Sep      - 24 Nov 1939 Constantin Argetoianu .............................. 1870-1952

24 Nov 1939 - 04 Jul 1940 Gheorghe Ion Tǎtarǎscu (2nd Time)

04 Jul      - 04 Sep 1940 Ion Gigurtu ........................................ 1886-1959

04 Sep 1940 - 23 Aug 1944 Ion Victor Antonescu ............................... 1882-1946 Mil

                          (Conducǎtor 'Leader' of Romania)

23 Aug      - 02 Dec 1944 Constantin Sǎnǎtescu ............................... 1885-1947 Mil

26 Aug 1944 - 12 Apr 1945 Horia Sima ......................................... 1907-1993

                          (in opposition in Vienna)

02 Dec 1944 - 06 Mar 1945 Nicolae Rǎdescu .................................... 1874-1953

06 Mar 1945 - 30 Dec 1947 Dr. Petru Adam Groza ............................... 1884-1958 PCR



Style of the Monarch 1881-1947: Prin graţia lui Dumnezeu şi voinţa naţională,

Rege al Românilor ("By the Grace of the God and by the Will of the Nation, King of the Romanians") Fürst von Hohenzollen-Sigmaringen ("Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen").

Crown Prince Michael was styled Marele Voievod de Alba Iulia (Grand Voivod of Alba Iulia).


Orders and Decorations: Ordinul Carol I (Order of Charles I).

                        Ordinul Steaua României (Order of the Star of Rumania).

                        Ordinul Coroana (Order of the Crown).

                        Ordinul Mihai Viteazul (Order of Michael the Brave).

________________________________________________________________________________________

Socialist Republic of Romania

30 Dec 1947               People's Republic of Romania

21 Aug 1965               Socialist Republic of Romania


Capital: Bucharest.

Government: Communist one party state.

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German.

Religions: Romanian Orthodox, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Protestant.

National Anthem: Zdrobite cătușe ("Broken shackles" [1948-53]), "Te slăvim, Românie"

                 ("We Glorify thee, Romania" [1953-77]), "Trei culori" ("Three colours")

National Motto: Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă! (Workers of the world, unite!)

Currency: Leu.

 

General Secretary of the Romanian Workers Party

   Aug 1944 - 20 Apr 1954 Gheorghe Tanase Gheorghiu-Dej ...................... 1901-1965

First Secretaries of the Romanian Workers Party

20 Apr 1954 - 30 Sep 1955 Gheorghe Apostol ................................... 1913-2010

30 Sep 1955 - 19 Mar 1965 Gheorghe Tanase Gheorghiu-Dej (2nd Time)

General Secretary of the Communist Party of Romania

19 Mar 1965 - 22 Dec 1989 Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu .......................... 1918-1989



Chairmen of the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly

30 Dec 1947 - 02 Jun 1952 Dr. Constantin Ion Parhon .......................... 1874-1969 PCR

                          (provisional to 13 Apr 1948)

02 Jun 1952 - 07 Jan 1958 Dr. Petru Adam Groza ............................... 1884-1958 PCR

11 Jan 1958 - 21 Mar 1961 Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maurer .......................... 1902-2000 PCR

Presidents of the State Committee

21 Mar 1961 - 19 Mar 1965 Gheorghe Tanase Georghiu-Dej ....................... (s.a)

24 Mar 1965 - 09 Dec 1967 Chivu Stoica ....................................... 1908-1975 PCR

09 Dec 1967 - 28 Mar 1974 Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu .......................... (s.a)

Presidents

28 Mar 1974 - 22 Dec 1989 Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu .......................... (s.a)

22 Dec      - 30 Dec 1989 Council of National Salvation Front

30 Dec 1989 - 13 Feb 1990 Ion Alexandru Iliescu .............................. 1930-     FNS

                          (Chairman of the National Salvation Front)


 

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers

01 Jan 1948 - 02 Jun 1952 Dr. Petru Adam Groza ............................... (s.a)

02 Jun 1952 - 02 Oct 1955 Gheorghe Tanase Gheorghiu-Dej ...................... (s.a)

02 Oct 1955 - 21 Mar 1961 Chivu Stoica ....................................... (s.a)

21 Mar 1961 - 29 Mar 1974 Ion Gheorghe Iosif Maure ........................... (s.a)

29 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1979 Manea Mǎnescu ...................................... 1916-2009 PCR

29 Mar 1979 - 21 May 1982 Ilie Verdet ........................................ 1925-2001 PCR

21 May 1982 - 22 Dec 1989 Constantin Dǎscǎlescu .............................. 1923-2003 PCR

22 Dec      - 26 Dec 1989 Vacant


PCR=Partidul Comunist Român (Romanian Communist Party, Communist only legal party 1948-89,

dissolved 1990).

FSN=Frontul Salvării Naționale (National Salvation Front, social-democratic, anti-

Ceausescu, dissident PCR, dissolved 1993).

________________________________________________________________________________________

Romania

Government: Republic.

Capital: Bucharesti.

Language: Romanian, Hungarian, German, Bulgarian, Serbian.

National Anthem: "Desteaptate Romane" (Wake up Romanians).

National Emblem: Gold Eagle.

National Day: 1st December Unification day (1918), 9th May independence day, from Turkey (1877).

National Motto: None: Formerly, Nihil Sine Deo(Nothing without God).

EU Accession: 1st January 2007.

Currency: Leu.


Presidents

13 Feb 1990 - 29 Nov 1996 Ion Alexandru Iliescu (1st Time) ................... 1930-      FSN

                          (acting to 22 May 1990)

30 Nov 1996 - 20 Dec 2000 Emil Ion Constantinescu ............................ 1939-

20 Dec 2000 - 20 Dec 2004 Ion Alexandru Iliescu (2nd Time)

20 Dec 2004 - 20 Dec 2014 Traian Dumitru Bǎsescu ............................. 1951-

20 Apr      - 23 May 2007 Nicolae Vǎcǎriou ................................... 1943-

                          (acting for suspended Basescu)

10 Jul      - 28 Aug 2012 Gheorghe-Crin-Laurentiu Antonescu .................. 1959-

                          (acting for suspended Babescu)

20 Dec 2014 -             Klaus Werner Iohannis .............................. 1959-



Prime Ministers

26 Dec 1989 - 01 Oct 1991 Petre Roman ........................................ 1946-      FSN

01 Oct 1991 - 04 Nov 1992 Theodor Dumitru Stolojan ........................... 1943-

04 Nov 1992 - 12 Dec 1996 Nicolae Vǎcǎroui ................................... (s.a)

12 Dec 1996 - 30 Mar 1998 Victor Ciobea ...................................... 1954-

30 Mar      - 17 Apr 1998 Gavril Dejeu ....................................... 1932-

17 Apr 1998 - 14 Dec 1999 Radu Vasile ........................................ 1942-2013

14 Dec      - 22 Dec 1999 Alexandru Athanasiu ................................ 1955-

22 Dec 1999 - 28 Dec 2000 Constantin Mugur Isǎrescu .......................... 1949-

28 Dec 2000 - 21 Dec 2004 Adrien Nǎstase ..................................... 1950-

29 Dec 2004 - 22 Dec 2008 Cǎlin-Constantin-Anton Popescu-Tǎriceanu ........... 1952-

22 Dec 2008 - 06 Feb 2012 Emil Boc ........................................... 1966-

06 Feb      - 09 Feb 2012 Cǎtǎlin Marian Prediou ............................. 1968-

                          (interim)

09 Feb      - 07 May 2012 Mihai Rǎzvan Ungureanu ............................. 1968-

07 May 2012 - 05 Nov 2015 Victor-Viorel Ponta ................................ 1972-

05 Nov      - 17 Nov 2015 Sorin Mihai Cîmpeanu ............................... 1968-

                          (interim)

17 Nov 2015 - 04 Jan 2017 Dacian Julien Cioloş ............................... 1969-

04 Jan      - 30 Jun 2017 Sorin Grindeanu .................................... 1973-

30 Jun 2017 - 16 Jan 2018 Mihai Tudose ....................................... 1967-

16 Jan      - 29 Jan 2018 Mihai Viorel Fifor ................................. 1970-

                          (interim)

29 Jan 2018 -             Vasilica Viorica Dăncilă ........................... 1963-


________________________________________________________________________________________

Moldova

c.1247                    Principality of Maldavia

26 Sep 1387               Under Polish suzerainty

09 Jun 1456 - 1471        Ottoman tributary

12 Jul 1475 - 1479        Under Hungarian suzerainty

1479 - 1485               Ottoman tributary

15 Sep 1485 - 1489        Under Polish suzerainty

   Jun 1541 - 09 May 1877 Vassal of the Ottoman Empire

       1595               End of hereditary Monarchy

   May 1600 - 09 Aug 1601 United with Wallachia under Mihai the Great

14 Sep 1739 - 16 Sep 1854 Intermittent Russian occupation

28 May 1812               Bessarabia annexed by Russia

19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856 Austrian occupation

05 Feb 1859               United with Wallachia as the Danuban Principalities

23 Dec 1861               To Romania thereafter

 

Princes

1247                      Olaha

12..                      Costea

1352 - 1354               Litovoi, Dragoș Vodă

1354 - 1358               Litovoi, Sas

1358 - 1359               Litovoi, Bâlc

1359 - 1365               Muşat, Bogdan I "Întemeietorul"

1365 - 1373               Muşat, Latcu

1367 - 1368               Muşat, Petru I

                          (co-ruler)

1373 - 1375               Muşat, Costea

1375 - 1391               Muşat, Petru II Muşat

1391 - 1394               Muşat, Roman I

1394 - 1399               Muşat, Stefan I

28 Nov 1399 - 29 Jun 1400 Muşat, Iuga (Gheorghe)

29 Jun 1400 - 01 Jan 1432 Muşat, Alexandru I "cel Bun"

02 Aug 1414 - 02 Nov 1433 Muşat, Ilias I

                          (co-ruler to 01 Jan 1432)

   Sep 1434 - 04 Aug 1435 Muşat, Stefan II (1st Time)

04 Aug 1435 - 01 Aug 1442 Muşat, Ilias I

                          (2nd Time, co-ruler)

   May 1444 - 1445        Muşat, Petru III

                          (1st Time, co-ruler)

05 Aug 1445 - 13 Jul 1447 Muşat, Stefan II (2nd Time)

   Apr      -    Jul 1447 Muşat, Petru III (2nd Time)

13 Jul 1447 - 23 Feb 1448 Muşat, Roman II

23 Feb      - 10 Oct 1448 Muşat, Petru III (3rd Time)

10 Oct      -    Dec 1448 Csupor de Monoszló

                          (acting)

   Dec 1448 - 12 Oct 1449 Muşat, Alexǎndru II (1st Time)

12 Oct 1449 - 17 Oct 1451 Muşat, Bogdan II

17 Oct 1451 - 24 Feb 1452 Muşat, Petru VI Aron (1st Time)

24 Feb 1452 - 24 Aug 1454 Muşat, Alexǎndru II (2nd Time)

22 Aug 1454 - 08 Feb 1455 Muşat, Petru III Aron (2nd Time)

08 Feb      - 25 May 1455 Muşat, Alexǎndru (3rd Time)

25 May 1455 - 12 Apr 1457 Muşat, Petru III (3rd Time)

14 Apr 1457 - 02 Jul 1504 Muşat, Stefan III "cel Mare"

02 Jun 1504 - 20 Apr 1517 Muşat, Bogdan III

20 Apr 1517 - 14 Jan 1527 Muşat, Stefan IV

20 Jan 1527 - 18 Sep 1538 Muşat, Petru V Rares (1st Time)

18 Sep 1538 - 20 Dec 1540 Muşat, Stefan V "Lǎcustǎ"

20 Dec 1540 - 19 Feb 1541 Muşat, Alexandru III Cornea

19 Feb 1541 - 03 Sep 1546 Muşat, Petru V (2nd Time)

03 Sep 1546 - 11 Jun 1551 Muşat, Ilias II

11 Jun 1551 - 01 Sep 1552 Muşat, Stefan VI

04 Sep      - 12 Sep 1552 Ion I Joldea

12 Sep 1552 - 30 Nov 1561 Muşat, Alexandru IV Lǎpusneanu (1st Time)

18 Nov 1561 - 09 Nov 1563 Irakleidis, Ion II Iacob

                          (Iaonnis Iakovos Irakleidis)

08 Aug 1563 - 10 Mar 1564 Ștefan VII Tomșa

                          (Stefan VII Tomża; in distance to 09 Nov 1563)

10 Mar 1564 - 09 Mar 1568 Muşat, Alexandru IV Lǎpusneanu (2nd Time)

09 Mar 1568 - 15 Feb 1572 Muşat, Bogdan IV Lǎpusneanu

09 Mar 1568 - 21 Nov 1570 Ruxandra Lăpușneanu

                          (regent)

15 Feb 1572 - 11 Jun 1574 Muşat, Ioan III "cel Cumplit"

11 Jun 1574 - 23 Nov 1577 Drăculești, Petru VI "Schiopul (1st Time)

23 Nov      - 31 Dec 1577 Pidkova, Ion IV Potcoavǎ

                          (Ivan Pidkova)

01 Jan 1578 - 21 Nov 1579 Drăculești, Petru VI (2nd Time)

21 Nov 1579 - 28 Aug 1582 Weiss, Ion (Iancu) V "Sasul"

                          (Jürgen Weiss)

17 Oct 1583 - 19 Aug 1591 Drăculești, Petru VI (3rd Time)

26 Dec 1591 - 25 Jun 1592 Muşat, Aron "Tiranul" (1st Time)

25 Jun      -    Aug 1592 Muşat, Alexandru V "cel Rǎu"

   Aug      - 24 Oct 1592 Muşat, Petru VII "Cazacul"

24 Oct 1592 - 03 May 1595 Muşat, Aron "Tiranul" (2nd Time)

03 May      - 01 Sep 1595 Rǎzvan, Stefan VIII (1st Time)

01 Sep 1595 - 16 May 1600 Movilesti, Ieremia I (1st Time)

16 May      - 09 Aug 1600 Drăculești, Mihai I "Viteazul"

09 Aug 1601 - 10 Jul 1606 Movilesti, Ieremia I (2nd Time)

10 Jul 1606 - 24 Sep 1607 Movilesti, Simon (1st Time)

24 Sep      -    Oct 1607 Movilesti, Mihai II

   Dec 1607 -    Nov 1611 Movilesti, Constantin I

20 Nov 1611 - 22 Nov 1615 Tomsa, Stefan IX (1st Time)

22 Nov 1615 - 02 Aug 1616 Movilesti, Alexandru III

24 Jun 1616 - 09 Feb 1619 Drăculești, Radu I Mihnea (1st Time)

09 Feb 1619 - 20 Sep 1620 Gaspar Grazziani

20 Sep 1620 - 15 Oct 1621 Muşat, Alexandru IV (1st Time)

15 Oct 1621 -    Aug 1623 Tomsa, Stefan VIII (2nd Time)

04 Aug 1623 - 20 Jan 1626 Drăculești, Radu I Mihnea (2nd Time)

13 Jan 1626 -    Jul 1629 Barnovschi-Movilǎ, Miron I (1st Time)

30 Aug 1629 - 28 Apr 1630 Coconul, Alexandru III The Child

28 Apr 1630 -    Nov 1631 Movilǎ, Moise I (1st Time)

05 Dec 1631 - 27 Apr 1633 Llias, Alexandru IV (2nd Time)

   Apr      - 02 Jul 1633 Barnovschi-Movilǎ, Miron I (2nd Time)

02 Jul 1633 - 27 Apr 1634 Movilǎ, Moise I (2nd Time)

27 Apr 1634 - 13 Apr 1653 Lupu, Vasile

13 Apr 1653 - 13 Mar 1658 Stefan, Gheorghe I

13 Mar 1658 - 02 Nov 1659 Ghica, Gheorghe II

02 Nov      - 20 Nov 1659 Seban, Constantin II

01 Dec 1659 - 29 Sep 1661 Lupu, Stefan VIII

29 Sep 1661 - 11 Sep 1665 Dabjia, Eustratie

11 Sep 1665 - 24 May 1666 Duca, Gheorghe III (1st Time)

21 May 1666 - 08 Nov 1668 Llian, Alexandru V

08 Nov 1668 - 10 Aug 1672 Duca, Gheorghe III (2nd Time)

20 Aug 1672 - 20 Nov 1673 Petriceicu, Stefan IX (1st Time)

20 Nov 1673 -    Dec 1675 Cantacuzino, Dumitraecu I (1st Time)

   Dec 1675 -    Feb 1674 Petriceicu, Stefan IX (2nd Time)

   Feb 1674 - 10 Nov 1675 Cantacuzino, Dumitraecu I (2nd Time)

10 Nov 1675 - 06 Dec 1678 Ruset, Antonie I

06 Dec 1678 - 25 Dec 1683 Duca, Gheorghe III (3rd Time)

25 Dec 1683 - 29 Mar 1684 Petriceicu, Stefan IX (3rd Time)

29 Mar 1684 -    Jun 1685 Cantacuzino, Dumitraecu I (3rd Time)

25 Jun 1685 - 27 Mar 1693 Cantemir, Constantin III

   Apr 1693 - 18 Dec 1695 Constantin Gheorgh Duca (1st Time)

18 Dec 1695 - 25 Sep 1700 Cantemir, Antioh II

25 Sep 1700 - 26 Jun 1703 Constantin Gheorgh Duca (2nd Time)

26 Jun      - 20 Nov 1703 Ioan Buhus (1st Time)

   Sep 1703 - 23 Feb 1705 Mihai Ioan Racovitǎ (1st Time) ..................... 167.-1744

23 Feb 1705 - 31 Jul 1707 Duca, Constantin IV (3rd Time)

31 Jul 1707 - 05 Feb 1710 Ioan Buhus (2nd Time)

05 Feb      - 04 Dec 1710 Nicolae I Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati ........... 1680-1730

                          (1st Time)

04 Dec 1710 - 22 Jul 1711 Dimitrie Cantemir .................................. 1673-1723

19 Nov 1711 - 05 Jan 1716 Nicolae I Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd Time)

05 Jan 1716 - 06 Oct 1726 Matei Ioan Racovitǎ (2nd Time)

07 Oct 1726 - 16 Apr 1733 Grigore Matei Ghica (1st Time) ..................... 1690-1752

16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (1st Time) ......... 1711-1769

27 Nov 1735 - 24 Sep 1741 Grigore Matei Ghica, (2nd Time)

24 Sep 1741 - 31 Jul 1743 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd Time)

01 Aug 1743 -    May 1747 Ioan Nicolea Mavrocordat-Scarlati .................. 1712-1737

   May 1747 -    Apr 1748 Grigore Matei Ghica (3rd Time)

   Apr 1748 - 31 Aug 1749 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (3rd Time)

01 Sep 1749 - 03 Jul 1753 Racovitǎ, Constantin VI (1st Time)

03 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756 Ghica, Matei I Grigore ............................. 1715-1761

19 Feb 1756 - 13 Mar 1757 Constantin Racovitǎ (2nd Time)

14 Mar 1757 - 14 Aug 1758 Scarlet Grigore Ghica

14 Aug 1758 - 06 Jun 1761 Ioan Teodor Callimachi ............................. 1700-1762

08 Jun 1761 - 29 Mar 1764 Grigore Callimachi (1st Time) ...................... 1723-1769

29 Mar 1764 - 03 Feb 1767 Grigore Aleksandru Ghica (1st Time) ................ 1724-1777

03 Feb 1767 - 14 Jun 1769 Grigore Callimachi (2nd Time)

30 Jun      - 15 Dec 1769 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (4th Time)

18 Nov 1771 - 14 Oct 1774 Andrey Ivanovich von Meder

                          (Russian military administrator)

14 Oct 1774 - 12 Oct 1777 Grigore Ioan Ghica (2nd Time)

12 Oct 1777 - 09 Jun 1782 Constantin Dimitrie Moruzi ......................... 1730-1787

09 Jun 1782 - 12 Jan 1785 Aleksandru Constantin Mavrocorgat .................. 1742-1812

12 Jan 1785 - 14 Dec 1786 Aleksandru Ioan Mavrocorgat ........................ 1754-1819

14 Dec 1786 - 19 Apr 1788 Alexandru Ioan Ipsiliantii ......................... 1726-1807

   Oct 1788 -    Mar 1792 Graf Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov ................. 1729-1800

                          (Russian military administrator in the North)

   Oct 1788 - 14 Oct 1790 Friedrich Josias Prinz von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfield  1737-1815

                          (Habsburg military administrator in the South)

1788 - 1790               Franz Maria Freiherr von Thugut .................... 1736-1818

                          (Habsburg administrator-general)

   Mar 1792 - 10 Jan 1793 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi (1st Time) ............. 1750-1816

10 Jan 1793 - 06 May 1795 Mihai Constantin Sutu .............................. 1730-1803

06 May 1795 - 18 Mar 1799 Alexandru Ion Callimachi ........................... 1737-1821

18 Mar 1799 - 10 Jul 1801 Constantin Alexandru Ipsilanti ..................... 1760-1816

10 Jul 1801 - 01 Oct 1802 Alexandru Nicolae Sutu ............................. 1751-1821

09 Nov 1802 - 24 Aug 1806 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi (2nd Time)

24 Aug      - 15 Oct 1806 Callimachi, Scarlet II (1st Time) .................. 1773-1821

15 Oct 1806 - 19 Mar 1807 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi (2nd Time)

19 Mar      - 05 Aug 1807 Alexandru Hangerli

08 Sep 1812 - 02 Jul 1819 Scarlet Callimachi (2nd Time)

24 Jun 1819 - 10 Apr 1821 Mihai Grigore Sutu ................................. 1784-1864

10 Apr      -    Sep 1821 Alexandru Ipsilantii

12 Oct 1822 - 05 May 1828 Ion Sandu Sturdza .................................. 1761-1842

   Apr 1834 -    Jun 1849 Mihai Grigore Sturdza .............................. 1795-1884

14 Oct 1849 - 30 Oct 1853 Grigore Alexandru Ghica (1st Time) ................. 1803-1857

30 Oct 1853 - 31 Jul 1854 Mikhail Dmitryevich Gorchakov ...................... 1793-1861

                          (Russian Military governor)

14 Oct 1854 - 08 Jul 1856 Grigore Alexandru Ghica (2nd Time)

23 Jul 1856 - 17 Feb 1857 Teodor Nicolae Bals ................................ 1805-1857

15 Feb      - 23 Feb 1857 Nicolae Ion Cantacuzino ............................ 1790-1857

                          (President of the Administrative Council)

23 Feb 1857 - 19 Oct 1858 Nikolaos Stephanos Konaki Vogoridi ................. 1820-1863

19 Oct 1858 - 17 Oct 1859 Princley Lieutenancy

                        - Stefan Constantin Catatgiu

                        - Anastasie Panaiotache Panu ......................... 1810-1867

                        - Vasile Constantin Sturdza .......................... 1810-1870

                        - Ion Alexandru Cantacuzino-Pascanu .................. 1829-1897

18 Jan 1859 - 23 Dec 1861 Alexandru Ion Cuza ................................. s.a

Royal Resident of Prut

29 Aug 1938 - 23 Sep 1940 Mihai Negruzzi ..................................... 1873-1958

Royal Residents of Suceava

29 Aug 1938 - 31 Jan 1939 Gheorghe Alexianu .................................. 1897-1946

01 Feb 1939 - 23 Sep 1940 Gheorghe cavaler de Flondor ........................ 1892-1976



Civil Administrators for the Habsburg Monarchy

   May      - 06 Oct 1789 Franz Leopold Freiherrvon Metzburg ................. 1746-1789

1789 - 1790               Josef Graf von Brigido ............................. 1733-1817

Prime Ministers

29 Jan      - 18 Mar 1859 Vasile Constantin Sturdza .......................... s.a

18 Mar      - 27 Apr 1859 Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica .......................... 1817-1877

27 Apr 1859 - 30 Apr 1860 Emanoil Costache Ioan Epureanu ..................... 1824-1880

30 Apr 1860 - 17 Jan 1861 Mihail Ilie Cogǎlniceanu ........................... 1817-1891

17 Jan      - 05 Oct 1861 Anastasie Panaiotache Panu ......................... 1810-1867

05 Oct 1861 - 22 Jan 1862 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi ........................ 1805-1873

14 Jan      - 22 Jan 1862 Ioan Nicolae Cantacuzino-Mǎgureanu

                          (acting)

________________________________________________________________________________________

Transylvania / Erdely / Siebenburgen

896                       Magyars invade the area

1070 - 1170               Attached to the Hungarian Kingdom

1176 - 1540               Automous Pricipality under Hungary

12..                      County of Burzenland established by German settlers

1241 - 1243               Mongol occupation

1427 - 16..               Burzenland under the Teutonic Order

24 Feb 1538 - 26 Jan 1699 Under Ottoman suzerainty

29 Feb 1538 - 16 Aug 1570 Eastern Kingdom of Hungary

22 Jul 1540               János Szápolyai declared King of Hungary in opposition to

                          Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria

29 Aug 1541               János Szápolyai ruling in Ottoman Transylvania

29 Dec 1541               Under Habsburg rule

16 Aug 1570               Transylvania a elective Principality

   May 1600 - 09 Aug 1601 Part of United Romanian Principalities

   Apr 1661               Ottoman suzeraignty renounced by the Diet

09 May 1688               Transylvanian Diet recognises Hungarian suzeraignty

                          by Treaty of Hermanstadt

26 Jan 1699               Ottoman suzeraignty formally ended by Treaty of Karlowitz

30 Mar 1722               Transylvania a hereditary principality under the Habsburg dynasty

02 Nov 1765               Grand Principality of Transylvania under the Habsburg dynasty

29 May 1848               Hungary declares Transylvania incorporated into the Hungarian state

10 Jun 1849               Union with Hungary official

07 Feb 1867               Incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary

06 Dec 1868               Formal incorporation into the Kingdom of Hungary

01 May 1869               Incorporation into Hungary effective

01 Oct 1872               Direct rule by Budapest

       1876               Rights of the Transylvanian Saxons abolished

27 Aug 1916 - 13 Oct 1918 Rumanian occupation of Eastern Transylvania

31 Oct 1918               Rumanian National Council formed in Arad

13 Nov 1918               Kingdom of Hungary disolves

01 Dec 1918               Independence form Hungary

11 Jan 1919               Incorporated into Rumania             

04 Jun 1920               Ceded to Rumania by Hungary by Treaty of Trianon

30 Aug 1940               Hungarian areas ceded to Hungary

11 Mar 1945               Re-incorporated into Romania, de jure 15 Sep 1947

24 Sep 1952 - 24 Dec 1960 Hungarian Autonomous Region

24 Dec 1960 - 16 Sep 1968 Maros-Magyar Autonomous Region

16 Sep 1968               Autonomy revoked by Romania, region dissolved

 

Princes

8.. - 904                 Gelou

904 - 9..                 Töhötöm

950 - 9..                 Gyula I

9.. - 1003                Gyula II

1003 - 10..               Zoltán

1003 - 1008               St. István

Voivodes

c.1110                    Mercurius

1176 - 1199               Leustachius

1199 - 1200               Legforus

1200 - 1201               Eth

1201                      Gyula I (1st Time)

1201 - 1209               Benedek

1206                      Smaragd

1209 - 1211               Mihály

1211 - 1213               Bertold de Andechs-Meran

1213                      Miklós I

1213                      Gyula I (2nd Time)

1213 - 1215               Simeon

1215 - 1217               Hippolitus

1217 - 1218               Raphael

1218 - 1221               Néka

1221 - 1231               Pál

1231 - 1233               Gyula II

1233 - 1234               Dénes

1234 - 1235               Ándrás I

1235 - 1240               Posza

1242 - 1252               Lóránt

1261                      Ereny Kos

1261 - 1270               Árpád, István II

1270 - 1272               Mátyás (1st Time)

1272 - 1273               Miklós II (1st Time)

1273 - 1274               János I

1274 - 1275               Miklós II (2nd Time)

1275                      Ladislaus I Borsa

1275 - 1276               Urgin

1276 - 1277               Mátyás (2nd Time)

1277                      Miklós III Pók (1st Time)

1278 - 1279               Aba

1280                      István III

1281 - 1282               Roland Borsa (1st Time)

1283                      Apor Becz

1284 - 1294               Roland Borsa (2nd Time)

1294 - 1315               Ladislaus II Khan

1315 - 1318               Miklós III Pók (2nd Time)

1318 - 1321               Dobreceni Dózsa

1322 - 1342               Thomás I Szecsényi

1342 - 1344               de Siroka, Miklós IV Sirokay

1344 - 1350               Lackfi, István IV

1350                      Thomás II Csor

1350 - 1356               Ilocki, Nikola V Kont

1356 - 1359               Lackfi, Ándrás II

1360 - 1367               Lackfi, Dionys

1367 - 1368               Lackfi, Miklós IV

1368 - 1372               Lackfi, Emeric I

1373 - 1376               Lackfi, Miklós V

1376 - 1391               Ladislaus III

1391 - 1393               Ferenc de Szécsény

1393 - 1395               Emeric I Bebek

1395 - 1401               Scibor ze Sciborzyc (1st Time)

1401 - 1403               Miklós VI Csaki

                        - Miklós VII Csaki

1403 - 1409               János II Tamasi

                        - Iacob Lack de Szántó

1410 - 1414               Scibor ze Sciborzyc (2nd Time)

1415 - 1426               Miklós VI Csaki (2nd Time)

1426 - 1437               Ladislaus V Csaki

1437 - 1438               Péter I Cseh

1440 - 1441               Losonczi Dezsö

1441                      Ladislaus V Jakcs

1441 - 1446               János III Hunyadi

1446 - 1447               Emeric II Bebek

                        - Nikola VIII Ilocki

   May      -    Oct 1448 Emeric II Bebek

                        - János III Hunyadi

1449 - 1458               Ilocki, Nikola VIII (2nd Time)

1458 - 1460               Rozgonyi Sebestyén

1460 - 1461               Ilocki, Nikola VIII (3rd Time)

1461 - 1462               Ladislaus VI

1462 - 1465               Ilocki, Nikola VIII (4th Time)

                        - János IV Pongrácz

1465 - 1467               Zsigismond Szentgyörgy

                        - János V Szentgyörgy

1468 - 1476               János VI Pongrácz

1472 - 1475               Magyar Balázs

1477 - 1479               Péter I Gereb

1479 - 1493               Báthory, István VI

1493 - 1495               Ladislaus VII Losonczi

1495 - 1499               Drágfi, Bartolomeus

1499 - 1510               Péter III Szentgyörgy

       1510 - 22 Jul 1540 Zápolya, János I

11 Nov 1526 - 1534        Péter IV Perény

       1529 - 17 Mar 1534 Báthory, István VII

1531 - 1534               Laski, Hieronim Jaroslaw

1534 - 1541               István VIII Majláth

1536 - 1540               Emeric III Balassa

1542 - 1551               Giorgio Martinuzzi

1551 - 1552               Báthory, Ándrás III ecsedi

26 May 1553 - 26 Nov 1556 István IX báró Dobó de Ruszkai

                        - Ferenc Kendi

Princes

15 Sep 1559 - 14 Mar 1571 Szápolyai, János III Zsigmond

25 May 1571 - 12 Dec 1586 Báthory, István I de Somlyói

       1575 - 20 Oct 1581 Báthory, Kristóf Báthory somlyói ................... 1530-1581

12 Dec 1586 - 21 Mar 1599 Báthory, Zsigmond I de Somlyói ..................... 1572-1613

                          (1st Time)

21 Mar      - 31 Oct 1599 Báthory, Ándrás I de Somlyói

01 Nov 1599 - 20 Sep 1600 Draculesti, Mihai I "Bravu" ........................ 1558-1601

                          (Prince of Moldova and Wallachia)

03 Apr 1601 - 26 Jul 1602 Báthory, Zsigmond I de Somlyói (2nd Time)

09 May      - 17 Jul 1603 Mózes Székely seménfalvai .......................... 1550-1603

                          (in disstance)

21 Feb 1605 - 29 Dec 1606 Bocskal, István II de Bocskó et Kismarja ........... 1557-1606

22 Jan 1607 - 05 Mar 1608 Rákóczy, Zsigmond II de Felsövadász ................ 1544-1608

07 Mar 1608 - 22 Oct 1613 Báthory, Gábor I de Somlyói ........................ 1589-1613

23 Oct 1613 - 15 Nov 1629 Bethlen, Gábor II de Itkári ........................ 1580-1629

16 Nov 1629 - 21 Sep 1630 de Brandenburg, Katalin ............................ 1602-1649

28 Sep      - 01 Dec 1630 István Bethlen Iktári .............................. 1584-1648

01 Dec 1630 - 11 Oct 1648 Rákóczy, György I de Felsövadász I ................. 1593-1648

11 Oct 1648 - 02 Nov 1657 Rákóczy, György II de Felsövadász II ............... 1621-1660

02 Nov 1657 - 14 Jan 1658 Rhédey, Ferenc I de Krisréde ....................... 1610-1667

07 Oct 1658 - 31 Dec 1660 Barcsay, Ákos I de Nagybarcsa ...................... 1619-1661

01 Jan 1661 - 22 Jan 1662 Kemény, János III de Gyerö-monoster ................ 1607-1662

15 Sep 1661 - 15 Apr 1690 Apafi, Mihály de Apa-nagyfalva I ................... 1632-1690

                          (in distance to 23 Jan 1662)

15 Apr 1690 - 01 Jun 1696 Apafi, Mihály de Apa-nagyfalva II .................. 1676-1713

25 Oct 1690 - 20 Oct 1699 Thököly, Imre I de Késmárka

                          (in opposition)

08 Jul 1704 - 14 Nov 1711 Rákóczy, Ferenc II Lipót de Felsövadászi III ....... 1676-1735

14 Nov 1711 - 20 Oct 1740 Habsburg, Károly József Ferenc

20 Oct 1740 - 02 Nov 1765 Habsburg, Mária Terézia

30 Dec 1867 - 21 Nov 1916 Habsburg, Ferenc Jószef ............................ 1830-1916

21 Nov 1916 - 31 Oct 1918 Habsburg, Károly ................................... 1887-1922



Governors

29 Aug           Oct 1540 Imre Balassa gyarmathi ............................. 14..-1550

29 Aug 1540 - 20 Jul 1541 István Majláth ..................................... 1502-1550

20 Jan 1542 - 21 Jul 1551 György, püspök Nagyváradi .......................... 1482-1551

21 Jul 1551 -    Mar 1553 Giovanni Battista Castaldo ......................... 1493-1563

10 Apr      - 20 Aug 1598 Mazimilian, Erzherzog von Österreich ............... 1558-1618

10 Apr      - 15 Aug 1598 Royal Commissioners

                        - Miklós Istvánffy baranyavári és kiasszonyfalvi ..... 1538-1615

                        - István Szuhai, püspök Váci ......................... 1551-1608

                        - Bartholomeus Pezzen von Ulrichskirchen ............. 155.-1605

20 Sep 1600 - 03 Sep 1601 Giorgio Basta Graf zu Hurzt ........................ 1550-1607

                          (1st Time)

26 Jul 1602 - 21 Feb 1605 Giorgio Basta Graf zu Hurzt (2nd Time)

07 Apr      - 1604        Tommaso conte di Capreoli .......................... 1575-1608

                          (acting for Huzt)

04 Dec 1690 - 15 Nov 1707 György gróf Bánffy de Losoncz I .................... 1661-1707

15 Nov 1707 - 10 Aug 1709 Rabutin de Bussy

                          (acting)

10 Aug 1709 - 02 May 1710 István gróf Haller de Hallerköi .................... 164.-1710

                          (President of the diet)

02 May 1710 - 31 Mar 1713 Istvan báró Wesselényi de Hadad .................... 1674-1734

                          (1st Time, President of the diet)

01 Apr 1713 - 15 Dec 1731 Zsigmund gróf Kornis de Gönczruszka ................ 1677-1731

15 Dec 1731 -    Jul 1732 István báró Wesselényi de Hadad

                          (2nd Time, President of the diet)

   Jul 1732 - 02 Dec 1734 Franz Anton Paul graf Wallis ....................... 1678-1737

02 Dec 1734 - 18 Oct 1755 János gróf Haller de Hallerkö ...................... 169.-1755

30 Dec 1755 - 06 Jul 1758 Franz Wenzel graf Wallis

                          (President of the Government)

06 Jul 1758 - 07 May 1762 László gróf Kemény de Gyerö-monostor ............... 1709-1774

                          (President of the Government)

07 May 1762 - 18 May 1764 Adolf Nikolaus freihrr von Buccow .................. 1712-1764

21 Jul 1764 - 20 Oct 1767 András gróf Hadik de Futaki ........................ 1710-1790

20 Oct 1767 - 28 Sep 1770 Carl Ó'Dónaill graf von Tyrconnel .................. 1715-1771

28 Sep 1770 - 13 Jan 1771 .....

13 Jan 1771 - 06 Jul 1774 Josef Maria Graf von Auersperg ..................... 1723-1806

06 Jul 1774 - 09 Jan 1787 Samuel Brekner, Freiherr von Brukenthal ............ 1721-1803

09 Jan 1787 - 05 Jul 1822 Gyorgy gróf Bánffy de Losonczi II .................. 1747-1822

11 Sep 1822 - 15 Oct 1834 János báró Jósika de Branyicskai ................... 1778-1843

05 Nov 1834 - 15 Aug 1840 János gróf Kornis de Gönczruszka ................... 1781-1840

08 Jan 1842 - 14 Nov 1848 Jószef gróf Teleki de Szék ......................... 1790-1855

14 Nov      - 22 Dec 1848 Imre gróf Mikó de Hidvégi .......................... 1805-1876

                          (1st Time, president of the government)

22 Dec 1848 - 11 Jul 1849 Anton Freiherr von Puchner ......................... 1779-1852

                          (Commanding General in Transylvania)

11 Mar      - 21 Jul 1849 Józef Zachariasz Bem ............................... 1794-1850

                          (Hungarian Commander of the Transylvanian army)

21 Jul      - 26 Aug 1849 Aleksandr Nikolayevich Graf Lüders ................. 1790-1794

                          (Imperial Russian Commander)

11 Jul 1849 - 24 Feb 1851 Ludwig Baron Wohlgemuth ............................ 1788-1851

                          (Military governor)

24 Feb      - 25 May 1851 József báró Kalliány kallyáni ...................... 1786-1859

                          (acting)

25 May 1851 - 25 Jun 1858 Karl Borromäus Fürst zu Schwarzenberg .............. 1802-1858

26 Jul 1858 - 23 May 1861 Friedrich Prinz von Lichtenstein ................... 1807-1885

10 Dec 1860 - 07 Dec 1861 Imre gróf Mikó de Hidvég

                          (2nd Time, president of the government)

07 Dec 1861 - 02 Apr 1867 Ludwig graf Folliot de Crenneville ................. 1813-1876

                          (president of the government)

Royal Commissioner

07 May 1867 - 01 Oct 1872 Emmanuel gróf Péchy Pécsujfalusi ................... 1813-1889

Presidents of the Romanian National Council

31 Oct      - 01 Dec 1918 Stefan Cico-Pop .................................... 1865-1934

01 Dec      - 02 Dec 1918 Gheorghe Pop de Basetsti ........................... 1835-1919

02 Dec 1918 - 04 Apr 1920 Iuliu Maniu ........................................ 1873-1953

Commissioner

   Oct      - 12 Nov 1944 Ionel Pop .......................................... 1889-1985

Soviet Military Commander

21 Sep 1944 - 09 Apr 1945 Radion Yakovlevych Malinovskii ..................... 1898-1967

________________________________________________________________________________________

Burzenland

1211                      County of Burzenland

1211 - 1225               To the Teutonic Order

1225                      Direct Hungarian rule restored

1240 - 1285               Mongol occupation

1429 - 1432               To Teutonic Order

1472                      Transylvanian Saxons autonomous under Hungary

1526 - 1599               Under nominal Ottoman suzerainty

1780 - 1790               Autonomy abolished

1876                      Autonomy and privileges revoked, symbolic title continues

1918                      To Romania

 

Seat: Hermannstadt (Nagyszeben, Sibiu).

 

Counts

c.1277                    Alard

1288 - 1300               Nikolaus von Rosenau

1309 - 1312               Gobelinus

1313 - 1316               Nikolaus

1316 - 1317               Blafnuz

1324 - 1327               Thomas

1327                      Salamo

1337 - 1342               Jacobus

1346                      Martinus

1347 - 1351               Michael

1357                      Martin

1359                      Konrad

1361                      Gerhard

1365                      Janus de Cibinio

1366                      Konrad

1367                      Andreas

1370                      Johann

1371                      Michael

1372 - 1383               Johann

1384                      Jacobus

1385 - 1386               Johann

1387 - 1392               Jacobus

1393 - 1395               Johann

1406                      Johann

1411 - 1429               Andreas

1429 - 1432               Klaus von Redewitz

1430 - 1432               Anton Trautenberger

1449 - 1455               Johann Lemmel

1456 - 1460               Petrus de Veresmont

1462 - 1463               Michael Zekel

1464                      Nikolaus Ziglewr

1466                      Petrus Greb de Veresmarth

1467                      Ladislaus Kakas (1st Time)

1468                      Nikolaus Aurifaber

1469 - 1480               Ladislaus Kakas (2nd Time)

1481                      Thomas Altemberger

1487                      Laurentius Sartor

1488 - 1506               Laurentius Haan

1507 - 1522               Johann Lulay

1522 - 1535               Markus Pemffinger

1536 - 1538               Matthias Armbruster

1538                      Peter Gerendi

1539 - 1543               Georg Hotter

1544 - 1556               Johann Rott

1557 - 1577               August Hedwig

1577 - 1607               Albrecht Huet

1607 - 1612               Daniel Malmer

1613                      David Weyrauch

1613 - 1633               Kolomann Gottsmeister

1634 - 1639               Valentin Seraphin

1640 - 1645               Michael Agnethler

1645 - 1649               Valentin Frank

1649 - 1661               Johann Lutsch

1661 - 1676               Andreas Fleischer

1676 - 1680               Matthais Semriger

1680 - 1683               Andreas Armbruster

1685 - 1686               Johann Haupt

1686 - 1697               Valentin Frank von Frankenstein

1698 - 1703               Jobst Zabanius Sachs von Harteneck

1710 - 1730               Andreas Teutsch

1731 - 1742               Simon Baußner von Baußnern

1745 - 1761               Stefan Waldhütter von Adelshausen

1768 - 1774               Samuel Baußner von Baußnern

1781 - 1784               Johann Cloos von Cronenthal

1790 - 1813               Freiherr Michael Brunkenthal

1816 - 1825               Johann von Tartier

1825 - 1845               Johann Wachsmann

1846 - 1852               Freiherr Franz Salmen

1861 - 1868               Konrad Schmidt

1868 - 1876               Moritz Conrad

1876 - 1883               Friedrich Wächter

1883 - 1886               Moritz von Brennerberg

1886 - 1891               Andreas Bethlen

1891 - 1910               Gustav Thalmann

1910 - 191.               Friedrich Walbaum

191. - 1918               .....

_______________________________________________________________________________

Maramures

Princes

1320 - 1330               Codrea de Câmpulung

1330 - 1342               de Cuhea, Bogdan I of Moldova

                          (1st Time)

1343 - 1345               Oprea de Sǎpânta

1345 - 1355               Ioan de Cuheasi Rozavlea

1351 - 1355               de Maramures, Gyula

1355 - 1359               de Cuhea, Bogdan I of Moldova

                          (2nd Time)

1359 - 1365               de Cuhea, Stefan si Sǎliste

1365 - 1368               de Bedeu, Sas

1368 - 1387               de Bedeu, Balc (1st Time)

1387 - 1400               de Bedeu, Drag

1400 - 1402               de Bedeu, Balc (2nd Time)

       1467 - 24 Nov 1494 Chinezu, Pál

_________________________________________________________________________________

Szekely Land

Counts of the Székelys

1228                      Bogomér de Szoboszló

1291                      Mojs

1294 - 1299               Péter Bo

1315                      István Losonci

1315 - 1320               Tamás Losonci

1320 - 1327               Simon Kacsisc

1328 - 1343               Hermán Lackfi

1343 - 1350               András Lackfi

1352 - 1356               Lokös Tóth Raholcai

1356 - 1360               János Zsámboki

1363 - 1367               Miklós Lackfi

1367 - 1371               István Lackfi

1373 - 1376               László Losonci

1377 - 1380               Miklós Derencsényi

1380 - 1382               Miklós Perényi

1383 - 1385               Miklós Losonci

1387 - 1390               Balc Bélteki

1387 - 1390               Drág Bélteki

1390                      János Bélteki

1390 - 1391               Simon Szécsényi

1391 - 1395               István Kanizsai

1395 - 1397               Ferenc Bebek

1397 - 1398               János Maróti

1397 - 1401               Péter Perényi

1402 - 1403               György Csáki

1402 - 1403               Dénes Marcali

1404                      János Harapki

1405 - 1421               Mihály Nádasi

1423 - 1427               Péter Bebek

1427 - 1431               János Jakcs de Kusaly

1427 - 1438               Mihály Jakcs de Kusaly

1437                      Henrik Tamási

1438 - 1440               Imre Bebek

1440 - 1441               István Bánfi de Losonc

1441 - 1446               János Hunyadi

1441 - 1446               Miklós Ujlaki

1446 - 1448               Ferenc Csáki

1449 - 1453               Rénold Rozgonyi

1449 - 1453               Osvát Rozgonyi (1st Time)

1454                      Imre Hédervári

1455                      Osvát Rozgonyi (2nd Time)

1454 - 1457               János Ország

1457                      János Rozgonyi

1479 - 1488               Bertalan Drágffy Bélteki

________________________________________________________________________________


Magyar Autonomous Region

 

24 Sep 1952               Hungarian Autonomous Region

24 Dec 1960               Magyar Autonomous Region

16 Sep 1968               Autonomy revoked by Romania, region dissolved

 

First Secretaries of the Regional Committee of the Romanian Communist Party

24 Sep 1952 - 07 Jul 1961 Lájós Csupor ....................................... 1911-1985

07 Jul 1961 - 21 Aug 1965 József Bánk ........................................ 1921-2007

21 Aug 1965 - 19 Feb 1968 József Uglar ....................................... 1920-2006

 

Presidents of the Regional People's Council

24 Sep 1952 - 1958        Pál Bugyi

1958 - 1959               Zoltán Szövérfi

1959 - 1962               László Lukács ...................................... 1898-1963

       1962 - 16 Feb 1968 Demeter Puni

________________________________________________________________________________________

Țara Rumânească / Valahia (Wallachia)

c. 1240                   Principality of Wallachia

   Oct 1393 - 23 Sep 1403 Ottoman dependency

   Mar 1427 - 02 Sep 1442 Ottoman dependency

   Jun 1541 - 09 May 1877 Vassal of the Ottoman Empire

20 May 1595      Dec 1596 Dependenct of Transylvania

   May 1600 - 09 Aug 1601 United with Maldavia

16 Nov 1769 - 05 Oct 1854 Intermittent Russian occupation

19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856 Austrian occupation

05 Feb 1859               United with Moldova

23 Dec 1861               To Romania thereafter

 

Princes

       1240 -        1241 Bezerenbam

       12?? -        1241 Miselav   

       1247 -        1273 Litovoi, Litovoi

       1247               Litovoi, Seneslav

       1273 -        1290 Litovoi, Bǎrbat

       1290 -        1310 Litovoi, Tihomir I

       1310 - 01 Sep 1351 Litovoi, Ioan Basarab I

01 Sep 1351 - 16 Nov 1364 Litovoi, Nicolae Alexandru

16 Nov 1364 - 07 Jun 1377 Litovoi, Vladislav I ............................... 1325-1377

07 Jun 1377 - 31 Aug 1385 Litovoi, Radu I .................................... 132.-1385 "Negru"

31 Aug 1385 - 23 Sep 1386 Litovoi, Dan I

24 Sep 1386 - 31 Jan 1418 Litovoi, Mircea I "The Old"

21 Mar 1396 - 24 Jan 1397 Litovoi, Vlad I Uzurpatorul

31 Jan 1418 - 26 May 1420 Litovoi, Mihai I

26 May 1420 - 22 Oct 1422 Litovoi, Radu II

22 Oct 1422 - 24 Jan 1427 Litovoi, Dan II

14 Jun 1431 - 17 Nov 1436 Litovoi, Alexandru I Aldea ......................... 139.-1436

20 Jan 1437 - 03 Jul 1442 Litovoi, Vlad II Drǎcul (1st Time) ................. 1390-1447

03 Jul 1442 - 24 Apr 1444 Litovoi, Basarab II ................................ 13..-1458

24 Apr 1444 - 04 Dec 1447 Litovoi, Vlad II Drǎcul (2nd Time)

04 Dec 1447 - 17 Oct 1448 Litovoi, Vladislav II (1st Time) ................... 142.-1456

17 Oct      - 31 Oct 1448 Litovoi, Vlad III .................................. 1431-1476 ("The Impaler" aka "Dracula")

                          (1st Time)

31 Oct 1448 - 20 Aug 1456 Litovoi, Vladislav II (2nd Time)

20 Aug 1456 - 26 Nov 1462 Litovoi, Vlad III "Tepes" (2nd Time)

26 Nov 1462 - 24 Nov 1473 Litovoi, Radu III .................................. 1438-1475 "The Handsome"

24 Nov      - 23 Dec 1473 Litovoi, Basarab III cel Tânăr ..................... 142.-1480 "Țepeluș" ("The Elder")

                          (1st Time)

20 Oct 1474 - 10 Jan 1475 Litovoi, Basarab III (2nd Time)

01 Jun 1475 - 08 Nov 1476 Litovoi, Basarab III (3rd Time)

08 Nov 1476 - 10 Jan 1477 Litovoi, Vlad III Tepes (3rd Time)

10 Jan 1477 - 22 Dec 1480 Litovoi, Basarab IV "cel Tânăr" .................... 143.-1482

08 Jul      - 16 Aug 1481 Litovoi, Vlad IV Cǎlugǎrul "The Monk" .............. 14..-1495

                          (1st Time)

09 Jan 1478 - 01 Jun 1480 Litovoi, Basarab III (4th Time)

01 Jun      - 07 Nov 1480 Litovoi, Mircea II al Il-lea ....................... 143.-1480

                          (in distance)

07 Nov 1480 - 08 Jul 1481 Litovoi, Basarab III cel Tânăr Țepeluș

                          (5th Time)

08 Jul      - 16 Aug 1481 Litovoi, Vlad IV Călugărul ......................... 14..-1495

16 Aug 1481 - 13 Jul 1482 Litovoi, Basarab III (6th Time)

13 Jul 1482 - 08 Sep 1495 Litovoi, Vlad IV (2nd Time)

08 Sep 1495 - 09 May 1508 Litovoi, Mihnea cel Rǎu

09 May 1508 - 29 Oct 1509 Litovoi, Radu VI ................................... 1567-1509 "cel Mare"

29 Oct 1509 - 26 Jan 1510 Litovoi, Mircea III ................................ 148.-1521

26 Jan 1510 - 23 Jan 1512 Litovoi, Vlad V "The Younger" ...................... 1494-1512

23 Jan 1512 - 15 Sep 1521 Litovoi, Neagoe Basarb V ........................... 146.-1521

15 Sep 1521 - 22 Jan 1522 Litovoi, Teodosie I ................................ 1505-1522

27 Sep      - 25 Oct 1521 Litovoi, Vlad VI Dragomir Cǎlugǎrul ................ 150.-1521

22 Jan 1522 - 25 Apr 1523 Litovoi, Radu V (1st Time) ......................... 148.-1529 "de la Afumati"

25 Apr      - 19 Oct 1523 Litovoi, Vladislav III (1st Time)

19 Oct 1523 - 27 Jan 1524 Litovoi, Radu V Bǎdica

27 Jan      - 20 Mar 1524 Litovoi, Radu V (2nd Time)

20 Mar      - 18 Sep 1524 Litovoi, Vladislav III (2nd Time)

18 Sep 1524 - 19 Apr 1525 Litovoi, Radu V (3rd Time)

19 Apr      - 18 Aug 1525 Litovoi, Vladislav III (3rd Time)

18 Aug 1525 - 02 Jan 1529 Litovoi, Radu V (4th Time)

02 Jan 1529 - 04 Jun 1530 Litovoi, Moise I Voda

04 Jun 1530 - 18 Sep 1532 Litovoi, Vlad VII .................................. 150.-1532 "Inecatul" ("The Drowned")

18 Sep 1532 - 13 Jun 1535 Litovoi, Vlad VIII Vantilǎ of Slatina

13 Jun 1535 - 24 Feb 1536 Litovoi, Radu VI Paisie (1st Time)

24 Feb      - 18 Apr 1536 Barbu I Craiovescu al III-lea

18 Apr 1536 - 02 Jun 1539 Litovoi, Radu VI Paisie (2nd Time)

02 Jun      - 19 Jul 1539 Litovoi, Șerban din Izvorani

19 Jul 1539 - 05 May 1544 Litovoi, Radu VI Paisie (3rd Time)

05 May      - 02 Jun 1544 Laiotă Basarab

02 Jun 1544 - 02 Mar 1545 Litovoi, Radu VI Paisie (4th Time)

02 Mar 1545 - 15 Nov 1552 Litovoi, Mircea VI ................................. 149.-1559 "Ciobanul" ("the Shepherd")

                          (1st Time)

15 Nov 1552 - 11 May 1553 Litovoi, Radu VII .................................. 151.-1558 "Haidăul" ("The Cowerd")

11 May 1553 - 11 Mar 1554 Litovoi, Mircea VI (2nd Time)

11 Mar 1554 - 24 Dec 1557 Litovoi, Petru Pǎtrascu I .......................... 152.-1557 "cel Bun" ("The Kind")

25 Jan 1558 - 25 Sep 1559 Litovoi, Mircea VI (3rd Time)

25 Sep 1559 - 31 May 1568 Litovoi, Petru I cel Tânǎr ......................... 1547-1568 "The Younger"

07 Jun 1568 - 27 Sep 1577 Litovoi, Alexandru II

21 Apr      - 03 May 1574 Litovoi, Vintilǎ I

                          (in distance)

27 Sep 1577 - 23 Jul 1583 Litovoi, Mihnea II ................................. 1565-1601 "Turcitul" ("The Turned Turk")

                          (1st Time)

29 Aug 1583 - 06 Apr 1585 Litovoi, Petru II .................................. 1545-1590 "Cercel" ("The Earring")

20 May 1585 - 18 Feb 1591 Litovoi, Mihnea II "Turcitul" (2nd Time)

04 May 1591 - 08 Nov 1592 Litovoi, Stefan I .................................. 15..-1595 "Surdul" ("The Deaf")

08 Nov 1592 - 01 Sep 1593 Litovoi, Alexandru III cel Rǎu ..................... 156.-1587 "The Wrongdoer"

07 Oct 1593 - 30 Nov 1600 Litovoi, Mihai II .................................. 1558-1601 "Viteazul" ("The Brave")

24 Nov 1599 - 12 Sep 1600 Nicolae Pătrașcu ................................... 1584-1627

                          (1st Time)

   Nov 1600 - 24 Jun 1601 Simion Moghilă (1st Time) .......................... 156.-1607

   Aug 1601 -    Aug 1602 Radu X Mihnea (1st Time) ........................... 1585-1626

   Aug 1602 -    Dec 1610 Radu Serban (1st Time)

12 Mar 1611 - 24 Aug 1616 Radu X Mihnea (2nd Time)

24 Aug      -    Sep 1616 Gavril Movilǎ (1st Time)

   Sep 1616 - 27 May 1618 Alexandru IV Ilias ................................. 15..-1633

14 Aug 1618 -    Jul 1620 Gavril Movilǎ (2nd Time)

   Jul 1620 -    Aug 1623 Radu Mihnea (3rd Time)

   Aug 1623 -    Nov 1627 Alexandru V Coconul ................................ 1610-1632

   Nov 1627 - 12 Oct 1629 Alexandru IV Ilias (2nd Time)

12 Oct 1629 -    Jul 1632 Leon Tomsa

20 Sep 1632 - 09 Apr 1654 Matei Basarab ...................................... 1580-1634

   Apr 1654 - 23 Feb 1658 Constantin Serban Basarab .......................... 158.-1685

23 Feb 1658 -    Dec 1659 Mihnea III Radu .................................... 161.-1660

   Dec 1659 - 31 Aug 1660 Prince Gheorghe Ghica

06 Dec 1660 - 20 Nov 1664 Prince Grigore I Ghica (1st Time)

   Dec 1665 -    Mar 1669 Radu Leon .......................................... 16..-1670

09 Apr 1669 - 13 Jan 1672 Antoni Voda Popesti

20 Mar 1672 -    Nov 1673 Prince Grigore I Ghica (2nd Time)

06 Dec 1673 -    Nov 1678 Duca, Gheorghe I

06 Jan 1679 - 07 Sep 1688 Serban Constantin Cantacuzino ...................... 1640-1688

                          (Konstantinos Kantakouzịnós)

07 Sep 1688 - 04 Apr 1714 Constantin Brâncoveanu ............................. 1654-1714

04 Apr 1714 - 05 Jan 1716 Stefan Constantin Cantacuzino ...................... 1660-1716

                          (Stephanos Konstantinos Kantakouzịnós)

05 Jan      - 25 Nov 1716 Nicolae Alexandru Mavrocordat (1st Time) ........... 1670-1730

02 Dec 1716 - 06 Mar 1719 Ion Alexandru Mavrocordat-Scarlati ................. 1684-1719

06 Mar 1719 - 14 Sep 1730 Nicolae Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd Time)

15 Oct 1730 - 24 Oct 1731 Mihai Ion Racovita (1st Time)

24 Oct 1731 - 16 Apr 1733 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (1st Time)

16 Apr 1733 - 27 Nov 1735 Prince Grigore II Matei Ghica (1st Time) ........... 1690-1752

27 Nov 1735 - 16 Sep 1741 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (2nd Time)

16 Sep 1741 -    Jul 1744 Mihai Ion Racovitǎ (2nd Time)

   Jul 1744 -    Apr 1748 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (3rd Time)

   Apr 1748 - 03 Sep 1752 Prince Grigore II Matei Ghica (2nd Time)

04 Sep 1752 - 03 Jul 1753 Prince Matei Grigore Ghica (1st Time) .............. 1715-1761

03 Jul 1753 - 19 Feb 1756 Constantin Matei Racovitǎ (1st Time)

20 Feb 1756 -    Aug 1758 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (4th Time)

14 Aug 1758 - 16 Jun 1761 Prince Scarlat Grigore Ghica (1st Time) ............ 1715-1766

16 Jun 1761 - 20 Mar 1763 Constantin Mavrocordat-Scarlati (5th Time)

20 Mar 1763 - 06 Feb 1764 Constantin Mihai Racovitǎ

06 Feb 1764 - 29 Aug 1765 Stefan Mihai Racovitǎ

29 Aug 1765 - 13 Dec 1766 Scarlat I Grigore Ghica (2nd Time)

13 Dec 1766 - 28 Oct 1768 Alexandru VI Scarlat Ghica

28 Oct 1768 - 16 Nov 1769 Grigore III Alexandru Ghica ........................ 1724-1777

05 Dec 1769 - 03 Feb 1775 Pyotr Aleksandrovich Graf Rumyantsev ............... 1725-1796

                          (Russian military administrator)

26 Sep 1774 - 15 Jan 1782 Alexandru Ion Ipsilanti (1st Time) ................. 1726-1787

                          (Alexandros Ioannis Ypsilantis)

15 Jan 1782 - 17 Jul 1783 Nicolae Caragea .................................... 1737-1784

                          (Nikolaos Karatzis)

17 Jul 1783 - 17 May 1786 Mihai Constantin Sutu (1st Time) ................... 1730-1803

                          (Michalis Soutzos)

17 May 1786 - 04 Nov 1789 Nicolae Mavrogheni ................................. 1738-1790

04 Nov 1789 - 04 Sep 1791 Friedrich Josias Prinz von

                           Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld ........................... 1737-1815

                           (Austrian military administrator)

04 Sep 1791 - 15 Jan 1793 Mihai Constantin Sutu (2nd Time)

15 Jan 1793 - 28 Aug 1796 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi ........................ 1750-1816

                          (1st Time)

28 Aug 1796 - 09 Dec 1797 Alexandru Ion Ipsilanti (2nd Time)

09 Dec 1797 - 10 Feb 1799 Constantin Hangerli ................................ 17..-1799

10 Feb 1799 - 20 Oct 1801 Alexandru Constantin Moruzi

                          (2nd Time)

20 Oct 1801 - 22 May 1802 Mihai Constantin Sutu (3rd Time)

02 Jul      - 30 Aug 1802 Alexandru Nicolae Soutzos .......................... 1758-1821

                          (Alexandros Nikolaos Soutzos, 1st Time)

30 Aug 1802 - 24 Aug 1806 Constantin Ipsilantii (1st Time) ................... 1760-1816

                          (Konstantinos Ypsilantis)

24 Aug      - 13 Oct 1806 Alexandru Soutzos (2nd Time)

28 Aug 1806 - 1809        Knyaz Ivan Ivanovich Prozorovskiy .................. 1769-1840

                           (Russian military administrator)

13 Oct 1806 - 31 May 1807 Constantin Ipsilanti (2nd Time)

       1809 - 02 Oct 1812 Grigoriy Grigoryevich Engelhardt ................... 1759-1824

                          (Russian military administrator)

12 Dec 1812 - 11 Oct 1818 Ion Gheorghe Caragea ............................... 1745-1845

                          (Ioannis Georgios Karatzas)

16 Nov 1818 - 31 Jan 1821 Alexandru Nicolae Sutu (3rd Time

16 Mar      - 15 May 1821 Tudor Constantin Vladimirescu

16 May 1821 - 12 Jul 1822 Stefan Vogorides ................................... 1774-1859

                          (Stephanos Vogorides)

12 Jul 1822 - 30 Jun 1828 Grigore Dimitrie Ghica ............................. 1755-1834

30 Jun 1828 - 02 Feb 1829 Peter Christoph Graf von der Pahlen ................ 1771-1864

                          (Russian military administrator)

02 Feb      - 24 Nov 1829 Pyotr Fyodorovych Zheltukhin ....................... 1777-1829

                          (Russian military administrator)

24 Nov 1829 - 22 Jul 1834 Pavel Dmitriyevich Kiselyov ........................ 1788-1852

                          (Russian military administrator)

22 Jul 1834 - 31 Dec 1842 Alexandru Dimitrie Ghica (1st Time) ................ 1795-1862

01 Jan 1843 - 13 Jun 1848 Gheorghe Dimitrie Bibescu .......................... 1804-1873

14 Jun      - 28 Jul 1848 Metropolit Neofit II (1st Time)

                          (President of the Provisional government)

13 Sep 1848 - 16 Jun 1849 Constantin Iordache Cantacuzino .................... 1791-1877

                          (1st Time)

16 Jun 1849 - 16 Oct 1853 Prince Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei ...................... 1799-1869

17 Oct      - 13 Nov 1853 Gheorghe Filipescu

                          (President of the Extraordinary Council)

13 Nov 1853 - 19 Jul 1854 Aleksandr Ivanovich Budberg ........................ 1798-1876

                          (Russian Commissioner)

19 Jul      - 23 Sep 1854 Constantin Iordache Cantacuzino

                          (2nd Time)

19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856 Eduard Freiherr von Bach ........................... 1815-1884

                          (Austrian Civil Commissioner)

19 Aug 1854 - 25 Mar 1856 Johann Baptist Alexius,

                           Graf Coronini-Cronberg ............................ 1794-1880

                          (Austrian Military governor)

23 Sep 1854 - 25 Mar 1856 Prince Barbu Dimitrie Stirbei (2nd Time)

25 Jun      - 16 Jul 1856 Emanoil Grigore Băleanu ............................ 1793-1862

                          (President of the Extraordinary Council)

16 Jul 1856 - 18 Oct 1858 Prince Alexandru Dimitrie Bibescu Ghica

                          (2nd Time)

30 Oct 1858 - 05 Feb 1859 Ion Mihail Manu .................................... 1803-1874

                        - Emanoil Grigore Baleanu

                        - Ion Alexandru Filipescu ............................ 1811-1863

05 Feb 1859 - 23 Dec 1861 Alexandru Ion Cuza ................................. s.a


 

Prime Ministers

25 Jan      - 27 Mar 1859 Ion Alexandru Filipescu

27 Mar      - 06 Sep 1859 Constantin Alexandru Cretzulescu ................... 1809-1884

06 Sep      - 11 Oct 1859 Nicolae Alexandru Cretzulescu ...................... 1812-1900

11 Oct 1859 - 28 May 1860 Prince Ion Dimitrie Ghica .......................... 1817-1897

28 May      - 13 Jul 1860 Nicolae Constantin Golescu ......................... 1810-1878

25 Jul 1860 - 17 Apr 1861 Emanoil Costache Ioan Epureanu

30 Apr      - 12 May 1861 Barbu Stefan Catǎrgiu .............................. 1807-1862

12 May      - 11 Jul 1861 Stefan Dinicu Golescu .............................. 1809-1874

19 Jun      - 1861        Vasile Iordache Mǎlinescu .......................... 1817-1866

                          (acting)

11 Jul      - 19 Jul 1861 Constantin Barbu Bǎlcescu .......................... 1813-1902

                          (acting)

19 Jul 1861 - 22 Jan 1862 Prince Grigore Dimitrie Ghica ...................... 1816-1897

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Severin (Szörénység)

 

1228                      Szörényi bánság (Banate of Severine) a defensive

                          division of the Kingdom of Hungary

1526                      Partitioned between Hungary and Wallachia

 

 

Bans

1226 - 1232               Hahót Buzád II

1233                      Lukas

1243                      István

1247 - 1254               János

1255                      Pósa Csák

1257 - 1261               István

1262                      István

1263 - 1267               Laurențiu (1st Time)

1268                      Ugrin

1268                      Alexandru

1269                      Laurențiu (2nd Time)

1270                      Ponit

1270 - 1271               Laurențiu (3rd Time)

1271 - 1272               Pál (1st Time)

1272                      Laurențiu (4th Time)

1272                      Albert

1273                      Pál (2nd Time)

1273                      Laurențiu (5th Time)

1274                      Pál (3rd Time)

1274 - 1275               Ugrin

1275                      Micu

1275                      Pál (4th Time)

1275                      Reinauld

1276 - 1279               Micu

1277 - 1278               Pál (5th Time)

1279                      Laurenciu (6th Time)

1280 - 1283               Timotei

1284 - 1286               Mako

1287 - 1289               Rafael

1290 - 1293               Lőrinc

1294 - 1296               Pósa Solymosi

1297 - 1299               László Rátholti

1299 - 1308               András Tárnok

1309 - 1314               Vacant

1314 - 1318               Dominic Cernea

1319 - 1323               László Rátholti

1323 - 1329               Daniel Szécsi

1324                      Pál

1330 - 1335               Vacant

1341                      Szécsi Denis

1342 - 1349               Losonci

1350 - 1355               Miklós Szécsi

1355 – 1359               Denis Lacu

1359 - 1387               Vacant

1387                      László

1387 - 1388               István

1388 - 1390               János Kaplán

1390 - 1391               Nicolae Perényi

1392                      Gerebenci Szemere

1392 - 1393               Ditrău Bebek

1393 - 1408               Vacant

1408 - 1409               Pipo de Ozora ...................................... 1369-1426

1409 – 1419               Vacant

1419                      Szigiszmont Losonci

1428                      Emeric Marcali

1430 - 1435               Nikolaus Redwitz

1429 - 1435               Vacant

1435                      László Jakubek

1436 - 1439               Ferenc Tallóci

1439 - 1445               János Hunyadi

1445 - 1446               Blaziu

1447 - 1454               Miklós

1449                      Vasile de Cerna (vice-ban)

1452 - 1454               Petru

1455 - 1457               Vacant

1458                      Vlad

                        - Grigory Bethlén

1459 - 1460               Vacant

1460                      László Doczi

1462 - 1463               Nicolae

1464 - 1466               Vacant

1466                      János Pongracz

1467                      István

                        - Mihai de Mâtnic

1468 - 1471               Vacant

1471 - 1478               Emeric Hédervári

1478                      János Dominik Bethlén

1479                      Ambrozie

                        - György Szenthelsebethi

1479                      Bartolomeu Pathócsy

1480 - 1483               Ferenc Haraszti

1483 - 1489               Ferenc Haraszt

                        - Andras Szokoly

1490                      Emeric Ozora

1491                      Pipo

                        - Andei Dánfy

1491 - 1492               Ferenc Haraszti

1492 - 1494               György

                        - Filip Balassa de Ciula

1495 - 1502               Petru Măcicaș

1503                      Béla Barnabás (1st Time)

1503                      Ioan Gărliște

1504 - 1508               János

                        - Béla Gârliștes

1508 - 1513               Mihai

                        - Béla Barnabas (2nd Time)

1514                      János

1515 - 1516               Nicolae

1517 - 1518               Vacant

1519                      Béla Barnabás (3rd Time)

1520 - 1521               Nicolae Gârliște

1522 – 1524               János Kalláy

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